La virginidad de María (LA VERDADERA HISTORIA DE JESUCRISTO nº 2) (Spanish Edition)
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If one is interested in the question one must evaluate the issues and the evidence for oneself. Private correspondence, reproduced here with permission. In his discussion of ZG1. Forbes himself is not an Egyptologist; therefore, by his own "logic" he should not be making any claims about Egyptian mythology, about which his knowledge has been shown to be lacking. Concerning Dr.
George A. Wells, whose works are valuable but not entirely necessary to the field of Jesus mythicism, certainly he is as qualified to discuss ancient religion and mythology as is Forbes, since the subject is so clearly not an area of specialization for the latter, as demonstrated abundantly here. By his rationale, therefore, Forbes should not be making pronouncements as to Massey's work. In my article " Who is Gerald Massey? In his intensive and meticulous efforts, Massey studied the work of the best minds of the time—all towering figures within Egyptology, especially during Massey's era, when most of them were alive and some were familiar with his work.
These celebrated authorities in Egyptology whose works Massey studied and utilized include:. Sir Dr. Budge; Dr. Karl Richard Lepsius; Sir Dr. Gaston Maspero; Dr. Henri Edouard Naville; Sir Dr. William Flinders Petrie; Dr. Samuel Sharpe; and Sir Dr. John Gardner Wilkinson, among many other scholars in a wide variety of fields. As other examples, Massey also used the work of Sir Dr. Norman Lockyer, the physicist and royal English astronomer who was friends with Budge and knew Egypt well, along with that of Dr. Massey further studied the work of Reverend Dr.
James George Frazer, although he did not agree with their conclusions. He likewise cited the work of Francois Lenormant, professor of Archaeology at the National Library of France, as well as that of comparative theologian and Oxford professor Dr. Ernest Renan, and Christian monuments expert Rev. John Patterson Lundy. Gerald Massey was very influenced by the work of Dr. The creator of the first alphabetically arranged Egyptian dictionary, Dr. Birch also was the founder of the prestigious and influential Society of Biblical Archaeology, to which belonged many other notables in the fields of archaeology, Assyriology, Egyptology and so on.
Much more about Massey's longterm personal relationship with Birch can be found at my article, " Who is Gerald Massey? Theophilus Goldridge Pinches Massey's work was peer-reviewed by several renowned scholars of the day, including Birch, Lockyer and Dr. In his scholarly works on Egypt, in addition to the available Egyptian sources, Gerald Massey utilized numerous other ancient texts, including Judeo-Christian writings such as the Bible, as well as those of early Church fathers such as Justin Martyr, Irenaeus, Clement of Alexandria, Tertullian, Hippolytus, Eusebius, Epiphanius and Jerome.
Having taught himself to read not only English but also several other languages including Egyptian hieroglyphs as well as Sanskrit, providing an extensive comparison between these two languages, Massey scrutinized and interpreted the texts and monuments for himself, such as the Book of the Dead, as well as the famous zodiacs in the Temple of Dendera and the "Nativity Scene" at the Temple of Luxor. The only reason Gerald Massey did not become a professional, degreed scholar is because he was born into extreme poverty and had to do hard, physical labor as a child, rather than attending school, which was not free to commoners in England at that time.
Indeed, there was no public school system like we have today. Massey accomplished all of this scholarship without benefit of a formal education and should be afforded respect, even if one does not agree with his conclusions. Once again, we are faced with rabid credentialism and religious bias. As I have demonstrated in my books and articles, the information in ZG1.
It should be noted that this list does not include the multitude of other artifacts and writings from antiquity that may be found in my other works, including some alone in Christ in Egypt. It should be further noted that I do research in a variety of languages, both modern and ancient, such as: Ancient and modern Greek, Latin, Hebrew, Sanskrit, Vedic, Persian, Egyptian, Coptic, French, Italian, Spanish, German and a smattering of other languages as the need arises.
The information also comes from the best and most thorough, scholarly and modern sources wherever possible, with the result that many authorities cited possess credentials from respected institutes of higher learning, and their publishers are some of the most scholarly in English and other languages , such as the following. As we can see, contrary to popular perception the contentions in ZG1. No professional Egyptologist would make such a mistake once, let alone twice. No serious scholar stops his research by looking at a list of references on a website.
He or she would need actually to read those resources and follow up on whatever further citation he or she might find, in a variety of languages preferably. At this point, Forbes again says, "Historians want to see the ancient evidence. After all these years of presenting it, I have to wonder about that claim, which is much like the rest of his here: Demonstrably false in the case of mythicism. Forbes himself—a serious historian—didn't even bother to inquire as to where this information was coming from and satisfied himself with merely scanning a list of references, rather than digging into the ancient evidence.
