Gewalt an Schulen und mögliche Präventionen (German Edition)

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From: Antiq. More information about this seller Contact this seller 4. More information about this seller Contact this seller 5. Published by Beltz Verlag From: biblion2 Obersulm, Germany. About this Item: Beltz Verlag, Condition: Good. Gebundene Ausgabe. Sofortversand aus Deutschland. Artikel wiegt maximal g. Seller Inventory s. More information about this seller Contact this seller 6. Item added to your basket View basket. Proceed to Basket. View basket. Continue shopping. Results 1 - 6 of 6. Search Within These Results:.

Gegen Gewalt in der Schule. From: medimops Berlin, Germany Seller Rating:. Seller Image. Note: As the author told me, the absolute effect size differences of the mean scores between dogmatic-religiously raised and other university students was huge, namely 31,7 C-points on a scale from 0 to ! My graph on the basis of the data of Asli Akin's study; personal communication. Lind, G. How to Teach Morality. Promoting deliberation and discussion, reducing violence and deceit.

Berlin: Logos. Moralerziehung auf den Punkt gebracht. Moral ist lehrbar. Hemmerling, Kay Morality behind bars - An intervention study on fostering moral competence of prisoners as a new approach to social rehabilitation. Frankfurt: Peter Lang. Althof, Wolfgang Just community course and transformations: A conceptual archeology of Kohlberg's approach to moral and democratic education. In: B. Zizek, D. Nowak, eds. Amsterdam: Sense. Apel, Karl-Otto Diskurs und Verantwortung. Frankfurt: Suhrkamp Original Arimond, Fabian Dieser deutet allerdings auf eine Verschlechterung der Dopingeinstellungen in Folge der Trainingsintervention hin.

This speaks for a worthening of doping attitudes as a consequence of the training intervention. One would have to conceptualize and evaluate another, more effective alternative. Study: The participants were young people who were active in some sport, of ages 12 to Results: Smal decrease of moral judgment competence. The Ethical Decison Training proved to be ineffective. Note: As the author told me, the absolute effect size differences of the mean scores between dogmatic-religiously raised and other university students was huge, namely 31,8 C-points on a scale from 0 to !

Ayers, W. Review of How to teach morality: Promoting deliberation and discussion, reducing violence and deceit, by G. Education Review, Bergmann, Robert Kongress "Werte machen stark".


The effect of classroom moral discussion upon children's level of moral judgment. Journal of Moral, Education, 4, - Their dilemma method stimulated a gain of moral judgment competence as measured with Kohlberg's Moral Judgment Interview, MJI by roughly one half Kohlbergian Stage, as compared to no change in the control group see their Table 2 below. For making gains through this method, young school students from lower social class background depend more on well trained teachers than do students from a more afluent background.

Lind did a meta-analyssis of about experimental studies up until , using the dilemma discussion method by Blatt and Kohlberg. There were no negative effects either. Blatt, M. Hypothetical dilemmas for use in moral discussions. Bok, Derek Can ethics be taught? Change , 26 - Bongermino, Diana Boss, J. The effect of community service work on the moral development of college ethics students.

Journal of Moral Education, 23, Broughton, J. Criticism of the Developmental Approach to Morality. Canary, Heather E. Communication Education, 56, 2, Study: "A survey was distributed in the third week of classes to assess moral-judgment competence and gather demographic information. Students completed the same survey of moraljudgment competence in the last regular class meeting of the semester. The posttest also included items regarding perceptions of ethics instruction in each course A unit on ethics was included toward the end of each course. Ethics courses focused on dominant ethics theories as well as specific ethical issues in various communication contexts.

The posttest included one item about the degree to which ethical issues were addressed in the class, with response choices ranging from 1 not at all to 7 very much. Six instructional methods were listed, and participants placed check marks next to ways the instructor addressed ethics in the course. Findings: "As Table 2 indicates, posttest scores were significantly higher when class discussion was not used to address ethics than when it was.

However, as Table 3 indicates, the degree to which ethics were addressed was significantly higher when class discussion was used than when it was not. These results were the opposite of the predicted relationship between course focus and moral competence. Cern, Karolina M. Is a construction of life-worlds possible?

