Le musée de linnocence (Folio) (French Edition)

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Wikipedia entry. Introduction Pierre Alechinsky born 19 October is a Belgian artist. He has lived and worked in France since His work is related to tachisme, abstract expressionism, and lyrical abstraction. Vicente Saraiva. A different geographical region and different issues are the topic of the manuscript marked with signature Hisp. The contents of the manuscript refer to statistical data regarding trade import and export conducted in the Philippines in the years Three annexes in the form of tables with numerical data are attached to the report.

For this short listing it would be hard to remain silent over the manuscript. This Jesuit missionary, born on Sicily, whose real name was Pablo Restivo , had spent almost fifty years of his life in Paraguay, devoted to preaching the gospels to Indians and educating them, and also teaching the Guarani language to missionaries and catechists. Based on these experiences he had created a few works, including the Vocabulario mentioned above, which we can describe as a certain kind of dictionaries of Spanish and Guarani with elements of grammar.

In a way it is composed of three parts: a letter in French most likely an original , and handwritten copies of two Spanish reports of travels from the Age of Exploration and overseas expansion of Spain. Manuscript a fols. From the contents of the letter, addressed to Alexander von Humboldt and dated December 12th, Paris , we infer that Jacquet had become interested in the manuscripts in the collection of the Paris library considering them to had not been hitherto published. The transcripts of both manuscripts had probably been created at a time around the date of writing of the letter by Jacquet, they were supplemented with notes and glosses of the copyist, and with comments in French on the originals kept at the National Library in Paris.

Apart from this, on fol. In this volume we also find two notes in German, signed E. Buschmann and Humboldt, respectively. Dated Berlin, March 31st, , this note was probably made at the time the volume was already in possession of the library of Berlin? Saint-Germain The historical and textological research conducted with relation to the volume denoted Hisp. Humboldt left it to the Royal Library at Berlin. The text was published by Dr Pietschmann of Gottingen in Data from the English-language study, however, does not seem to be completely precise, because it suggests that Jacquet had in his possession the Spanish-language original of the report, and not its transcript.

On the other hand, this quote confirms that the manuscript created by Jacquet had in the end arrived at the Library of Berlin as a gift from Alexander von Humboldt. This is hinted at by its editions in Spanish, English and French which were prepared in this period. The manuscript bearing the signature Hisp. It is a list, in the form of an overview or handbook, of the most important information concerning the history of Latin American literature.

Another broad study on J. Gutierrez had sent me in the year this hitherto unpublished manuscript, for printing. Basing on the contents of the above listed notes one may infer about the fate of the manuscript as follows: - regarding the authorship as well as the date and location of its creation — it was created by J. As already noted, the Berlin collection does not miss manuscripts thematically referring to the Philippine Archipelago, i.

It covers handwritten materials 14 quires, a to o , in which the informative and descriptive information is supplemented by plates as well as seven maps. Historical research had allowed the determination that it is most probably a part of materials that were prepared by Spanish forestry engineers Ingenieros de Montes , operating in the Philippines since the year The mentioned historical facts are worth comparing against the data found on the pages of the volume Hisp. The decisive majority of the documents and the maps is signed by name and dated, and considering the codicological indications one can assume that these are autographs created in the Philippines in the period The contents of the above mentioned article of Spanish researchers underlines the achievements of the engineers in the art of cartography12, noting that the maps they had created had not been found to date.

This intriguing fact sug-. Equally high should be evaluated the documentary value of the descriptive materials prepared by the engineers, which are impressive in their comprehensiveness, precision and broad spectrum of issues covered: from the geographical, natural, historical and economical to the ethnographic or linguistic.

At present research work is continuing on the entirety of this volume, and the results will be published in a separate, more complete study. The Berlin manuscripts referring by their subject matter to historical overseas territories of Spain, taken as a whole, are distinguished by the enormous richness of the topics covered, and are at the same time characterised by their high documentary and informative value. They undoubtedly form a source which may yet provide data supplementing previously undertaken research works, or become an inspiration to for further exploration for specialists of many branches.

