Crisis Management at the Speed of the Internet: Trend Report
Much of that early research is now starting to bear fruit in operational systems, Karn said. In the early to mids, advanced mobile phone service AMPS , which uses traditional analog voice modulation, was developed and deployed. The major innovation was its use of digital control channels, so that calls could be switched automatically from one cell site to another, allowing the user to treat an AMPS cellular telephone in much the same manner as a wireline telephone.
In the late s, demand for cellular telephone service increased. Qualcomm started trying to apply well-established spread-spectrum techniques to improve the efficiency of cellular telephony.
In the early s, the company launched tests of code division multiple access CDMA , which is based on the spread-spectrum technologies used in the military. At that time there were a number of competing digital systems. By the mids, digital cellular systems were widely deployed. Similar underlying technologies, particularly high-speed digital signal processing, video compression, and audio compression, are used in the direct broadcasting satellite business, which is among the most rapidly developing consumer technologies. Low-Earth-orbit satellite networks are close to commercial operation and, if successful, will provide access to disaster-stricken remote areas where there is no cellular coverage.
The prices are relatively low compared to those for today's satellite systems but are high enough that competition with a terrestrial system will be difficult. Therefore, many see these satellite services primarily as a way of filling in the gaps in terrestrial cellular coverage in remote areas. Another interesting development is Part 15 ad hoc networks. Certain segments of radio spectrum are set aside for use by low-power devices that meet a relatively simple set of technical requirements.
Metricoms's Ricochet modems are an example of a Part 15 ad hoc network that employs a mesh network topology. Efforts are also finally under way to set wireless standards for the next generation of wireless telephony, which, given the multitude of possible design choices in digital systems, is important.
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This is an important issue for emergency communications because interoperability problems inhibit rapid network deployment. Historically, the wireless industry has been characterized by proprietary protocols, and getting true inter-. Advances in digital wireless have been enabled by four important technologies. Spread-spectrum technologies simplify spectrum management and can enhance privacy.
Because the industry is close to the theoretical channel capacity limits established by Claude Shannon in the s, low-bit-rate voice coding is increasingly important. Error-control coding is another enabling technology that maximizes system capacity. In addition, application-specific integrated circuits have been crucial to making these systems work efficiently at low power. Further increases in system capacity will come at high costs. Companies could deploy more and smaller cells, use directional antennas, or implement more flexible channel management strategies. A recent FCC mandate to improve capabilities for pinpointing the positions of cellular telephones when they are used to report emergencies of course has direct implications for crisis management.
Existing technologies can only identify in which cell the caller is located. Particularly relevant to crisis management is the provision of data services by wireless carriers.
Crisis Management at the Speed of the Internet - 1st Edition
In the early s, carriers developed cellular digital packet data CDPD , an overlay for the existing AMPS analog network, to provide some basic capability to send Internet Protocol IP data packets over cellular frequencies. CDPD systems are also slow, and the wider the area covered, the slower a system will be. Furthermore, CDPD is expensive; charges when the service was first offered were about 15 cents per kilobyte.
The low adoption rate was interpreted as being indicative of low demand for wireless data services. CDPD is now being sold by carriers on a flat-rate basis, and its use is increasing.
The potential exists to provide support for IP packet data in digital cellular services. The existing infrastructure generally does not support this capability, in part because the transition to digital services was managed for fast deployment of voice-only service. This situation is beginning to change. A related trend is the development of new modulation and channel-access schemes specifically designed for packet data instead of voice. For many years it has provided support for emergency and disaster communications.
Today, as cellular telephones and other commercial systems are meeting most of the operational requirements for disaster communications, the primary role of amateur packet radio has shifted toward technical experimentation and education. Instead of guaranteeing a particular quality of service, these systems perform the best they can in current conditions, optimizing overall system throughput. Daniel Siewiorek of Carnegie Mellon University discussed trends in wearable computers. He demonstrated an early-generation wearable computer that was designed in about and supported a marine in performing a element inspection of an amphibious tractor.
This system, which employed a head-mounted display to replace a clipboard, was awkward to use in many situations. It did not use voice input, which might be overheard by an enemy, but relied instead on a keypad interface. Field studies showed that the wearable computer saved 70 percent of the time needed to perform an inspection and enter the data into a logistics computer that would then generate work orders for mechanics. To indicate the possible roles of wearable computers, an analogy between computing and electrical motors is useful.
About years ago, big dynamos produced energy, and people brought their work e. Later, the fractional-horsepower motor was invented, and it could be incorporated into an individual drill press and moved out into small job shops.