In: E. Nowak, D. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang Verlag. People can reasonably change their legal or political order to achieve the well-ordered society, but they cannot. Can the KMDD contribute to the construction of their life-worlds? Chaganti, Vinay A study of moral judgment competence among Indian students. This article attempts to study the moral judgment competence among the students of a university.

The results of this study were partly confirming and partly contrasting with the literature. While the presence of a course in ethics does not seem to make much difference in moral judgment competence, gender seems to have had a strong impact. One of the earlier assumptions of cultural differences as a reason for different moral judgment competence has also been tested and identified to be operational. Overall, this article reviews the moral judgment competence and presents an empirical study of the same among Indian students.

Study: Post-post design. No further information e. The no-effect finding of ethics course participants supports other studies that found no effect of ethics course on moral competence development. The sex-related differences are rather unusual. They may be caused by differences in regard to year of study or field of study. Overall the average C-score is lower than we should expect of university students. The author offers some explanations but gives no evidence.

Her suggestion to change the measurment instrument ignores the fact a that this would make comparision of findings impossible, and b that the MCT has shown to be transculturally valid in many studies e. Other explanations are more likely. Key words: Ethics course, moral competence development, MCT, sex differences; cultural differences. Moral dilemma discussions: An effective group intervention for juvenile offenders. Journal for Specialists in Group Work, 25 4 , December , The treatment group participated in 10 sessions of moral reasoning groups.

Results indicated that discussion groups helped improve the behavior of the male and female treatment groups Intervention study: The experimental group was composed of four treatment groups with six participants in each group. One male and one female group were conducted twice a week for 5 weeks.

Typically, the youth were seen on Tuesdays and Fridays The treatment groups participated in 10 moral dilemma discussion sessions, which lasted 1 hour each. Note: Although ten dilemma discussions were run, the increase in preferences for principled moral reasoning is very small. The femal control group increased the same amount. Only the male control goup decreased their P-score probably because they increase their Stage 4 preference so much. The increase of preference for Stage 4 orientations seems to be largely due to social desirability because the offenders could increase their "days earned" by conforming behavior and my minimizing their infractions.

Authors' explanation for weak effects: "It is also possible that the DIT may not adequately assess the moral reasoning of juvenile offenders. Abstract: "Should you sacrifice one man to save five? Whatever your answer, it should not depend on whether you were asked the question in your native language or a foreign tongue so long as you understood the problem.

And yet here we report evidence that people using a foreign language make substantially more utilitarian decisions when faced with such moral dilemmas. We argue that this stems from the reduced emotional response elicited by the foreign language, consequently reducing the impact of intuitive emotional concerns. In general, we suggest that the increased psychological distance of using a foreign language induces utilitarianism. This shows that moral judgments can be heavily affected by an orthogonal property to moral principles, and importantly, one that is relevant to hundreds of millions of individuals on a daily basis.

Comment: The authors' conclusion rest not only on data but also on unproven assumptions. They assume that the choices in their hypothetical dilemma stories "Swich" - trolley dilemma; "Footbridge" - pushing a "fat man" from a bridge to safe the life of several people represent real choices, that is, choices which are connected with real emotions. Otherwise they could not support their far-reaching conclusions. However, this is a questionable assumption.

These two dilemma-scenarios are extremely unlikely to occur in life, and the choices that the participants are allowed to make are extremely restricted. They do not allow to engage in a moral deliberation but force them to think only in terms of crude utilitarianism Jeremy Bentham would be surprised about it.

In my opinion these situations are not moral at all. The authors try to explain decision-making on hypothetical dilemmas. We know that many factors influence such decisions, and changing the story a little bit, can change the decisions very much. The question is: do we need to know all possible factors which influence decisions on hypothetical dilemmas?

Is is important at all? Does it allow us to make any predictions? Does it help us to understand people's moral behavior in real life settings? My suspicion is: no! After two decades of research using this emotion-utilitarian paradigm has not resulted in any uuseful theory or therapy or educational method. Delors, J. Neuwied: Luchterhand. Moral children - moral classrooms : Creating aconstructivist atmosphere in early education.

New York: Teacher College Press. Second edition. DeVries, R. Piaget's social theory. Educational Researcher, 26 2 , Edmiaston, R. Developing constructivist early childhood curriculum. New York: Teachers College Press. What does research on constructivist education tell us about effective schooling? Des Moines, IA. Dewey, John Demokratie und Erziehung [Democracy and Education].

