No Commitment Necessary (Encounters Book 2)

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California has no such statute, so if you refuse to provide an ID while police are detaining you, they can't arrest you just for refusing.

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If you really haven't done anything wrong, knowing your identity could help police resolve their investigation in your favor, and refusing to provide identification could prolong it. For example, suppose a neighbor reports a burglary at your house and police arrive at the moment you happen to be carrying a computer out of the house. They would have a reason to detain you to investigate the burglary call, but you might be able to clear up the situation by showing your ID to prove you live there.

Providing identification can also just help an interaction with police go more smoothly. Police may want to check for warrants so they can be sure you aren't a dangerous, wanted criminal. They may be less nervous if they feel they know who they're dealing with. Skip to content. Associated Press.

Do you have to show an ID whenever an official asks for one? This much, however, is certain: The facts of the Helbig case and the case before us, which we may term the Perfecto case, are different, for in the first case there was an oral defamation, while in the second there is a written defamation. Not only this, but a new point which, under the facts, could not have been considered in the Helbig case, is, in the Perfecto case, urged upon the court. And, finally, as is apparent to all, the appellate court is not restrained, as was the trial court, by strict adherence to a former decision.

We much prefer to resolve the question before us unhindered by references to the Helbig decision. This is one of those cases on which a variety of opinions all leading to the same result can be had. The view of the Chief Justice is that the accused should be acquitted for the reason that the facts alleged in the information do not constitute a violation of article of the Penal Code. Three members of the court believe that article was abrogated completely by the change from Spanish to American sovereignty over the Philippines and is inconsistent with democratic principles of government.

Without prejudice to the right of any member of the court to explain his position, we will discuss the two main points just mentioned. Section 1 defines libel as a "malicious defamation, expressed either in writing, printing, or by signs or pictures, or the like, or public theatrical exhibitions, tending to blacken the memory of one who is dead or to impeach the honesty, virtue, or reputation, or publish the alleged or natural deffects of one who is alive, and thereby expose him to public hatred, contempt or ridicule. That parts of laws in force in when the Libel Law took effect, were in conflict therewith, and that the Libel Law abrogated certain portion of the Spanish Penal Code, cannot be gainsaid.

Indeed, in the early case of Pardo de Tavera vs. Garcia Valdez [], 1. People vs. Castro [], p. The Libel Law must have had the same result on other provisions of the Penal Code, as for instance article The facts here are that the editor of a newspaper published an article, naturally in writing, which may have had the tendency to impeach the honesty, virtue, or reputation of members of the Philippine Senate, thereby possibly exposing them to public hatred, contempt, or ridicule, which is exactly libel, as defined by the Libel Law. Sir J. Stephen is authority for the statement that a libel is indictable when defaming a "body of persons definite and small enough for individual members to be recognized as such, in or by means of anything capable of being a libel.

But in the United States, while it may be proper to prosecute criminally the author of a libel charging a legislator with corruption, criticisms, no matter how severe, on a legislature, are within the range of the liberty of the press, unless the intention and effect be seditious. With these facts and legal principles in mind, recall that article begins: Any person who, by. The Libel Law is a complete and comprehensive law on the subject of libel.

The well-known rule of statutory construction is, that where the later statute clearly covers the old subject-matter of antecedent acts, and it plainly appears to have been the purpose of the legislature to give expression in it to the whole law on the subject, previous laws are held to be repealed by necessary implication. For identical reasons, it is evident that Act No. Act No. Effect of the change from Spanish to Amercian sevoreignty over the Philippine son article of the Spanish Penal Code.

This view was indirectly favored by the trial judge, and, as before stated, is the opinion of three members of this court. Title I of Book II punishes the crimes of treason, crimes that endanger the peace or independence of the state, crimes against international law, and the crime of piracy. Title II of the same book punishes the crimes of lese majeste , crimes against the Cortes and its members and against the council of ministers, crimes against the form of government, and crimes committed on the occasion of the exercise of rights guaranteed by the fundamental laws of the state, including crime against religion and worship.

Collection of Angel Encounters and Sightings

Title III of the same Book, in which article is found, punishes the crimes of rebellion, sedition, assaults upon persons in authority, and their agents, and contempts, insults, injurias , and threats against persons in authority, and insults, injurias , and threats against their agents and other public officers, the last being the title to Chapter V.