If our critic had looked more closely, he would have found plenty of evidence that the ancient Egyptians most certainly did perceive the births of both Osiris and Horus the Elder to have been heralded by the star Sirius, as well as by the three stars in the belt of Orion. L ife along the Nile was highly dependent upon the inundation associated with the heliacal rising of Sirius, a flood deified as Osiris, who was said to be "born" at that time. Thus, this important association of Sirius—"Sothis" in the Greek and "Sepdet" or "Sopdet" in the Egyptian—with the life-giving Nile flood began some 5, to 6, years ago.
Hence, the "Star in the East" heralded the birth of the Egyptian Messiah thousands of years before the Christian era. This annual birth of Osiris was also a resurrection, as the goddess Sopdet "woke him from the dead. The morning star, Sirius, seen by the Egyptians as a goddess. The star's rising was also seen as a harbinger of the sunrise and therefore associated with Horus in his solar aspect, occasionally specified as Horus in Sothis hrw jmj spdt , Sothic Horus hrw spdtj , or Sharp Horus hrw spd. Thus, in ancient texts we find the birth of Horus the sun associated with the star in the east.
The motif of the divine child being greeted by dignitaries at his birth dates back thousands of years, long before Jesus supposedly existed. Regardless of whether or not the figure is three, four, six, more or less, the point is that the birth of a divine child who is subsequently adored by dignitaries is not new or unique to Christianity. We know from texts and other artifacts that Egyptian religion, for one, possessed the motif of the savior and divine child being heralded by notable personages, numbering three or more, who can be and have been called "Three Kings.
Furthermore, in a number of ancient Egyptian nativity scenes we find the birth of the pharaoh - considered the living Horus—adored by several dignitaries, as represented at Luxor, for example. In addition, there is a nativity scene of Dionysus in the Neapolitan Museum that shows the divine child surrounded by two groups of three, one of whom approaches the baby. As we can see, the motif of the divine child approached by three or more notable personages is not original or unique to Christianity.
Like so many others, this contention is false, as there does indeed exist sufficient evidence for these claims to be made. Andrew T. Fear states:. Cybele as the mother of the Gods, mater Deum, here again presented a starkly pagan parallel to the Christian Mother of God. Lane, David Adams Leeming, professor emeritus of English and comparative literature at the University of Connecticut, is also explicit that Attis's mother was a virgin:.
Attis is the son of Cybele in her form as the virgin, Nana, who is impregnated by the divine force in the form of a pomegranate. Leeming, Rigoglioso states:. Another instance of spontaneous conception occurred when Nana, whose very name was one by which the Great Goddess was known, became pregnant simply by eating the tree's fruit As I also write in my article " Attis: Born of a Virgin on December 25th ," the "December 25th" or winter-solstice birth of the sun god is a common theme in several cultures around the world over the past millennia, including the Egyptian, among others.
For example, Barbara G. Walker 77 writes:. Attis's passion was celebrated on the 25th of March, exactly nine months before the solstitial festival of his birth, the 25th of December. The time of his death was also the time of his conception, or re-conception. In the secret rites of this Great Mother the young god Attis figured as her acolyte and consort Each year he was born at the winter solstice, and each year as the days shortened, he died.
The reasoning behind this contention of the vegetative and solar god Attis's birth at the winter solstice is sound enough, in that it echoes natural cycles, with the god's death at the vernal equinox also representing the time when he is conceived again, to be born nine months later. The same natural pattern was contended of Jesus as well, with the Virgin Mary traditionally said to have conceived at the spring equinox and given birth at the winter solstice. O'Gorman, Moreover, at times the young Attis was merged with Mithra, whose birthday was traditionally held on December 25th and with whom he shared the same Phrygian capped attire.
As I further relate in my article " Attis: Born of a Virgin ," the myths of Attis's death include him being killed by a boar or by castrating himself under a tree, as well as by being hung on a tree or "crucified. As stated by La Trobe University professor Dr. David John Tacey :. In antiquity, these two concepts were obviously similar enough to be interchangeable in understanding. As we can see, there is very good reason to raise up these issues in our studies of comparative religion and mythology.
Like the other claims regarding various gods' mothers not being virgins, this one is based on the lack of knowledge about the ancient concept of parthenogenesis. Again, myths are mutable, not set in stone, and it must be kept in mind that these are not "real people" but mythical figures; hence, neither their mothers nor purported fathers truly have genitalia. In brief, it is claimed that Devaki could not to have been a virgin when she gave birth to Krishna because she already had given birth to seven other children.
In the first place, based on the biblical scriptures at Matthew and , the Virgin Mary also was traditionally said to have given birth to several children after Jesus; yet, she is considered a perpetual virgin. The bottom line is that pre-Christian Indian mythology most definitely possessed the virgin-birth motif and that it was certainly applied to Devaki, in an earlier birth story and possibly as concerns Krishna as well. Just after the war, Krishna dies, as he had predicted he would, when, in a position of meditation, he is struck in the heel by a hunter's arrow.