Braunschweig: Georg Westermann Verlag Original Dey E. Engaging diverse viewpoints: What is the campus climate for perspective taking? Download: www. In the US, higher education's emphasis on perspectice seems to diminish from first year to last year of study. Dickerson, S, S. Acute sressors and cortisol responses: a theoretical integration and sythesis of laboratory research. Psychological Bulletin, , 3, Finding: Speaking in the public is a big stress factor for many people. In combination with a cognitive task, it is a really big stress factor.

At a certain point, this stress is creating such high anxiety that performance suffers and little is needed to cause flight or aggression. Therefore, it is very important for democratic interaction to keep the stress level at a tolerable size. The KMDD does this by using fictitious protragonists and ruling out any evaluation of people. Dobbelstein, P. Das Kohlberg-Konzept der moralischen Kompetenzentwicklung. Theorie und Ansatzpunkte einer schulpraktischen Umsetzung. This means that unnecessary external control, punishment, and excessive praise are absent.

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Rather, logical consequences in which the consequence has logical, non-arbitrary relation to the misdeed impress upon children the results of their action, with the goal of the construction of moral convictions. Einstein, Albert My years later.

  1. 9783407857095 - Gegen Gewalt in Der Schule.
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Philosophical Library Inc. Wenn die Schule von diesem Standpunkt aus erfolgreich arbeitet, wird sie reichlich belohnt werden durch die kommende Generation, und die Aufgaben der Schule werden wie eine Art Geschenk behandelt. Ich kannte Kinder, die die Schule den Ferien vorzogen. Fajardo, Marco Web more. Fenton, E. Developing moral dilemmas for social studies classes. PDF protected. Frank, H.

7 Decades of Quintessence Publishing - Quintessence Publishing Deutschland

Frankfurt am Main: Peter LangVerlag. And the core problem lies precisely at the point bctween ability and obligation because many people in this countrv have grown accustomed to a democratic government. People get the impression that democracy and its moral foundat ions are granted. The question of how we can enable people lo live in a dermocratic way is one of the most important questions today.

Fuchs, M. Glasstetter, Stefan Excerpt from Glasstetter, , Table 6. Obviously, with his dilemma discussions and just community meetings, Glasstetter was able to prevent inmates' loss of moral judgment competence as measured with Lind's MJT which seems to prevail in institutions of corrections.

For a regression effect in prisons, see McPhail, Gomberg, S. Leading dilemma discussions: A workshop. Pittsburg: Carnegie-Mellon University. PDF excerpts, protected. Gonzales, Jackeline Kohlbergian educational intervention program with high school students. Universidad de Monterrey. A group of 22 high school students 16 to 18 years received two Kohlbergian dilemma discussions for 12 weeks, that is 24 sessions altogther. A control group of 27 students received no treatment. Comment: Unusual many sessions produced no measurable progress of moral competence as measured with the MCT.

The authors discuss severy possible reasons for this ineffectivity. But they forget to mention that moral education is difficult and the method of dilemma discussion requires thorough training. This was not the case here. If a method is used by an untrained teacher, it does not produce the expected effects regardless of how often it is used.

Key words: Dilemma discussion, efficacy, effect size, MCT, teacher training. Gonzales, C. Evaluating Moral Schemata Learning. Implications for moral education and moral cognitive modeling are presented. Gooldsby, L. University of Northern Iowa. Wenn ein Freund nicht teilen will 13 Seiten. Wenn ein Freund mehr isst als ihm zusteht 9 Seiten.

Laminiert und mit Stahlringbindung. Herausgegeben und verlegt von Georg Lind Druck auf Wunsch. Grabow, Mainard Frankfurt: Lang. Grintsch, Juliane Dilemmadiskussion und Debatte im Vergleich. Welche Bildungsziele lassen sich mit diesen Methoden erreichen? Which educational aims are compatible with these methods? Welche rhetorischen Mittel haben beide angewandt, um an ihr Ziel zu kommen. Gross, Michael. Ethics and activism: The theory and practice of political morality.

This publication reports about three empirical studies by the author on the moral judgment competence a of members of the peace now movement and the sttlers movement oin Israel, b of pro life and pro choice activists regarding the abortion issue, and c of people who have saved Jews during World War II in France and the Netherlands. Gross, Nadja Application of the Konstanz Method of Dilemma Discussion in French class and its impact on pupil well-being.