La brillante labor de los Ingenieros de Montes Volgarizzamento of the Thesaurus pauperum in the codex Ital. Manuscript description Paper, The ms. In the bottom part of the pages there are signs of contact with water. In numerous places ink has faded, probably also due to earlier contact with water, making it slightly harder to decipher the text. There are corrections introduced at a later date to certain portions of the text, at places where it was particularly difficult to read. Reinforcing strip in the first gathering. Pagination with Arabic numerals in ink, beginning on the second gathering, foliation below, in Arabic numerals; both pagination and foliation are not originals.

Quire signatures in black ink, no signature in first gathering. Ruling done with plummet, barely visible. The text is written in one column and is 85mm wide and mm high. The text is written by one hand in typical northern Italy Littera textualis. Rubrics are probably made by the copyist himself. No initials were created, guide letters are visible. The manuscript is therefore not completed. Page missing between pages 44 and No flyleaves. In folios 1vo and 2vo additional prescriptions were included not a lot later.

Folio 5vo contains the drawing of a face later and imprecise. Folio 5ro marks the end of the contents list; folio 6vo bears a coat of arms, added later: area. The manuscript contains numerous maniculae hands added by a reader, which serves as proof of intensive use. Similarly, the corrections to less visible fragments done later serve to prove that the manuscript had indeed been used. The binding is composed of wooden boards, half covered with brown leather halfbinding , in bad condition. It has an incomplete metal clasp, two bosses in the lower part, the remains of a metal bar to hold the leather in the lower part of the wooden binding 3,5 cm and a trace of the bar on the whole binding.

The leather part is blind-tooled with simple decorations. The inside cover bears the inscription: acc.

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Also on a inside cover, written in pencil: 77 gnz. Considering the waternarks date by Briquet for the year and the type and character of the handwriting, the manuscript was created towards the end of the 15th century, so is almost contemporary to the print, which was published for the first time in Florence in , and since then - five times more until the year However, diverse components point to influences from the Veneto region,2. Englebert, M. Pierrard, L. Rosier, D. In folios 3rovo one can find the volgarizzamento Thesaurus Pauperum. In folio 3ro was included later the title tesoro delli poueri Composto per papa giovannidi di sic!

In folios 3ro to 5ro may be found a list of chapters of the work. In turn, with folio 7ro begins the main text of the work, ending on folio 70vo. Folio 7ro includes first the Prologue beginning with the words: [A]l nome de la sancta trinitade la qual creo ogni cossa. E dala quale tuta la sapientia e data ali saui. La p ri ma e questa. A note on the side included later: cioe alopicia. The text ends on folio 70vo with the words: Anchora se dice che la con solida menore trida intra due pietre p er diuino miraculo cura e rende sanita a quella p er sona che ha quel i n firmita.

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There are, however, contradictory forms, so-called Tuscan-Florentine forms; with a double consonant quelle , with a florentine -er from the -ar ritornera , forms with anaphonesis ungi, congiunge, lingua etc. Version of the volgarizzamento Rapisarda3 had distinguished, basing on the prologues and random comparisons of selected excerpts, seven different volgarizzamenti.

The text found in manuscript ital. For the purpose of a clear presentation of the independence of our translation from others, here is the text of the prologue to our volgarizzamento beside the Latin text as determined by Rocha Pereira In the further portion, for the purpose of improvement of the understandability of the text, the transcription is slightly different: popular abbreviations were expanded without specially marking them, the usage of capital and small letters was unified, basic punctuation was introduced.

Item ad rugas tollendas de fa-. The comparison of the prologue of ital. Testimony to this is the choice of words, and the syntax used by the translator. In order to avoid quoting the entirety of Rapisarda's conclusions as to the shape of the prologue in each version, I will only provide the beginning of the first sentence and selected key words and sentences which decidedly point to independence of ital.

Again in ital. Beside the prologue, obviously important for the determination of the version of the work, the collatio as coordinated against the Latin text in the edition of Rocha Pereira may come into use for the evaluation short version of similarities and differences between each version as well as their mutual dependency. Here is such a collatio for manuscript ital. Prologo deli remedij contra lo cader deli capilli deli remedij che li capilli non renascano doue sono trati deli remedij contra le roture e uoladege e altre infirmita del capo le quale sin chiamate pustule deli remedij contra la infirmita che chiamada lytargia.