His apotheosis occurs when he ascends in death to the heavens and is greeted by the gods. Although it is not specifically stated that Krishna "resurrects" upon his death—when he is killed under a tree—he does ascend into heaven, alive again, since he is considered to be the eternal God of the cosmos. In this regard, there have been found in India strange images of figures in cruciform with nail holes in their hands and feet, one of which was identified by an Indian priest as possibly the god Wittoba, who is an incarnation of Krishna.
The point is that the god was once dead, but now he is alive again, whether in this world or the afterlife. Once more, Forbes has not looked very hard for the evidence for these contentions regarding the Greek son of God, Dionysus. It is clear that he is not a mythologist, as he has not studied the subject of pre-Christian mythology in depth. As I relate in my article " Dionysus: Born of a Virgin on December 25th, Killed and Resurrected after Three Days ," according to the most common tradition, Dionysus was the son of the god Zeus and the mortal woman Semele. In the Cretan version of the same story, which the pre-Christian Greek historian Diodorus Siculus relates, Dionysus was the son of Zeus and Persephone, the daughter of Demeter also called Kore, who is styled a "virgin goddess.
Indeed, mythologist Joseph Campbell explicitly calls Semele a "virgin":. While the maiden goddess sat there, peacefully weaving a mantle on which there was to be a representation of the universe, her mother contrived that Zeus should learn of her presence; he approached her in the form of an immense snake.
And the virgin conceived the ever-dying, ever-living god of bread and wine, Dionysus, who was born and nurtured in that cave, torn to death as a babe and resurrected This same direct appellation is used by Cambridge professor and anthropologist Sir Dr. Edmund Ronald Leach:. Hugh-Jones, Persephone's connection with the parthenogenetic pomegranate is attested in text and iconography. As with Jesus, December 25th and January 6th are both traditional birth dates in the Dionysian myth and simply represent the period of the winter solstice.
Indeed, the winter-solstice date of the Greek sun and wine god Dionysus was originally recognized in early January but was eventually placed on December 25th, as related by ancient Latin writer Macrobius c. Regardless, the effect is the same: The winter sun god is born around this time, when the shortest day of the year begins to become longer.
The ancient Church father Epiphanius 4th cent. In this regard, Christian theologian Rev. Hugo G. Rahner remarks:. We know that Aion was at this time beginning to be regarded as identical with Helios and Helios with Dionysus He is made to appear small at the time of the winter solstice, when upon a certain day the Egyptians take him out of the crypt, because on this the shortest day of the year it is as though he were a little child Macrobius transfers [this feast] to the day of the winter solstice, December Dionysus is thus equivalent to Aion and was also said to have been born of Persephone, the virgin maiden.
Joseph Campbell MI , 34 confirms this "celebration of the birth of the year-god Aion to the virgin Goddess Kore," the latter of whom he calls "a Hellenized transformation of Isis," the Egyptian mother goddess who was likewise called the "Great Virgin" in inscriptions predating the Christian era by centuries. As we can see, no one has just "made up" anything, except, perhaps, those promulgating the Christ myth as "historical.
It is precisely this fact of "borrowing" that we are demonstrating in our comparative religion and mythology studies, so highlighting this point serves to illustrate our thesis. The well-known solar feast For the history of the solar cult, its position in the Roman Empire, and syncretism with Mithraism. The 25 December was observed as his birthday, the natalis invicti, the rebirth of the winter-sun, unconquered by the rigours of the season.
In consideration of the strawman argument above wherein he disingenuously pretends not to understand the nomenclature of "December 25th" used to describe Horus's birthday, perhaps he should have been using a Latin phrase in this discussion, rather than the English one. It is obvious our critic is engaged in special pleading here, as well as throughout his analysis. If the church "colonized" this festival as well as many others—as Forbes further claims here—presenting this supposed birthday as fact, what else did the church or creators of Christianity "colonize" in their quest to make Pagans who "shifted over more comfortable?
Which ancient historians would those be? A serious historian wants to know the ancient evidence. This is a deceiver and an antichrist. It is likely there were many other individuals questioning the historicity of the gospel tale, as it is little different from the multitudinous claims concerning other gods and goddesses around the Mediterranean of the time.
It is also likely that any such testimony was obliterated during the centuries of destruction that followed the ascension of Christianity. This entire lengthy article demonstrates that if you follow the footnotes of "these people," i. Wells but also me, you will find plenty of ancient evidence. Forbes simply did not look very hard, as is obvious from his claims, which reflect barely a cursory scan of the mythicist case. Obviously, Pliny saying that they worshipped "Christos as a god" is not reflecting any knowledge of a "real man" who walked the earth in the century before. To use his phrase, it's not there at all.
It's just made up.