Abstract: Georg Lind further developed a method for the support of the cognitive abilities that goes back to Moshe Blatt and Lawrence Kohlberg. Its application to foster moral judgment competence has already been tested and confirmed numerous times. In particular, competencies such as the respectful handling of one other, listening to, getting to know and evaluating different arguments and opinions, and attempting to come to terms with difficult, realistic situations, are fostered.

Gross, N. The language of love?! Invited presentation at the international conference "Can morality be taught? Is it a competence? Gutmann, Amy Democratic education. The pessimism would also have to include auhtority: The authority or master, who is to instill morality into the young, Kant says, is also "an animal which needs a master". Moralbewusstsein und kommunikatives Handeln.

Frankfurt: Suhrkamp. Habermas, J. Moral consciousness and communicative action. Introduction by Thomas McCarthy. Harding, Carol Gibb Moral Dilemmas and Ethical Reasoning. Read online. Studies in the nature of character. I: Studies in deceit, Book one and two. New York: Macmillan. See also here. The X-boys are those participants in the experimenty by Hartshorne and May , who recieved an additional ethics instruction: advocation of values, presentation of moral role models, and documentation of good deeds. The graph shows that especially those showed the most violations of moral norms who received special ethics intructions and incentives for moral behavior.

Obviously, indoctrination, value trnasmission, and propadanga for moral ideals as practived in the ethics instruction, are no adequate methods for moral education. Hartshorne and May did not find a positive correlation between honest behavior and length of ethics instruction. For a more extensive discussion see Kietzig , in German.


Hemmerling has done one of the best studies about the efficacy of an intervention in correctional institutions. The KMDD works! It takes just a few sessions directed by a well-trained KMDD-Teacher to produce strong increase of the inmates ability to solve problems and conflicts through thinking and discussion rather than violence andf deceit. In other words, his study shows that we must no longer condone the regression of moral competence of people as a consequence of the deprived learning environment of prisons.

The message of this book is: We can prevent criminal behavior by fostering delinquents' moral competence through adequate methods and adequately trained teachers for this method. Let us begin. Hemmerling, K. The keys of cognition: Insights into moral and democratic education in prison. In doing so, many of them discover their own moral principles.

In this way, offenders can somehow "reinvent" moral thinking and moral behavior for themselves. The regression of moral judgment competence can be diminished. Schildknecht, eds.

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Herrmann, Ulrich, ed. Weinheim: Beltz. Herrmann, U. Mit dem neuen Begriff tauchen altbekannte Konzept in neuem Gewand auf, ohne dass sie dadurch besser werden. Aber durch den Auszug aus der Schule allein ist es nicht getan, wenn wir nicht auch aus unserem alten Denken ausziehen. Eigene Haltungen und Orientierungen zu haben, ist ein Menschenrecht. Welchen Lebensweg strebt er oder sie an? Ethics and professionalism in medicine: Cross-curricular integration of ethical basis for medicine students.

George Lind at the University of Konstanz. Hesse, Reinhard Worum geht es in der Philosophie? Grundfragen der Philosophie zwischen Wahrheit und Macht. Berlin: LIT Verlag. Hilligen, W. Sievering, ed. Frankfurt a. Hook, S. Dewey, Moral principles in education , pp. Moral education according to Dewey is "to teach all subjects in such a way as to bring out and make focal their social and personal aspects, stressing how human beings are affected by them, pointing up the responsiblities that flow from their interrelatedness.

In the teaching of geography, 'the ultimate significance of lake, river, mountain, and plain is not physical but social; it is the part which it plays in modifying and irecting human relationships. Huang, Viola Laying the foundations for democratic behavior — A comparison of three different approaches to democratic education. Huber, Rudi Evaluation einer Intervention bei jugendlichen Strafgefangenen. Diplomarbeit, FG Psychologie.

Huber convened an intervention study with juvenile prisoners, all with long sentences because of murder charge. His study shows that dilemma discussion may not have any stimulating effect on moral competence when the teacher does not have a thorugh training in the method. Huber convened four dilemma-discussion events according to the method by Blatt and Kohlberg Jefferson, Th.