Contra dormientes deli remedij ala infirmita chiamada frenesia et a far dormir lo infermo deli remedij a tore via lo dolore dela testa deli remedij dela reuma del capo che vien per fredura e contra ogni dolor deli rimedij contra la infirmita del capo che si appellata uertigine secondo la lettera deli remedij contra le vigilie overo migranea deli remedij contra la infirmitatde che si appellata dali medici epilensia et in vulgar fantesie overo mal caduco deli remedij contra lo spasmo deli remedij contra la infirmita appellata mania deli remedij contra la infirmita che si appellata scothomia deli remedij contra lo dolor deli ochij deli remedij contra li remedi la infirmata deli oghij sanguineti.

Et aduene per fredo. La qual li medici appella sic! Ad laxandum uentrem XXI. De turnio fluxu uentris XXII. De tenasmone. De mamillarum infirmitatibus De suffocatione matricis De impedimento conceptus Vt mulier concipiat. In case of our manuscript, as we are dealing here with a faithful translation from Latin, one could venture a try at determining the place of its Latin original in tradition, following the suggestions of Rocha Pereira.

As for the contents, Rocha Pereira reconstructs the initial structure of the work8 which ends with the chapter De gutta arthetica et podagra, however this structure had not survived in any edition. The following two chapters XLIX - De crepatura and L - De anthrace would be later additions, present in the majority of the manuscripts. Our codex also includes these chapters as chapters 63 and 64 , so they would also have to had been present in the Latin original.

Many Latin manuscripts and pursuant thereto, the various Italian volgarizzamenti9 contain amendments following the treatise proper. These are: Tractatus de febribus 5 chapters and a variety of diverse prescriptions. Another component of the contents allowing the distinguishing of the. Rocha Pereira, Obras medicas Volgarizzamento of Thesaurus Pauperum and the Proposta of Vincenzo Monti Research on the presence of mediaeval medical treatises in lexicography is a separate subject, which we are not at liberty to expand upon here.

Nonetheless, because our witness may contribute to finding a solution to the issue, even if a lexicographical one, but one closely tied to the philological aspect of the translation of the Thesaurus, as stated by Monti in his Proposta, I will briefly present the entire case here. First of all, I hope that a more thorough analysis of the version supplied by our witness will enable finally proving that Monti is right.

From the context one may infer that cipresso means here occipizio, nuca, the back of the neck. Vincenzo Monti protested strongly against this decision 10 M. Thesaurus Pauperum, VI, 3; M. Monti, Proposta di alcune correzioni ed aggiunte al Vocabolario della Crusca, Milano , vol. Per la parte posteriore del capo.

To solve this puzzle, he makes the supposition that the cypress cipresso could have been a medicinal substance. The cipresso from the Italian translation of the Thesaurus corresponds to the Latin occipitium, so it is not a medicine, as suggested by Monti in the second part of his observation. The Latin text in the Thesarus is as follows: si est in fronte, pone in occipitio, et in converso Thesaurus pauperum, VI, 48 Nonetheless, despite the fact that Monti errs in the second part, his critique is sound and actually draws attention to the issue emerging in the dictionary.

The error of the edi-. The additional check could for instance have covered the comparison of the print with other Italian versions e. Such a comparison, i. In a different codex from the Berlin collection ital. One has to agree here that the text changes the meaning thoroughly, because the fact is stressed that the mixture should be applied precisely to the sore place forehead and not as it says in the Latin text in occipitio on the opposite side, the back of the neck: R[ecipe] del incenso e del stercho del colombo e dela farina del formento tanto del uno quanto del altro e tempera queste con chiara d ovo e metelo sulo cavo la che sia el dolor Additionally a note on the healing properties of chicken egg yolk emerges, which is missing from the other quoted versions of the Thesaurus: Ancora lo rosso del ovo meio e la fior dela camomela.

Conclusion The potential meaning of the volgarizzamento included in qu. We have here a late manuscript from the end of the 15th century, additionally it is a separate version, at least for the time being having no other witnesses. Nonetheless, even this short analysis of the codex ital. Additionally, the manuscript ital. The most interesting items, which are the topic of this article, bear the following signatures: gall. Most of them share a common history. These are manuscripts bearing the signatures: gall.

Who was this Alsatian book lover? He was not Alsatian by birth - but by heart. His family had settled in Colmar when little Charles was just two years of age. He was not. He was one of the most valued attorneys in Colmar, a politician and a literary man, and being devoted to Alsace, he mainly collected evidence about its past.