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Without evidence, does Forbes know what these writers believed? What they thought? An indepth analysis reveals that both titles were indeed utilized to describe several figures, mythical and historical, found in the Old Testament and elsewhere, and that none of these historians provide credible, scientific evidence that the gospel story really happened or that Jesus truly existed. More on the subject of Pliny, et al. In a letter to the Emperor Trajan c.
Neither Pliny's letter nor the response by Trajan mention anything about this god having a life on Earth; nor do they ever call him "Jesus. By the end of 2 Samuel , it is David who is called "Christ. From the foregoing facts, it can be asserted that Pliny provides no useful information either as to who Jesus was or even whether or not he existed. Other apologist "proofs" of the history of the gospel story occur in a couple of brief passages in the works of Roman historian and biographer Suetonius.
The germane term here is "Chrestos," again a widely used epithet meaning "good," "virtuous," "useful" or "easy," as at Matthew Nevertheless, numerous individuals, including both gods and mortals, were called "Chrestos" or "Chrestus" during this era, so it is uncertain that this brief remark even concerns Jesus of Nazareth in the first place, especially since Jesus was never said to have been at Rome. It seems odd that a movement over 80 years old would be considered "new," particularly since both Peter and Paul were said to have proselytized at Rome.
Indeed, the book of Acts claims Paul was such a known rabble-rouser that he was arrested and hauled before Roman authorities, even appealing to Caesar himself! Acts Paul not only purportedly spent two years in prison in Rome, but it was there where he allegedly later experienced martyrdom in the arena "before a jeering crowd" during Nero's reign.
Strangely, despite his noteworthy life Paul appears nowhere in the historical record. Moreover, this passage in Suetonius may have been another Christian interpolation, breaking the narrative in an unnatural manner. In any event, these brief mentions of "Chrestos" and "Christians" do not provide credible scientific evidence of the historicity of the gospel story. Hence, the authenticity and value of the Annals remain dubious.
The pertinent passage in the Annals—considered by some apologists as the best evidence outside of the gospels for Christ's historicity—goes as follows:. Therefore, in order to abolish that rumor, Nero falsely accused and executed with the most exquisite punishments those people called Christians, who were infamous for their abominations. The originator of the name, Christ, was executed as a criminal by the procurator Pontius Pilate during the reign of Tiberius; and though repressed, this destructive superstition erupted again, not only through Judea, which was the origin of this evil, but also through the city of Rome, to which all that is horrible and shameful floods together and is celebrated.
Therefore, first those were seized who admitted their faith, and then, using the information they provided, a vast multitude were convicted, not so much for the crime of burning the city, but for hatred of the human race. And perishing they were additionally made into sports: they were killed by dogs by having the hides of beasts attached to them, or they were nailed to crosses or set aflame, and, when the daylight passed away, they were used as nighttime lamps.
Nero gave his own gardens for this spectacle and performed a Circus game, in the habit of a charioteer mixing with the plebs or driving about the race-course. Even though they were clearly guilty and merited being made the most recent example of the consequences of crime, people began to pity these sufferers, because they were consumed not for the public good but on account of the fierceness of one man.
In the Latin manuscript that is the basis of this particular translation, Tacitus refers to a "Christus," with an "i," but he claims the "class hated for their abominations" were called "Chrestians," with an "e," meaning "the good" or "the useful," etc. Other arguments against the authenticity of this text include that it is written in different and rougher Latin than Tacitus's other, more well-known works.
Furthermore, in all of Tacitus's other works, no mention is made of Christ, Christians or Christianity—how do we account for this fact, if there were already a "vast multitude" of Christians at Rome by the time of Nero, several decades earlier? And whom Nero supposedly had blamed for the infamous fire that almost destroyed Rome? And who were allegedly horribly persecuted—yet, not one other writer of the time or thereafter recorded these significant facts? Forbes refers, of course, to the infamous "Testimonium Flavianum" "TF" as well as the lesser known "James passage" in the writings of Jewish historian Josephus.
Since that time, however, Christian apologists and others have worked their way back to the "partial interpolation" hypothesis as well as that the entire passage is "genuine. Bruce, one of the founders of the modern evangelical Christian movement, concludes :. It cannot therefore be adduced with confidence as evidence. This fact concerning past critics readily reveals itself when the extensive body of literature in the field of mythicism is studied. Bruce and others as concerns the Testimonium Flavianum has also been made by those arguing against the authenticity of the phrase "brother of Jesus, who was called Christ" or simply the latter clause, which unnaturally breaks the text and seems to be an interpolation or insert.
This phrase "who was called Christ" may have been copied from the gospel of Matthew , possibly long after Josephus's time. Furthermore, the James in this passage has not been concretely identified with the James in the gospel story, as Josephus's James died some seven years prior to the death of the New Testament's "James the Just. Surely this supposedly stunning development would find its way into the writings of "literature professors, poets and philosophers" of all people!