Jumpertz, Sylvia Vom Zustand des Anstands. Moral im Management. Ob Entscheidungen in der Lebenspraxis immer oder auch nur oft "logisch argumentierend angegangen" werden sollen, ist als unrealistisch zu bewerten. Entscheidungen im Alltag verlangen meist sehr schnelle Entscheidungen auf der Grundlage unzureichender Informationen.

Die meisten Menschen haben, wie sehr viele Studien mit dem MUT gezeigt haben, eine relativ niedrige moralische Kompetenz. Ein Kompetenz, die nicht in Taten umgesetzt wird, ist keine Kompetenz. Ein Dilemma liegt eben 'im Auge des Betrachters'. Juul, Jesper Aus Erziehung wird Beziehung. Freiburg: Herder.

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  • KMDD references.
  • Kammerer, T. Abschlussarbeit zur Erlangung des Grads B. Kang, L. Learning global citizenship skills in a democratic setting: An analysis of the efficacy of a moral development method applied in China. In: Filozofia Publiczna i Edukacja Demokratyczna. Tom III, , Numer 2, pp. It is built upon the theories of Kohlberg, yet focuses on moral judgment and democratic decision-making competence. Lind designed a scale based on his dual-aspect theory, and suggested a follow-up method for building up moral competence.

    KMDD has been used in Germany and other countries for many years and has achieved positive results when applied. The initial application of this type of method in China started in Participants were set as the control and experiment groups. After analysing the preand-post-test data from all the participants, the result shows that the intervention effect with experiment groups was very significant with a noticeable Absolute Effect Size of C-score, while the competence score of control group regressed sharply due to reasons to be identified.

    Data from the experiment were analysed and intervention results were compared, to examine the efficacy of the method and to evaluate further application and research of KMDD in China. Vorsicht Stufe! Ein Kommentar zur Stufentheorie der moralischen Entwicklung. A commentary on the stage theory of moral development. Portele, ed. My transl. Kim, Soyoung A comparative study on measurement instruments for moral judgment: selecting an appropriate instrument Paper presented at the meeting of the AERA, San Francisco, April 10, Summary: In a direct comparison between the DIT's P-score and the MJT's C-score, the latter showed to be more sensitive to the effects of an educational intervention than the former 12,9 versus 9,0 points gain.

    Kirschenmann, Martina Unpublished diploma master thesis, University of Konstanz, Dept. Klein, P. Sozialwissenschaftliches Inastitut der Bundeswehr, Strausberg.

    Jugendliche in Nachkriegsgesellschaften

    Kohlberg, Lawrence The development of modes of moral thinking and choice in the years 10 to University of Chicago, Unpublished Dissertation. Dual-aspect theory: "A systematic general observation of moral behavior, attitudes, or concepts in terms of such set of formal criteria of morality Kohlberg, L. Development of moral character and moral ideology. Hoffman, eds. I, pp. New York: Russel Sage Foundation. Education, moral development and faith. Journal of Morel Education, 4 , 1, 5 - Essays on moral development, Vol.

    II, The psychology of moral development. All of us recognize this is intuitively incorrect, since moral exemplars like Socrates, Gandhi, and Martin Luther King consistently acted in opposition to, and in order to change, social norms -- in terms if the moral principles of Stage 5 or 6. Thus, it is the overcoming of these situational pressures on either a verbal or a physical level that constitutes the test of moral behavior. The test constructor must postulate structure from the start, as opposed to inductively finding structure in content after the test is made.

    They are the realization of the 'archetypical' structure in actuality, under special conditions. One might say that the hypothetical structure is the principle of organization of the responses. To treat is on the same level as the responses would be, in Ryle's sense, to commit a category mistake.

    The Just Community approach to moral education in theory and practice. In: W. Oser, eds. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. However, while the intervention operation was a success, the partient died: that is, we went back a year later and found that not a single teacher continued to do moral discussion after the commitment to the research had ended. In other words, it didn't speak enough to the teachers' and students' needs, eben though it did lead to a one-third stage change. Kritik: Unsere Meta-Analysen Lind, von ca.

    Kohlberg's observation that a year later no teacher continued to use this method, had, as we know today, other reasons than those which Kohlberg mentions. Not a lack of techers' and students' need for this method was the cause, but a the lack of training of the teachers "ordinary teachers Kohlberg's and his followers' turning way from the dilemma method was premature.