The first two articles in Chapter V define and punish the offense of contempt committed by any one who shall be word or deed defame, abuse, insult, or threathen a minister of the crown, or any person in authority. The with an article condemning challenges to fight duels intervening, comes article , now being weighed in the balance. It reads as follows: "Any person who, by word, deed, or writing, shall defame, abuse, or insult any Minister of the Crown or other person in authority , while engaged in the performance of official duties, or by reason of such performance, provided that the offensive minister or person, or the offensive writing be not addressed to him, shall suffer the penalty of arresto mayor ," — that is, the defamation, abuse, or insult of any Minister of the Crown of the Monarchy of Spain for there could not be a Minister of the Crown in the United States of America , or other person in authority in the Monarchy of Spain.

It cannot admit of doubt that all those provisions of the Spanish Penal Code having to do with such subjects as treason, lese majeste , religion and worship, rebellion, sedition, and contempts of ministers of the crown, are not longer in force. Our present task, therefore, is a determination of whether article has met the same fate, or, more specifically stated, whether it is in the nature of a municipal law or political law, and is consistent with the Constitution and laws of the United States and the characteristics and institutions of the American Government.

It is a general principle of the public law that on acquisition of territory the previous political relations of the ceded region are totally abrogated. American Insurance Co. Canter [], 1 Pet. McGlinn [], U. Collector of Customs [], 23 Phil. McGlinn, supra, he said: "As a matter of course, all laws, ordinances and regulations in conflict with the political character, institutions and Constitution of the new government are at once displaced. Thus, upon a cession of political jurisdiction and legislative power — and the latter is involved in the former — to the United States, the laws of the country in support of an established religion or abridging the freedom of the press , or authorizing cruel and unusual punishments, and he like, would at once cease to be of obligatory force without any declaration to that effect.

Every nation acquiring territory, by treaty or otherwise, must hold it subject to the Constitution and laws of its own government, and not according to those of the government ceding it. Hagan [], 3 Hos. On American occupation of the Philippines, by instructions of the President to the Military Commander dated May 28, , and by proclamation of the latter, the municipal laws of the conquered territory affecting private rights of person and property and providing for the punishment of crime were nominally continued in force in so far as they were compatible with the new order of things.

But President McKinley, in his instructions to General Merritt, was careful to say: "The first effect of the military occupation of the enemy's territory is the severance of the former political relation of the inhabitants and the establishment of a new political power. United States [], U. Sweet [], 1 Phil. I always thought it was my daughter's angel.

Years later, I spoke with a psychic. She said the angel was mine and that I had three: one strong woman and two men. The psychic said, you know, "The men that help you do things around here," I thank them a lot. Years ago, I was out with my two good friends and we were walking around in this big shopping center. Over an hour, we hung around the perfume section looking for the right smell, so in the end, we were quite dazed. Coming out of the main entrance right ahead was a huge crossroads. All the lights were green, but just before the big crossroad, there was a little crossing with no lights.

It was only a split second from when I was taking steps, to the next, when I heard bus sirens. I felt strong hands on my shoulders pulling me back to the pavement. Also, I saw the bus going just inches from my nose passing very fast. My friends were behind me, but none of them could remember grabbing me. They were stunned and admitted that they stood watching when an angel saved me, Thank you, my guardian angel!

I looked out and I saw clouds shaped as Jesus with angels. The angels looked like they were like babies, like Cupid with a diaper-like thing with no shorts. They looked so young. I think I only saw his hands, arms, and head. I pointed to my mom and she said it does look like it but didn't really look that much. Occasionally, I ask her if she remembers that day. Sometimes she says, "Yes. I was in a bad place in my life.

I was having terrible problems with my year-old son. I was literally at the end of my rope. One night on my way home I was alone in the car, and I starting praying out loud. Let me see angels as a sign. A sign that things will get better. I'm so lost and in such despair. Please send me an angel to help me. Nothing happened. I was about 5 minutes from my home when I received a text message from my best friend. The message read, "Eight angels have been sent to help you.

Confused, I called my best friend and asked her if she had sent it to me. She said she received it about 15 minutes prior around the time I was praying from her son who, when questioned, said he never sent it. She saw it and thought to send it to me. After that message, things took an upswing for my son. He is alive and thriving. I know in my heart these angels are with him and me too!

I was 5 years old when I encountered an altar church boy about 10 or I entered my bedroom in broad daylight, and he emerged from the wall and levitated across the room, then disappeared. The loose door of a heavy armoire fell to the floor and missed me because when I saw him I just stayed at the door speechless.