When one considers that in antiquity writers often addressed multiple disciplines, it would not necessarily be surprising if experts on "farming and gardening" discussed such a purportedly important and allegedly widespread phenomenon, which Christian tradition claims spread like wildfire during the first and second centuries. So, here we have an important ancient scholar who wrote about both religion and "farming and gardening. As Forbes himself remarks:. There are plenty of writers whose manuscripts written in the period we're talking about still survive now All those manuscripts, yet not one of them contains anything about Jesus, even though he was supposedly widely famed!
And what about the supposed witnesses of Christ's resurrection 1 Cor —would not someone among them have related or recorded the story him or herself? Forbes's agenda becomes clear in his parting "advice" to those who are "enamored" by "Zeitgeist": "Can I be awfully blunt? Don't believe everything you see on Youtube. Forbes further says, in a condescending manner that implies none of us has done so:. Yes, check references. Go looking for ancient evidence. If somebody claims something about Horus or Mithras or Dionysus, if they're only quoting another modern author, or in the case of Massey, someone writing in the 19th century, that's not good enough.
What historians want to know is not do you quote historians. They want to know can you quote ancient evidence? And there's simply no ancient evidence that Horus or Mithras or Dionysus was born on the 25th of December, born of a virgin, crucified—the ancient stories simply don't say that about them, so the parallels with Jesus just collapse. It is obvious from his comments, however, that Forbes himself did not check the references or go looking for the ancient evidence, because he apparently stopped at the list of citations on the ZG website, without bothering to dig further. It is clear from this response that we should not rely on the words of professional historians but should do the research ourselves, and I have provided pointers in every direction for the reader to do just that for him or herself.
At one point, the host of the radio and video programs goes on to admit that the study of the "historical Jesus" is a "voluminous industry," which just about says it all—an industry, upon which occupations and paychecks depend. Why did the religion of Mithraism so bother the early Christians that they were compelled to write against it? The early fathers of the Christian church discussed Mithraism's similarities to Christianity, unfavorably and with the intent to make it appear as if the prescient devil "aped" the coming Christ, based on interpretations of so-called " messianic prophecies " in the Old Testament.
Mithraism was so popular in the Roman Empire and so similar in important aspects to Christianity that several Church fathers were compelled to address it, disparagingly of course. For example, in his Dialogue with Trypho , patristic writer Justin Martyr c. And when those who record the mysteries of Mithras say that he was begotten of a rock, and call the place where those who believe in him are initiated a cave, do I not perceive here that the utterance of Daniel, that a stone without hands was cut out of a great mountain, has been imitated by them, and that they have attempted likewise to imitate the whole of Isaiah's words?
Roberts , 2. Martyr's suggestion also implies that the Mithraists knew the Jewish scriptures, which is improbable, unless those who created Mithraic rituals were Jews. Even in the time of the emperor Vespasian, it was difficult, if not impossible, for a non-Jew goy to get his hands on the scriptures. In any event, Martyr is clearly indicating that various Mithraic rituals preceded Christianity, in his attempted explanation that their existence was the result of "prophecies. And this food is called among us Eucharistia, of which no one is allowed to partake but the man who believes that the things which we teach are true, and who has been washed with the washing that is for the remission of sins, and unto regeneration, and who is so living as Christ has enjoined.
For not as common bread and common drink do we receive these; but in like manner as Jesus Christ our Saviour, having been made flesh by the Word of God, had both flesh and blood for our salvation, so likewise have we been taught that the food which is blessed by the prayer of His word, and from which our blood and flesh by transmutation are nourished, is the flesh and blood of that Jesus who was made flesh. For the apostles, in the memoirs composed by them, which are called Gospels, have thus delivered unto us what was enjoined upon them; that Jesus took bread, and when He had given thanks, said, "This do ye in remembrance of Me, this is My body"; and that, after the same manner, having taken the cup and given thanks, He said, "This is My blood"; and gave it to them alone.
Which the wicked devils have imitated in the mysteries of Mithras, commanding the same thing to be done. For, that bread and a cup of water are placed with certain incantations in the mystic rites of one who is being initiated, you either know or can learn.
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Roberts , 1. As discussed elsewhere, the phrase "which are called Gospels" is evidently an interpolation, as it not only is extraneous and gratuitous to the subject matter of the rest of the paragraph but is also the only time the term "Gospels" is found in Justin's works. Furthermore, the quotes Justin cites from the "memoirs," which are ostensibly a single text called the " Memoirs of the Apostles " also discussed elsewhere, differ from any found in the canonical gospels.
If human beings had merely copied Christian rites and myths, why would Martyr not say so but instead irrationally ascribe the deed to a supernatural agency, thus putting himself at risk for incredulity and ridicule for what is now nearly two thousand years? In his discussion of the Eucharist, Justin also relates that the Mithraic mysteries involve bread and water, like the Christian communion, attributing its presence in Mithraism to "evil spirits":.