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His library was purchased by the city of Mulhouse, most probably after his passing. Could an error in the date have found its way into the above cited note of origin? The manuscript bearing the signature gall. Chapter Headings and Sigla are after Carmody. General Observations: There is no overall consistency in the placing or choice of subjects for the illustrations.

Nevertheless, some patterns emerge: --all manuscripts have an opening illustration for Books 1 and 2, and all but F2 for Book 3. For further comments, see BLatininotes. Chapter Headings and Sigla after Carmody [To fit on small computer screen, reduce type size of Table to 8 point, instead of 10 point]. Table of Contents. Book 1, Preface:. F: C, man sitting on top of money chest with coins on it, holding up a coin f.

T: Scribe seated at desk, author as cleric standing before him, giving orders. B3: Miniature in 2 columns: King orders 2 men, one of whom points to man holding bowl of golden objects presenting or receiving? R5: Miniature in 2 columns: author seated at desk; group of men, one offering a goblet; men offering vessel full of coins to king; border: man in cale carries sack to windmill. A6, YT: Author seated with a group of scholars, one of whom writes; YT border: birds, bagpiper on back of hybrid; bald hybrid archer; man playing rebec to dog; squirrel on goat chasing ape on unicorn.

L2: Author seated at desk between two groups of scholars to whom he points; border: foliate initial with hooded male terminal; male hybrid terminal, lion; bird and animal partly cut off; ape holding urine flask; greyhound running; man holding stag by its antlers and aiming a long arrow at it; shield or device scraped off. T2: Miniature in 2 columns: Christ in Majesty, blessing, holding TO globe, in a mandorla with the evangelist symbols in the spandrels, flanked by two groups of 6 seated apostles, Peter holding key, Paul holding sword, the others without attribute.

Geneva: Author copying from a model. F2: Seated author. S, A5: miniature in 2 columns: 7 Days of Creation. K: Wheel of Fortune; border: prophet holding scroll; hybrid trumpeting terminal. R3: Author seated, standing man, both wearing academic hats, standing man pointing to the book in which the seated man writes; border: birds, hare, horned hybrid man holding a flail?

Chapter 6. A6: God warns Adam and Eve. L2: Circular diagram of the universe containing planets and sun and moon, with Christ standing in hell-mouth at the centre; evangelist symbols holding scrolls in the corners of the miniature; bottom border: creation of Eve, drawn from the side of Adam; top: intertwined male and female hybrids with long necks and human heads.

YT: Circular diagram of the universe with the sun and moon; in the centre God and animals, Adam lying on the ground; border: bird, hybrids, knight riding. Chapter Q2: Two kings, one holding gloves, stand before seated author who addresses them. T: Noah and family inside ark, Noah sends out dove. B3: Noah and family inside ark, Noah sends out dove. R5: Noah, wife and son look out of floating ark; Noah sends out dove. A6: Noah and family inside floating ark, Noah sends out dove. L2: Noah, between his family and the animals inside floating ark, sends out dove; hare playing gittern; trumpeter in robe party red and blue crouches on border; bottom: ape archer riding doe has shot arrow into rear of another ape, both turn back to look at each other.

Q2: Noah standing in ark holding adze. R3: Noah and 2 animals in ark windows; raven on roof. K: Two women one with veiled head, one wearing knotted headscarf holding babies, Abraham seated holding stick, wearing Jewish hat. L2: Queen Penthesilea, seated, crowned by two ladies holding gloves; border, top: hybrid archer has shot arrow at male hybrid terminal; bottom: juggler holds up long table-top on his chin; woman dances and plays pipe and tabor.

L2: King Faremond? A6: Sacrifice of Isaac, angel stays sword, ram in background. Q2: King Saul killed, King David crowned by mitred priest. K: L, David crowned in presence of two groups of Jews. K: L, Captivity of the Jews. T: David slings at Goliath. A6: David slings at Goliath. L2: King David standing holding sceptre and book.

Chapters L2: Judas Maccabeus wearing knotted headscarf. K: M, 5 Maccabees on horseback; O, seated scribe evangelist? Q2: Christ on the cross between Ecclesia and Synagoga. K: A, Baptism of Christ. R3: Four foliate medallions flanking two foliate mandorlas, in two registers, each containing a bust except for the lower medallion which has Christ on the cross; in the adjacent roundels are the Virgin right and St John left ; one of the upper figures is female, all are indistinct.