My mom heard the noise and came running. I was accused of touching the door when I was told not to because of the loose hinges. She did not believe me, and I never repeated this story to anyone. Angels in my life are simply divine. Ever since I invited my angels into my daily life, it has changed for the better. I know with the angel's guidance I can make the best decisions for my future. Often the signs I receive are feathers. They come in all shapes sizes and the craziest places.


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Feeling very lost, as I was about to fall asleep, I entered into another dimensional place. I was looking down at myself without any emotion. When I looked to my left it slowly started, a light, as it was coming closer, became brighter. Then, the face of an angel, huge, looking right at me and me at him, right into each other's eyes. Then I was back, fully conscious of the experience. I still have deep moments of sadness about my life, and yet I still can't explain what it was like to look an angel in his eyes and him at mine. Maybe it's a sign of hope.

My brother and sister-in-law are going through a difficult divorce. She is trying to jail him through deceptive and untrue acts. My brother awaits trial tomorrow. Being an avid angel believer, I opened my angel inspiration to a random page for guidance. It told me to send angels to three people: one I know well, one I do not know, and one who is misusing their position of power.

So, that would be, my brother, the judge, my sister-in-law. I went into meditation to initiate this task. It lifted my spirits, and I will send loving thoughts to all. Asking all for their prayers for a positive outcome for all. Love and light! My kids an I were sick one morning and I was so scared. I got on my knees and prayed and I kept calling the name of Jesus. We all felt so much better. He said there was a lady standing there with one hand in the other. It was a great feeling to know someone was watching over us.

I was sitting in my office suffering from a terrible cold. I chanced upon this article, and in the story "I Must Have a Male Angel or Guide," the angel asked the man to breathe. I felt someone telling me to do it, too. And, I did the same, and it worked. My cold disappeared. I am not sneezing anymore and I can complete my work now.

Angles truly exist. Hopefully someday I will be able to see my angel. Thank you, angel! One Wednesday night back in the late 's, I decided to sing for God under the evening stars.


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We live in a semi-rural area, so thankfully I wouldn't be waking anyone up. I suggested to God that He may want to have some angels doctor up my lame singing voice as I'm sure He is used to hearing beautiful angel choirs in the heavenly realms! I sang all of the old hymns to God under the night sky—anything that came to my heart that made me feel closer to Him. While I was singing, I felt a feeling of being surrounded or embraced by love. I smiled at this being still feeling that sense of love surrounding me. Then this light person flew off of the roof and up toward the stars as I stood watching in shock.

I ran inside to excitedly tell my mother. We were both encouraged! My ex-husband was a reiki practitioner and one night he was giving me a treatment for repetitive strain in my shoulders. I was afraid to open my eyes during the treatment because I didn't want to lose my mind's eye view of all the wonderful visitors in our living room. At the same time, I didn't want to discover they were really there! I could see five "people" around the recliner—a Mandarin, a twin boy and girl, a French monk I don't know why I thought he was French , and a girl dressed in a s trenchcoat.

That was weird enough, but when I looked beyond them in my mind's eye, I could see the most beautiful male angel standing at the far end of the room. He had huge white wings which reached right up to the ceiling. I'm sure everyone thinks I'm losing it, but I know what I was experiencing and it was the best encounter ever. The French guy was a bit imposing. I believe that I saw an angel when I was about 6 or 7 years old. It happened on the night before Easter. I had fallen asleep in my parent's bedroom. I woke up and my mom was sitting on the bed.

She told me to go upstairs and to tell my dad to come downstairs, and so I went upstairs to get my dad. As we were both walking towards my parent's bedroom, I saw an angel standing by the bed. She was looking directly at me.

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She was barefoot, and she didn't have a smile on her face or anything, I can't even remember what her mouth looked like but she had blue eyes and long black curly hair and she was wearing a long-sleeved yellow dress with flowers on it, her dress almost looked like a nightgown, she was glowing and she had almost like a white beam of light around her.

As I got closer to her she started to vanish, and once she was completely gone I told my parents that I had just seen an angel. That's the only time I've ever seen her. But I believe that she is my guardian angel. I had taken myself away to spend a few days on my own as a treat. I had booked a lovely room overlooking the bay.

After a hot bath, and half-hour yoga, I sat meditating. This male voice came out of nowhere and shouted, "Breathe! I started to cry and I felt like a child when I started answering that I would. It has puzzled me to this day, but it was then that I started breath meditation. I am I have a close relationship with our heavenly father. My wife was in the hospital having cancer removed from her body. My daughter and I saw her off as she was being prepared for surgery.