And this very solemnity, too, the evil spirits have introduced into the "Mysteries of Mithra"; for you do or may know that when anyone is initiated into this religion, bread and a cup of water, with a certain form of words, are made use of in the sacrifice. Taylor, lxiii. Such sacred meals could also be found in other pre-Christian cultures as well. Like Martyr, of course, he blames these similarities on the devil, rather than admitting that Christianity took them from Mithraism:.
Chapter XL. The question will arise, By whom is to be interpreted the sense of the passages which make for heresies? By the devil, of course, to whom pertain those wiles which pervert the truth, and who, by the mystic rites of his idols, vies even with the essential portions of the sacraments of God. He, too, baptizes somethat is, his own believers and faithful followers; he promises the putting away of sins by a layer of his own ; and if my memory still serves me, Mithra there, in the kingdom of Satan sets his marks on the foreheads of his soldiers; celebrates also the oblation of bread, and introduces an image of a resurrection, and before a sword wreathes a crown.
What also must we say to Satan's limiting his chief priest to a single marriage? He, too, has his virgins; he, too, has his proficients in continence. Suppose now we revolve in our minds the superstitions of Numa Pompilius, and consider his priestly offices and badges and privileges, his sacrificial services, too, and the instruments and vessels of the sacrifices themselves, and the curious rites of his expiations and vows: is it not clear to us that the devil imitated the well-known moroseness of the Jewish law?click
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Since, therefore he has sown such emulation in his great aim of expressing, in the concerns of his idolatry, those very things of which consists the administration of Christ's sacraments, it follows, of course, that the same being, possessing still the same genius, both set his heart upon, and succeeded in, adapting to his profane and rival creed the very documents of divine things and of the Christian saints Roberts , For washing is the channel through which they are initiated into some sacred ritesof some notorious Isis or Mithras.
The gods themselves likewise they honour by washings. Moreover, by carrying water around, and sprinkling it, they everywhere expiate country-seats, houses, temples, and whole cities: at all events, at the Apollinarian and Eleusinian games they are baptized; and they presume that the effect of their doing that is their regeneration and the remission of the penalties due to their perjuries. Among the ancients, again, whoever had defiled himself with murder, was wont to go in quest of purifying waters.
Therefore, if the mere nature of water, in that it is the appropriate material for washing away, leads men to flatter themselves with a belief in omens of purification, how much more truly will waters render that service through the authority of God, by whom all their nature has been constituted! If men think that water is endued with a medicinal virtue by religion, what religion is more effectual than that of the living God? Which fact being acknowledged, we recognise here also the zeal of the devil rivalling the things of God, while we find him, too, practising baptism in his subjects.
Roberts , 3. Obviously, this baptism, so extensively carried out, was the order of the day long before Christianity had any influence. Indeed, baptism is a pre-Christian rite , found from India to Egypt, dating back thousands of years. How, then, did Mithraism take it from Christianity? Another one of these devilish nuisances to Christian apologists is the Mithraic mark upon the forehead, a rite similar to that within Catholicism. Let us take note of the devices of the devil, who is wont to ape some of God's things with no other design than, by the faithfulness of his servants, to put us to shame, and to condemn us.
The mark on the forehead as a sign of religious respect is well known to have been used in India for millennia. Concerning this Jewish mark, ancient Christian monuments expert Rev. John P. Lundy states :. Both the Greek and Hebrew letters are derived from the Phoenician alphabet, in which the letter "t" is an "x.
Concerning the Jewish mark, the Catholic Encyclopedia "Cross," 4. Thus the Greek letter tau or thau appears in Ezechiel ix, 4 , according to St. Jerome and other Fathers, as a solemn symbol of the Cross of Christ--"Mark Thau upon the foreheads of the men that sigh.
Christ Himself thus interpreted the passage: "As Moses lifted up the serpent in the desert, so must the Son of man be lifted up" John, iii, The Psalmist predicts the piercing of the hands and the feet Ps. Nevertheless, despite its presence in Judaism, in an article entitled "The Cult of Sol Invictus," a Protestant Christian website protests that the sign of the cross itself is Satanic , representing a Mithraic ritual that has erroneously found its way into Christianity:.
After baptism into the Mysteries of Mithra, the initiate was marked on the forehead. The sign of the cross formed by the elliptic and the celestial equator was one of the signs of Mithra. There is no Biblical support for the inclusion of Mithraic ritual, which is the worship of Satan, in the worship of the God of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, the Creator of heaven and earth. It is a Satanic scheme to disguise the transgression of Gods laws under the title of "Christianity. Obviously, the cross would not have been copied by Paganism from Christianity, as it is an ancient sacred symbol that pre-dates the Christian era by centuries and millennia.
In fact, the cross was the " universal symbol of life and immortality ," as well as of the sun god, entirely appropriate for Mithra. This celestial soul-cleansing "ladder" begins with the leaden Saturn and ends with the golden sun. The Persian theology, says Origen, also includes "musical realms. In book VI, Origen says:. For the mysteries of Mithras do not appear to be more famous among the Greeks than those of Eleusis, or than those in Aegina, where individuals are initiated in the rites of Hecate.