B3, R5: Nativity: Virgin lies head on hand. A6: Jesse Tree: 4 roundels enclosing kings, 2 on each side of Virgin and Child in central lozenge. YT: Esmeria holding Elizabeth facing St Anne holding crowned Mary and Christ Child; border: falconer and woman with dog beneath tree with birds, some goldfinches. L: Man in blue vair-lined robe with red hood praying before St Anne holding crowned Mary and Christ Child; top border: naked man in hood, draped in cloak, aims spear at crouching unicorn; bottom: greyhound chases stag.

T2: Annunciation to the Virgin. K: C, Esmeria and Anne. L2: ff. K: P, Philip roped to cross and beaten; T, Thomas pierced through with lance, watched by seated crowd; B, Bartholomew flayed by 2 men, his lower body decorously draped; 2 Ms, Matthew and Mathias executed by sword; L, Luke seated writing on scroll, ox holding scroll behind him.

K: O, Ecclesia and Synagoga. L2: Gnadenstuhl Trinity God the Father's face rubbed ; C, bust of Christ, pointing at text; border, top partly cut off : archer has shot arrow at eye of hooded hybrid; bottom: hooded hybrid in hat; two shields, or devices gules erased. YT: Gnadenstuhl Trinity badly rubbed ; border: mastiff attacks hare; bird of prey.

L: Adoration of the Magi: Virgin and Child each hold a flower; top border: hare, squirrel; bottom border: ape falconer. K: C, Nativity of Christ, Child in manger with ox and ass. R3: Adoration of the Magi, all kneeling, one with his feet outside the frame. K: A, Transfiguration of Christ. Q2: Emperor Constantine V Copronymous taking the idols from the image-worshippers of Western Christendom to Constantinople and there breaking and burning them cf.

K: O, Pope hands small cross to kneeling emperor Charlemagne, large shield of France in background. A6: Seated emperor Charlemagne? L2: Pope crowns Charlemagne, in the presence of Archbishop Turpin shield France a cross argent [white] , Roland shield party, France impaling Empire , and Oliver shield azure a bust of a woman [Virgin Mary? L: Mounted combat between two armies: shields or a double-headed eagle sable; gules a lion argent [white], barruly or and gules, a bend sable charged with cockle-shells argent [white]; others rubbed.

E, King's head; top border: greyhound chases rabbits; bottom: female falconer. R3: Pope crowns Charlemagne feet outside frame , watched by 3 standing men. K: M, Two bishops crown emperor one of the Ottos, illustrating Ch. L2: Pope Innocent IV hands sealed letter to cleric in which he excommunicates Frederick II ; Emperor Frederick and a group of lawyers dispute; top border: shield or, device gules erased; bottom: boys on the shoulders of men aim lances at each other, holding shields or. YT: Emperor Frederick and a lawyer dispute with two more lawyers pope not shown ; border: animals, bird, hybrid.

L: Emperor Frederick disputes with 3 lawyers and a bareheaded man; man kneels before enthroned Pope Innocent IV in conical hat; E, foliate initial; female and male hybrid terminals. R3: Enthroned pope gestures towards group of men who sail away in a boat. L2: Group of lawyers debate; pope hands sealed letter to messenger with spear Urban IV [] summoning Charles d'Anjou to fight Manfred and take possession of his lands in Italy ; border, top: hybrid in Jew's hat holds banner sable? YT: Three lawyers debate before seated pope; border: hybrids, bird of prey. L: Man in vair-lined hat and group of tonsured clerics address seated pope; O, female head wearing headbands; pope's head terminal; top border: male hybrid; bottom: youth has shot stork with arrow.

T: Two men in academic robes sitting on a bench and debating with each other. A6: God stands facing circle of planets, water, and earth with tree and tower on it. YT: Man in bed, doctor holding flask, within concentric rings of water with fish, air, fire; border: greyhound chases stag; bird; hare; huntsman on horse holding lure. Q2: Doctor holds up flask before naked man lying in garden within concentric rings of water with fish, air, fire. R3: Four elements in medallions, air containing a flying bird. K: Marginal circle diagrams of elements, inscribed; waters, inscribed; air and fire, inscribed; planets, inscribed.