I was so scared and in tears trying not to show any sadness. My daughter and I stepped outside and went down the escalator. We were going to go outside to pray again. We have had so many people praying for my wife. As I was going down the escalator I felt something warm, comforting. I happen to look back up the escalator and there stood a man looking at me with this wonderful smile.

I looked at my daughter who had already turned the corner, she looked at me, puzzled. I turned my head again to look at this man. He was still there with this wonderful peaceful smile as if he was proud of us. He was wearing a handsome suit. I guess I turned my head, and he was gone. I quickly ran up the other side which was next to me. He was gone. There was nowhere he could have went. I believe in angels because I have lots of experiences wherein I know they talk to me. Angels don't only watch and guide they also make you a better person. I was in a bad situation two years ago.

I was angry with myself, but I never noticed it. In my dream, there were two men standing on a platform.


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They called me. I noticed three gray stones in their forehead. I don't know why they had that. One guy asked me, "Why are you angry with yourself, what is bothering you, why are you punishing yourself," he said. You have everything. You have a nice family, house, people love you, then why don't you love yourself? I just said, "I am terribly sorry," and I cried. When I woke up, I remembered I was still crying. I felt scared by my experience that time. But it makes me realize that those two guys are correct. I am a happier person now. There are ups and downs in my life but we have to learn to count our blessings.

Recently, I have been experiencing ghostly things in my house and the height of this, I was attacked in the shower. I called a spiritualist to help me. She brought with her two other mediums and they took pictures of my house and talked to me. One of the mediums was also a healer, and he decided that a healing session was needed to help me as it seemed the things that were happening in the house were down to me having a psychic gift. When he was performing this, I was told to bring forward my spirit guide. It soon was obvious that my spirit guide was an angel and not just any angel but the angel Gabriel.

I was told this was very important and that my psychic gift was extraordinarily strong. As a kid, my parents fought like crazy. One night it got so bad, I locked myself in the room and cried for this to stop. As I clenched my sheets, I felt a hand stroke my hair, and I immediately fell asleep and did not wake up till the next day. Remembering this, the next day, I smiled and felt as though nothing happened the night before.

I love my Angel and that's not the only time I've been helped. I feel like they are with me even when I don't deserve them to be. I first heard an angel come to my room when I was sober two years. The angel woke me to tell me my job was to help others. Then I found out there is a way to communicate.

One way is to ask your angels for directions on how to help yourself and others. We are all angels sent by God to help others, we forget after the age of 2. A group of us on Friday nights talk on the phone and pray for others with their angels to help heal others. It is all free. I clean myself before I help others, like the sign of the cross, only a little differently. I encounter my angels every moment and miracles still happen for those we pray for. God is so good he gives us people to help others and gives our life the true purpose of being here: go for the light.

I have four angels since birth. They have saved my life so many times. I love my angels. I was raised Catholic, my mom incorporated angels into our everyday life like to reassure us. For example, thunder is just the angels bowling, and lightning is the angels taking pictures that one led to a bit of danger as we all wanted to run outside and smile at the heavens during a lightning storm.

As an adult, I left the Catholic Church and the saints and angels to explore other spiritual paths. So I was quite surprised when in my mids, Raphael and Uriel came to me. I'd worked as an intuitive healer for years. I said, "I don't work with angels. After a few days, I became used to their presence. Over the next few weeks, they guided me in many ways, including teaching me new healing techniques.

They asked me to be a channel for them, which I continue to be. Raphael has been in the passenger seat telling me to slow down or speed up a bit during snow storms in mountain passes. I live with them, joyfully! When I was little, I was walking with my grandma holding her hand on this trail to the store. Then there was this kid that walked right by me with blond hair and blue eyes. He said, "Hi, Jimmy. I just looked back at him, and he never turned back. My grandma did not seem to notice him either. My husband, six children, and my daughter-in-law lived in the same house.

But one day, my husband and my younger three sons went and stayed at our new place. My oldest daughter was out that night, my oldest son went to work the night shift. So my daughter-in-law, my granddaughter, and I stayed up watching movies. I asked her if she would sleep in my room just for that night.

She did, and in the middle of the night, she woke me up whispering my name cause she said she felt someone open the door very slowly and shut it again very slowly. She was very scared thinking someone broke in. I went real fast to see who it was, but when I went to go look there was smoke all over the house. A fire was starting on my stove.