But if he [Celsus] must introduce barbarian mysteries with their explanation, why not rather those of the Egyptians, which are highly regarded by many, or those of the Cappadocians regarding the Comanian Diana, or those of the Thracians, or even those of the Romans themselves, who initiate the noblest members of their senate? But if he deemed it inappropriate to institute a comparison with any of these, because they furnished no aid in the way of accusing Jews or Christians, why did it not also appear to him inappropriate to adduce the instance of the mysteries of Mithras?
Roberts , 4. Ironically, the prolific and highly influential Origen--considered one of the best educated of the early apologists--was later himself condemned as a "heretic"; yet, the church continued to use his writings to gain converts. In other words, they anticipated Christianity. The bottom line is that Mithraism in one form or another existed for centuries prior to the common era and thus predated Christianity. Roberts, Alexander, et al. Ante-Nicene Christian Library , vols. Edinburgh: T. Clark, Lundy, John P.
Monumental Christianity. New York: J. Bouton, Taylor, J. The True Doctrine of the Holy Eucharist. N uevo manuscrito egipcio descifrado,. Copias del texto se encuentran en dos manuscritos, uno en la Biblioteca y Museo Morgan de Nueva York y el otro en el Museo de la Universidad de Pennsylvania. Esto lleva a Judas a sugerir el uso de un beso como medio para identificarlo. De nuevo, es poco probable que tal libro fuera encontrado en la vida real.
Un regalo a un monasterio Yet another "Christian" motif that appears within Buddhism is the temptation of the supernatural savior by the evil being. Discussing the temptation of Buddha by the "demon" Mara, Lockwood 37 remarks:. The Gospel of John makes no mention of the temptation of Jesus by the devil. In fact, this gospel rules this episode out as a possibility, as Jesus is said, in this account, to proceed immediately after his baptism, to enlisting five men as his first disciples, and then on to performing miracles and preaching.
The Buddha also had five disciples in the beginning of his preaching the Dharma. As we can see, not only are there important differences between the Christian gospels, indicating their fictional nature, but also the correspondences between Buddhism and Christianity are pronounced. In this instance, we read of two such parallel motifs: The temptation and the five initial disciples, both of which must have emanated from Buddhism to Christianity, in such a scenario of transference or "borrowing. Source: Buddhism's Relation to Christianity. Another motif well represented in Buddhist literature and artifacts such as a stone carving from Sanchi 1 st cent.
Both Buddha and Jesus, along with chosen disciples, are portrayed as walking on water, but the Buddhist tale clearly predates the Christian one, by many decades if not centuries In India, accounts of the paranormal ability of walking on water are as old as the ancient epic, Mahabharata —long before the time of the Buddha.
Section Four of Buddhism's Relation to Christianity contains the fascinating and important story of the adoption of Buddha, by the name of "Josaphat," into the Christian pantheon of saints, For several centuries in the Middle Ages up to the 19th, Christendom heard the marvelous tales of Josaphat and Barlaam, until the Age of Enlightenment brought with it Buddhist studies that revealed the ruse.
This fact of a transmutation of a non-Christian godman into a Christian saint is not limited to Buddha, as it occurred with several other figures from pre-Christian religion and mythology, including St. Ann, St. Lucy, St. Denis and St. If enterprising monks or their priestly, pontifical or political leaders were busy transmuting a Buddhist legend into a Christian tale as early as the third century, there is little reason to doubt that their predecessors were busily transmuting other Buddhist stories and doctrines into Christian tales and dogma—including the gospel story itself, which only emerges clearly and in detail into the historical record during the latter half of the second century—a mere decades before the Josaphat fabrication evidently was begun Another motif Lockwood 77 raises in relation to the parables and the Buddhist tactic of "skillful leading by misleading" upaya-kaushalya is the appearance in Paul's First Epistle to the Corinthians of "brethren" who supposedly witnessed the resurrected Christ.
This motif has been used by Christians as "proof" that Christ was a historical figure, about whom Paul and these hundreds of others clearly knew. However, according to Buddhist scholar Dr. Christian Lindtner, this "historical" episode represents yet another example of "pious fraud" and propaganda:. So, here Paul reveals himself, if we know the original source, as being guilty of a pious fraud, indeed.
Lockwood, Section Eight of Buddhism's Relation to Christianity ff comprises a lengthy discussion of the "historicity" of Jesus Christ, reproducing at first the article from the internet site Wikipedia by the same name. The argument centers on whether or not, under the layers of mythical motifs that sober historians are not prepared to accept as "historical fact," there is a man named "Jesus," titled "the Christ," who had wandered about Judea and Galilee preaching a Hellenized and Romanized "Jewish" doctrine full of unique sayings attributable to a "historical" figure.