L2: Circular diagram of 4 elements, at centre cleric seated at desk with book looks up holding small telescope? K: marginal circle diagram of planets with earth at centre containing animal head spuing forth flames; f. Q2: Circular diagram, seated man surrounded by water.

Chapter L2: Circular diagram of 4 elements, at centre cleric seated at desk holding long wavy rod which extends up through all four elements; border, top: archer partly cut off aims at hares; bottom: cleric hybrid faces female hybrid with veiled head. YT: Circular diagram of 4 elements, man in academic hat sits in centre before open book, holding long wavy rod which extends up through all four elements; border: knight shield, ailette banner or a cross gules fights hybrid. L: Circular diagram of 4 elements, man in academic hat sits in centre before open book, raising hand; behind him a huge gold sun extends over all four elements; L, king's head; border: male hybrid.

R3: Square diagram of the 4 elements, arranged diagonally in a mandorla-shaped configuration from bottom left to top right. Q2: Circular diagram of planets. K: Marginal circle diagram of planets and zodiacs, inscribed. B3, R5: Circular diagram of 7 planets, sun and moon, with earth and a castle with 2 turrets at centre. A6 Circular diagram with earth and a castle with single turret at centre, 2 suns and 2 moons, day and night.

K: Chapter numbered diagram in text column of planets and eclipse; f. A6: Earth with tree, building, water beneath. R5: Man with pack on back standing by river and building cf. L2: Circular diagram of 4 elements, sun, moon, and planets, lions and trees at centre; border, top: hybrids; bottom: hooded archer blows horn, rides after greyhound chasing boar. YT: Circular diagram of 4 elements with sun and moon in a fifth outer ring, house and trees at centre; border: hybrids; man shielding himself from the sun with a huge hat on a stick. L: Circular diagram of 4 elements and five rings of stars and planets on which are placed a large gold sun and a smaller grey moon; rocks in centre; hybrid terminals; top border: male hybrid.

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Q2: Circular diagram of 4 elements and five rings of stars and planets, seated man in centre, holding globe. T2: God stands holding a circular diagram of the world, a TO globe with water and earth. F2: Two standing masters, one holding very long gloves. Geneva CL: Circular diagram of the world with Jerusalem at the centre, framed by 8 heads representing the winds. K: L, Circular diagram in two registers: top: two groups of castles linked by rivers? R3: Circular diagram of the world shown as a spoon-shaped configuration linked across turbulent air by a 'handle' to the outer bands of water and fire.

A6: Man digging outside house by tree. Chapter The Bestiary section mostly presents the fish, birds, and animals as 'portraits': I note here those that include narrative elements. T: Water with a single large fish, and land. B3: Man with cloth on stick over shoulder walks by water towards house cf. R5: Knights at sea in a sail-boat. A6: Fish in water, earth with dragon and rabbits looking out of holes. YT: Half-column images of fish.

T2: Miniature in 2 registers: 6 quadruped above, fish in water below. K, numbered P, merman, mermaid, and fish. R3: Frameless coloured drawings of fish in three-quarters of a text column. L2: Man stepping out of boat onto land with trees on back of whale, slightly larger miniature; half-column miniatures of fish. YT: Large miniature of whale with sailors on back; 3 small pictures of fish. K, numbered B, fish; f. L2: 3 sirens play gittern, harp, trumpet; horse-like hypotamie with tusks.

Geneva: Sirens among fish in water. K, numbered Y, hypotamie, horse-like with tusks; numbered D, sirens capturing sleeping men in boat. F2: Standing king and standing master disputing. Geneva: 5 different creatures: serpent, aspide, anfemeine, basilisk, dragon. K, numbered S, 2 serpents with greyhound-like heads. L2: Asp bites leg of man. K: numbered A, man reading, asp at his feet; A, double-headed amphine; B, basilisk with cock's head; D, shaggy dragon. K, numbered K adds Salamander as no. K, numbered , eagle flies to sun with small bird in claws; O, ostoire; f.

K numbered , shows fenix on flames, pelican in her piety. R5: Lion and trees. L2: Miniature in two registers: lioness holding bone above lion; L, head of an old man, balding and bearded; border: top: female hybrid; bottom: bagpiper, hybrid, dancing woman in hair net; shield or a chevron gules rubbed. YT: Addorsed lion with bone, and lioness. L: 3 crouching lions, superimposed; lion, lioness, and a second lioness eating large bone. T2: Lion devouring animal leg, man with cloak on stick over shoulder walks away.