We must have forgotten that we left a pan on the stove. We ran outside. We believe whoever opened the door was an angel who saved our lives. It wasn't our time to go yet. I do believe in angels. My daughter-in-law felt a presence that woke her up, which was the door being opened. Occasionally, I see a number of purple orbs at the corner of my eye or in the corner of the room. I believe these are my guardian angels. Also, whenever my son is ill in bed at night, I see a purple orb and that is my son's guardian angel looking after him and letting me know he is going to be ok.

It's very comforting. In the dead of the night, an angel whispered loud and urgent to me, "I smell smoke. We lost the house and everything we owned! When I was leaving the grocery store, there was a sweet old lady and she seemed like she had appeared next to me. I was laughing, and when I glanced over at her she had a warm smile on her face. I couldn't help but smile, too. When we were standing outside of the store, she had mumbled, "Now where did I park that car?

My mother then found her car, and she had mentioned it, too. Then the lady said, "I think I parked my car over there, too. I'll just follow you. She had disappeared. I knew this because I had looked from left to right, everywhere she possibly had gone. I just didn't see that smiling face of her's anymore. When we got in the car, I couldn't help myself from smiling, she just made me feel so warm. Three times an angel or angels have intervened and saved my life.

And, these are just the times I can account for. Once when I was 9, my brother, cousin, and I were playing in this empty house where the garage had been left partway open. I was attempting to crawl back out when my cousin had found the opener button on the wall and was pressing it, unknowingly crushing me in the process. My young life flashed before my eyes, and then, right to the side of me my face pressed to the ground , I saw a bright form of feet, legs, and hands. The garage suddenly felt lighter, and I hurried and climbed out from under it just as my cousin sealed the door with him and my brother still inside.

When I was little, I had an imaginary friend who was a lot more real than a pretend one. His name was Michael, and I talked to him often. But that's not the freaky part, my younger sister also had an imaginary friend, and when my parents asked her what the name was, she also said Michael. And she never heard of my pretend friend. I wondered if it was the Angel Michael, protecting my sister and me. Years later, a friend asked a psychic a general question about me.

It was nothing to do with angels or anything.

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One of the first things she said to my friend was, "Tell her that the angel she thinks talked to her as a child, is that angel. And, he's still there, always listening, whenever she wants. I believe that I saw several angels on several occasions. The first sighting was at a devastating fire in West Philadelphia of a church that once was affiliated with the People's Emergency Center. The building was gutted and there appeared to be about two or three pacing back and forth.

Second, two enormous ones, both young, white rather Raphaelite-styled males, about five building-stories high appeared to be standing on either side of Market Street about one block south of City Hall in Again, both appeared to be the rather traditional Raphaelite types in their 20s, who stood about feet tall, walking in a pair together. They strode right directly in front of the bus.

In each case, my mind was on something entirely unrelated, as were my tasks, to anything except the most mundane activities of walking, bussing, and thinking about personal matters, but there they were! My mum died in July I not only lost my mum but my best friend also. We always believed in fortune telling and I had had a very bad experience in her bedroom a few years before she became very ill. I was visited by what I can only explain as an evil spirit. I felt I was being crushed into the bed and could not breathe. My mum witnessed this.

The air in the room was icy cold, and she could see her breath. The only way it stopped was when she started saying the Lord's Prayer. I was sore all over my body, especially my neck and shoulders for a few days. After my mum died, I was afraid to try to make contact and I was unhappy, sad, and very lonely. After a year, I was walking past the holistic center where I live and was drawn to angel card readings.

I made an appointment. And, how my life has turned around is unbelievable. The lady who gave the reading is not a medium, but my mum came through and was standing on my right side. I felt her presence and I broke down. I had just done the reiki. At night I could not sleep. Around midnight, I felt that I was floating, though I was still in bed. When I opened my eyes, I saw the whole room was filled with white shadows, but I was not scared, and I tried to make out what they were.

Then, I realized they were the angels, which were circling around my room. The feeling was so nice and comfortable that I did not wish the night to end. When I was being attuned for the third master reiki, though my eyes were closed, I felt Jesus beaming on me I am a Hindu. After the attunement, when I opened my eyes, I saw Jesus as a boy in gold.

Jesus was talking to me saying that I have to heal as many people I can, and I will go a long way in this treatment of people. Every time I do healing, I always call on the angels. When I feel or sense them, I start the treatment.

I know that I am always with my angels and a guarding angel.