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Today, a car may have 50 electric motors, which pop the gas tank lid, run the windshield wipers, lock the doors, and so on. Their function is transparent to the user; there is no need for a page user's manual to unlock a car. Wearable computers are likely to follow analogous trends toward pervasive deployment of computer devices.
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One forecast is that a user might have five IP addresses assigned to his or her body. As electronics become faster, smaller, and more portable, human factor issues are becoming more important, because it is not yet known how humans will interact with wearable technology.
A considerable amount of experimentation is under way in this area. For example, researchers at Carnegie Mellon University have built 16 generations of wearable com-. Placement at some regions of the body may be more favorable because a device will move less as a person goes through the motions of a task.
On the other hand, the degree to which device weight and thickness affect task performance and comfort can vary with body location.
Crisis Management at the Speed of the Internet
Body heat and device heat conduction also can affect wearer comfort significantly. A wearable device can act as a vapor barrier, affecting the comfort of a wearer working on an airplane in a hot environment. Intel Corporation discovered that a person's lap is more sensitive to dissipated heat than the fingers. Laptop computers are now designed to dissipate heat without making the user feel uncomfortable, for example by dumping heat through the keyboard.
Researchers have found that users tend to have high expectations for wearable devices. The user of a wearable computer is much less patient than one using a desktop model, expects an instant response to inputs, and wants the computer to be as easy to use as a flashlight. The demand is for a device that a user can simply turn on and operate, without recourse to a user's manual.
Siewiorek also noted potential hazards in the use of this technology. Given too much information, the user may focus too heavily on the computer and lose touch with the physical world. Interaction design is also a significant issue. Users may also lose initiative, doing only what the computer tells them to do. Applying Moore's law to the computing power needed to support human interfaces, one can predict the performance and styles of interfaces that will become feasible.
In the early s, computers could perform about 1 million instructions per second MIPS , enough to support a textual alphanumeric interface with a keyboard. Graphical user interfaces with a mouse and icons became supportable when processor speeds reached 10 MIPS. Energy is a key factor driving wearable computer technology. Indeed, more than half of the weight of today's wearable devices is in batteries. Projections show that it is possible to reduce energy use by an order of magnitude, but that as this is done, the fraction of the total energy used by the various system components shifts.
He is a frequent speaker at key industry events. He is a leading expert on security issues and has been quoted by such major media outlets as the Wall Street Journal and Forbes. Bob is currently the managing director of the Security Executive Council. Kathleen Kotwica has a PhD in experimental psychology from DePaul University and has had a career as a researcher and knowledge strategist.
In her current role as EVP and chief knowledge strategist at the Security Executive Council she leads the development and production of Council tools, solutions, and publications. She additionally conducts industry research and analysis to improve security and risk management practices. Show More Table of Contents 1. Understanding Threats from New Internet Technologies 2.
Examples of Internet-Based Incidents 3. A Comprehensive Approach to Internal Communications. See All Customer Reviews. Shop Books. Read an excerpt of this book! Add to Wishlist. USD Sign in to Purchase Instantly. Overview Crisis Management at the Speed of the Internet provides security executives and practitioners with an overview of the potentially harmful impact of social media communication on corporate reputation.
Provides security executives and practitioners with an overview of the potentially harmful impact of social media communication on corporate reputation Cites examples of companies that have experienced this kind of threat and describes the successes or failures of their responses Describes practical, strategic methods for mitigating and resolving a crisis. About the Author Bob Hayes has more than 25 years of experience developing security programs and providing security services for corporations, including eight years as the CSO at Georgia Pacific and nine years as security operations manager at 3M.
Show More. There is always something to learn when you see another company have an ORM crisis. Here is what we learned from the 3 companies above:. Plan ahead.
Passing the mic to you. Do you have any examples or advice for managing a crisis on social media? Suggest a topic Suggest a topic Request a feature Report a bug. Your feedback must contain at least 3 words 10 characters. Please enter valid email. Please provide us with a valid email address so we could reply to you. Send feedback Cancel. Thank you for your feedback! Submit post. Go to Blog. Nadia Nazarova June 9, The Wow-Score shows how engaging a blog post is.
Learn more. Brand Management Social Media. Nadia Nazarova. Senior Product Marketing Manager at Semrush. Has 8 years of experience in product marketing and management for IT and finance companies. Truly passionate about content creation, marketing strategies, and growth hacking. Always have a crazy idea to try and a story to tell. Copy link. Comments Notify me about new comments. You'll get notified of new comments on this post by email. Really good case study! These cases will teach me to what to pay attention when managing PR social media.