F2: Standing king and standing master: lion between them. K numbered L, cock chasing lion. K numbered antelope speared by hunter in cale. L2: Trumpeting hunter holding lance; castor biting off testicles. K numbered Castor biting off testicles, hunted by man in cale with club. L2: Elephant with castle containing 3 knights in crenellations, knights in window. K numbered Elephant with castle on back. L2, YT: Hyena eating corpse. K numbered Hyenas lurking beside tomb. L2, YT: Hunter chasing ape carrying young on front and back; hunter bareheaded in YT, hooded in L2 holding baby tiger drops mirror to tiger amidst 6 mirrors in L2; 1 mirror in YT.

K numbered , Hunter chasing ape carrying young on front and back; tiger amidst 6 mirrors, but no hunter or babies; numbered , , taupe, unicorn in virgin's lap, speared by hunter; urs. Book 2, Chapter 1.

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F: Q, tonsured author writing f. T: Author at desk expounding from book to standing cleric holding gloves and debating. B3: Author writing; man walks away from door holding written manuscript. A6: Author seated, two men before him, outside door of building. L2: Author as cleric seated at desk, teaching seated students holding books; border: juggler in cale balancing sword on chin, holding a second sword; shields or a maunch sable rubbed and or a chevron gules rubbed. YT: Author tonsured teaching seated students who write; border: knight shield azure a carbuncle or aims lance at snail; archer has shot bolt at dragon terminal; lions, male terminal wearing hat.

L: Author in vair-lined academic hat enthroned between two groups of students, points to group on his right; arch frame with two mask-heads in spandrels; top border: youth's head terminal; bottom: greyhound chasing stag; male hybrid rebec-player wearing long pointed hood with bell terminal. Q2: Author alone, writing at desk. T2: Seated master before open book on lectern, 2 students seated on ground. F2: Seated master before open book on lectern, students on ground. Geneva: Q, author seated, writing. S: author in hat seated at open book pointing to scales held by man in grey hooded robe; border: chaffinch.

Lyon: seated author at desk addressing group of standing men lawyers? K: Q, author in academic hat seated at desk with book instructs seated students; border: man embracing recoiling woman; equestrian knight surcoat and housing bendy or and azure aims crossbow at them.

R3: Bareheaded man standing and pointing at author who wears academic hat, and sits writing on scroll; border: hybrid. R5: Man with axe, two men with swords. T: Seated king, three standing men badly rubbed. A6: Seated king, group of men lead before him a man with rope around neck. T, A6, R5: Seated author, standing man holding gloves and debating.

B3: Author writing at desk, students standing before him. L2: Author seated at desk, teaching seated students; border, top: bust-terminal blows two trumpets partly cut off ; bottom: male and female centaurs fight with lances, holding shields or a saltire gules a fess sable, and or a lion sable a bend gules Flanders differenced. YT: Author teaching seated students; border: knight shield, banner, surcoat gules a fess or a star sable aims lance at snail; greyhound chases hare; hybrids.

L: seated author, bareheaded, holding book, teaching standing students badly rubbed : top border: hybrid eating human arm; bottom: male hybrid wearing conical hat. T2: Author seated, teaching three seated students, all without books. F2: Seated master, seated students on ground. S: Author at desk pointing to man seated on ground before him; border: bird; faint marginal note beginning 'vn maistre K: A, man in cale and woman in wimple kneel before Christ on the cross. R3: Outside a crenellated wall, two figures address a figure seated by a tree rubbed.

L2: Author wearing academic hat, seated at desk, instructing 3 standing men who gesture at him; border, top: affronted hybrids, bottom: ape falconer holding lure, hawk flying; ape bird-catcher holding owl on gloved hand; stork. L: Author in vair-lined hat, seated at desk teaching seated students, one holding book; f. R3: Author in vair-lined hat and vair cape seated on bench discussing with bearded bareheaded man holding book; border: ape aiming spear at creature on foliage.