    Lind, H. Wakenhut, Eds. Rutgers, NJ: Transaction Books, second edition. First edition by Precedent Publishing , pp. Online reading. Kohlberg acknowledges that with the MCT "a scoring algorithm can be arrived at for assigning pure stage structure score for an individual. Jenseits von Befehl und Gehorsam. Die Konstanzer Methode oder wie Bundeswehr-Soldaten lernen sollen, moralisch richtige Entscheidungen zu treffen.

    Kohr, H. Wertewandel und Soziomoral: Auswirkungen auf die Bundeswehr. Koszinoffski, Rafaela Lind ]. With this study, Rafaela Koszinoffski has taken a new approach to assessing the efficacy of teacher continuing education. Instead of asking the teachers to self-assess their efficacy, she used an objective test of moral competence the MCT to measure the real learning progress of theses teachers' students, with a prestest-posttest design. This way it was possible see whether and how much a training program for teachers affected the moral development of the students of these teachers.

    Inspite of the small sample of teachers and their students for which she could obtain complete data sets, it was possible to draw some conclusions because the findings were clear-cut: Only the students of the teachers who completed their training showed, at average, a measurable increase of moral competence after a KMDD-session. The students of the teachers without a complete training did not show any progress. GL Krappmann, L. Die Sozialwelt der Kinder und ihre Moralentwicklung. Edelstein, F.

    Schuster, eds. Nicht nur der Zeitdruck, unter dem Unterricht oft stehen, sondern auch Scheu, Konflikte aufzugreifen, ist da verantwortlich. Kuhn, Deanna The skills of argument. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Schule und Werteerziehung. Ein Werkstattbericht. Lerkiatbundit, S. Randomized controlled study of the impact of the Konstanz method of dilemma discussion on moral judgement. Journal of Allied Health, 35 2 , - Overall, the scale satisfies four validity criteria: preference hierarchy, quasi-simplex structure of stage preference, affective-cognitive parallelism, and positive correlation between education and moral competence score C-index.

    Test-retest reliability with onemonth interval was 0. Lesniewska, A. Lickona, Thomas Wie man gute Kinder erzieht! Die meisten Menschen zeigen eine Mischung von Argumentationsformen und ein Anpassung ihrer Argumentation an die unterschiedlichen moralischen Anforderungen verschiedener Lebenssituationen.

    Diese Bindung an die eigenen Moralprinzipien ist nicht einfach. Aber dies erfordert hohe Moralkompetenz. Mehr dazu in meinem Buch: Lind Lienemann, A. Die Konstanzer Methode der Dilemmadiskussion im Englischunterricht. An intervention study on the sstimulation of moral judgment competence and communicative competence]. Sie erfahren, dass auch andere Fehler machen und deswegen nicht kritisiert werden. My translation: "Conclusion In this study, we could not show an increase of moral judgment competence. The sample was too small to produce a significant gain of the C-score. However, thios study could how that through the KMDD negative emotions and attitudes which can prevent the fostering of communicative competence can be lowered.

    During the dilemma discussion, in which the teacher steps into the background, the students experience that it is not necessary to speak an absolutely fluent and error-free English in order to express their opinion. They experience that others also make mistakes and are not criticized for this. This helps the to engage more intesively in the communication, which enhances their self-confidence and reinforces their interests and views in social settings. The visiting English teacher expressed her surprise about the high participation of her students and about the quality of their reasoning.

    Especially teacher students should get training in this method. Moral competence and education in democratic society. Weingartner, eds. Dordrecht: Reidel, pp. A fictitious interview on school, democracy, and cognitive-moral development. Raschert, eds. Eine Auseinandersetzung mit Lawrence Kohlberg. Weinheim: Beltz, pp. Pollitt-Gerlach, eds. Zu einer partnerschaftlichen Ethik in Erziehung und Gesellschaft. On a cooperative ethics in education and society].

    Heidelberg: Asanger, pp. Moralerziehung als demokratische Bildung. What do educators know about their students? A study of pluralistic ignorance. Svik, eds. Frankfurt, Bern: Peter Lang, pp. Klasse, Realschule. The importance of role-taking opportunities for self-sustaining moral development. Journal of Research in Education 10 1 , 9 - Ist Moral lehrbar? Ergebnisse der modernen moralpsychologischen Forschung.