This "euhemerism" or "evemerism"—the theory named after the Greek philosopher Euhemeros or Evemeras 4th cent. BCE , who argued that the gods and goddesses were kings, queens and heroes of antiquity puffed up by supernatural biographical filler—may sound satisfying at first. However, as these mythological and other precedent layers are peeled, there remains no "historical" core to the onion, and a composite of 20 people, historical and mythical, is simply no one. Extracto de una conferencia por Thorwald Dethlefsen. Caracas, Diciembre Festejaban de manera especial los cambios de las estaciones.
Y la luz en las tinieblas brilla. Capricornio se asocia con Saturno. Son ataques a la Luz que, como sabemos, no logran aniquilarla. Nuestro cuerpo es el sitio exterior para el nacimiento, tal como Bethlehem representa el lugar exterior del nacimiento de Cristo. La materia es lo exteriormente visible, donde se encuentra encerrada la luz. Todos estos son simbolismos para el principio de lo receptivo, de lo pasivo. Agua - Psique - Luna - Femineidad - Madre.
Apocalipsis El vuelo del ave no deja huella y por tanto el cielo no permite que el pasado aparezca. La vida real y el mundo verdadero son constante presencia, nunca pasado o futuro. Todo lo pasado es irreal, como lo son las huellas de las estrellas. Todo el tiempo durante el cual nos identificamos con el Yo, nos impide abrirnos para recibir y ser iluminados por la Luz Divina. Otro requisito fundamental para que logremos este objetivo es nuestro fuero interno. El dice:.
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En otra cita expresa:. El es el principio divino, lo real y verdadero dentro de nosotros, la chispa divina, el Yo, la Luz Divina, el Logos. Por esto, muchos hijos de Dios nacieron en cuevas, entre ellos, Mitras. Para que esto ocurra hace falta que se desmorone la casa, que se derrumben las barreras, que se desintegren las formas, que la casa se vuelva penetrable y receptiva. Este es el verdadero significado del establo desplomado: antes de que surja algo nuevo deben quebrantarse las viejas formas, los viejos moldes.
Lo verdadero, lo creativo, requiere siempre el sacrificio de las formas preexistentes. Si no se borran los patrones viejos no puede surgir nada nuevo. Visto desde la psique humana, primero el hombre tiene que pasar por el caos para luego alcanzar nuevas estructuras. En este contexto, el establo se opone al albergue, que es una casa intacta, en donde no hay lugar para que nazca. Los tres patronos, que representan las funciones el pensamiento, el sentir y el querer en su nivel no redimido, no superado, indican su actitud de flanquear la entrada.
Analicemos ahora a los otros dos grupos de personas que se colocan en el pesebre: los tres Reyes Magos y los pastores. Los tres Reyes Magos dan la espalda al mundo terrenal, viven alejados del mundo y se acercan a las estrellas, que constituyen su elemento. Los pastores son totalmente distintos. Son gente sencilla, que custodia y no son dirigentes. Ellos cuidan animales inconscientes, por lo que custodian el reino inconsciente, de la vida sencilla, ligada a la naturaleza. Viven cerca de la tierra.
Se dice de los Reyes: Vinieron a venerar y a sacrificar. A veces la estrella desaparece y los Reyes tienen miedo de perderla. Encontrar esa Luz, hallar esa Luz es la meta y tarea de cada ser humano. Visto en su conjunto, nos damos cuenta y sentimos que actualmente hay mucha oscuridad en nuestro mundo, vemos que hay peligro de que las fuerzas de la Luz sean devoradas. Pero tales lamentos, que son ciertos, son no obstante incompletos. Pero un De Pascha Computus fechado en afirma que la natividad se produjo el 28 de marzo.
Todo el mundo greco-oriental celebraba en esta fecha fiestas semejantes. Efectivamente, mientras la Iglesia de Oriente adopta el 6 de enero como fecha de la Natividad, en el occidente de Europa se empieza a adoptar la fecha del 25 de diciembre. En efecto, el 25 de diciembre era en Roma la fiesta del Sol Invicto.
Este periodo dura doce noches, desde el 25 de diciembre hasta el 6 de enero. Esta misma tesis es admitida por numerosos autores cristianos. No obstante, y por importante que fuera la fiesta de los Reyes Magos, la fecha del 6 de enero quedaba notablemente disminuida respecto a la nueva fecha de la Navidad. Los maniqueos, por ejemplo, siempre se negaron a reconocer la fecha del 25 de diciembre.
Lo mismo hicieron numerosos grupos protestantes. En la Inglaterra de Cromwell, las celebraciones de Navidad fueron suprimidas por la violenta hostilidad de los puritanos hacia todo cuanto pudiera recordar ese origen pagano. En Escocia, la Navidad fue prohibida en y se arbitraron graves sanciones para quien la festejara.