R5: Seated King, standing men. B3: Samson carrying the gates of Gaza. R5: Samson about to lift the gates of Gaza. A6: Man in cale points at Samson carrying the gates of Gaza. T: Man at chest filled with coins, holds out chalice before 2 men holding gloves, one wearing a cale. T: Cleric kneels at altar with chalice beneath canopy rubbed.

Book 3, Chapter 1. F: A, tonsured master holding birch rod instructs seated students, one holding book f. T: Seated king addresses 4 men. R5: Author seated, writing. A6: Standing king and man before 2 clerics. L2: Master in academic hat seated at desk instructs seated students; border, top: hooded male bust; bottom: addorsed lions. YT: Seated Master teaches seated students; border: hybrids. L: Seated author in vair-lined hat at desk teaches seated students, one of whom holds book; f. T2: Author and man seated together, debating; two other men stand behind.

Geneva: A, foliate initial. S: seated master in hat pointing to man standing in pink robe holding gloves; marginal note in leadpoint, ending ' K: A, bishop addresses seated ruler holding sceptre, both flanked by supporters. R3: Author seated outside by tree, in three-quarter profile pointing to written text on desk as though addressing the reader ; border: hybrid, bird. Chapter 2. F2: Seated king, two standing masters, one holding book.

B3: Standing Master addresses group of standing men. B3: Seated Master holding book; 3 bareheaded academics address him. R5: Three knights ride to city. T2: Seated king, his supporters on his right, addresses 3 men on his left. F2: Tonsured cleric shows king a city. K: numbered Book 4, chs. The shield or an eagle sable may also refer to Henry and suggests a date at least after and before Marguerite's death in ; but or 3 besants voided sable and bendy or and azur the latter on f.

Il fatto che Brunetto, esiliato nel nord della Francia quando redige la sua opera, abbia scelto di scrivere in francese, si spiega con varie ragioni. The Book of the Treasure , work of the Florentine notary and chancellor Brunetto Latino, is one of the first encyclopedias write in the vernacular language between and Composed of three books, it is divided in this way, the first treating of theology, of sacred and secular history and the natural sicences, the second of ethics, and the last part not encountered in medieval encyclopedism, rhetoric and politics.

The fact the Brunetto, exiled to northern France at the moment of editing his work chose to write in French, has many explanations. One is contingent, the author found hmself in a country which spoke that language, the other aesthetic, the French language is more charming than the others. Besides, as he asserts in the prologue to his text, it is the most common language. French flourished in that period in a role less regional than were other vernacular langauges and most second only to Latin. Thus by this linguistic choice, the author presents himself as of a particular intellectual class: being himself lay, he writes to the laity more than to the clergy.

He carries out a transformation in relation to the preceding great Latin encyclopedias which coincides with the increase of illuminated cycles for this type of text. Esiste per questo testo un programma miniato standard che sia valido lungo tutta la sua diffusione? Inversamente, come interpretare le variazioni di questo programma: esse dipendono dai luoghi di produzione dei manoscritti, dai committenti oppure dalla cronologia?

What connection can we establish between the use of the vernacular language, the condition of the lay public and the sudden appearance of illuminations for the Book of the Treasure?

Garrett Stewart. Essay for the SimsReed Catalogue

Is there a standard illluminating programme that can be valid throughout its diffusion. If that is not the case, can one at least see constants? On the other hand, how to interpret the variations: do they depend on the places of manuscript production, of their patrons, of the chronology?

These are some of the questions that I would like to evoke at this round table. Sul totale, cinquanta. Tali variazioni, che sembrano essere indipendenti dalla cronologia, segnalano di primo acchito delle differenze importanti nel trattamento illustrativo dei vari testimoni di questo testo. Prodotti per la maggior parte in Toscana, non meno di tredici copie sono miniate. The catalogue of the Book of the Treasure manuscripts has 87 entries. Of the total, fifty, almost half, are illuminated, which represents a relatively high proportion.

Amongst these, the number of miniatures varies considerably: ranging from one illumination at the opening of the work to more than thirty, even a hundred, where the bestiary is illuminated for example. Of such variations, which seem independent of the chronology, can be seen important differences in the illustrative treatment of various witnesses of the text. As for the Italian version, Il Tesoro, of which the paternity is generally attributed to Brunetto Latino himself, these consist of thirty-eight manuscripts.

Produced for the most part in Tuscany, less than thirteen copies are illuminated.