Psycho-Gehenna (MIND-HELL)

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A power ballad? It sounds suspiciously like one to me. While not quite worthy of inclusion on a Leather and Lace compilation, this is surely not what Slipknot are paid for. It combines the post rehab introspectiveness of Trent Reznor fitted with a slightly scuffed up, one size fits all, Nickelback stadium angst riff. Releasing this as a single as they intend to may well make commercial sense for getting radio play and the video on high rotation but this kind of thing just makes a mockery of what Slipknot should be about.

Pneumatic beats pounded on steel caskets and drum kit, a funereal dirge of a down-tuned riff, brief NWOBHM twin guitar assault curlicues and a satisfying hint of Southern swagger to the vocals. I wonder if Slipknot know that this is cockney rhyming slang for take a look? Again, there is more than a hint of Nine Inch Nails here — an anguished howl of self-loathing. Imagine dropping a 3ft wide, solid steel manhole cover on your bollocks and then having a Panzer full of cybermen drive backwards and forwards over it. Producer Dave Fortman has really done his job in some respects, especially on the drum separation and the percussion.

Probably not though. This sounds more like Extreme or Mr Big than Slipknot. Camp fire vibes? Here is a reminder of the dates and recently announced festival appearances:. Fri Sun Mon Tue This eerie masterpiece pieces together a colossal atmosphere belonging as much to the Swans or Neurosis as it does to Autopsy and Burning Witch. A rewarding, often beautiful and more often than not disturbing proposition, this album is one of the most powerful pieces of music to emerge in recent years from a band who really are at the forefront of British extreme metal.

Here they have crafted such a consuming and permeating piece of work that veers from Earth like alt. Real, threatening black metal, like it used to be. It is unequivocally one of the highlights of this or any other year. You can keep your poser corpse painted black metal for as long as you want; this is where extremity is really at. Everything is tight as a drum, honed to perfection like a weapon designed solely to destroy with maximum casualties.

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Blazing out of the backwoods of Bruzzelle, Italy, born in homage to plow and harvest — harvesting riffs, plowing grappa — the ZOLLE duo will release their belligerently unhinged full-length debut of rural rampage in plenty of time for tomato season. This Is Not A Scene premiered the album-opening tune last week.

Supernatural Cat — the Italian underground label run by Malleus Rock Art Lab, the artist collective featuring two members of the psychedelic doom trio Ufomammut — will set Zolle loose on May 13th. We now know how clear and strong was their belief in a future life, and how tenaciously they clung to it even in death. These discoveries may well be adduced as a separate and distinct argument for immortality.

The Departure of the Soul. It was usual for the dying man, if the head of. The dying man having finished, presents were given him by the members of his family, and the relatives took their last farewell, wishing him a happy journey, and consoling him with the hope of the joys at its termination.

After death the funeral feast gave the soul its passport for its long journey. In the simple rites and offerings by which they hoped to promote the welfare of the disembodied spirit, and the care they took of the body, the survivors declared their faith in the immortality of their deceased friend. Dawson, Dr.

Macmillan, Poole, and others. Sir W. TJie Habitation. They believed this life but an episode of an eternal existence. Death to them was the real life, only evil spirits being spoken of as dead. The coffin was called the chest of the living. But to the ancient Egyptian the immortal part, even after death, was in some mysterious way dependent for its con tented existence upon the preservation of the body, hence the importance of embalming the taking care to keep the body as life-like as possible, and secure from harm during the long period of the soul s probation.

The belief was that the soul still needed a habitation as well as the body, and if it did not always dwell in this house, it yet visited it from time to time. The " house-tomb " is world-wide in its extension. It is seen in the lodge of the Western Indian ; in the winter house of the Esquimaux, closed up and converted into a sepulchre ; in the gallery graves, dolmens, cromlechs, and chambered recesses of Europe ; in the rock-cut tombs of the East ; and the chamber-tombs of Peru. The tumulus, a modification of the house-tomb, is found in every style, in every country, from the little grave mounds of the country churchyard, or of an ordinary Indian burial place, to the ossuaries of the Hurons, the huge mound of the Ohio, the barrows of Europe and Asia, and the pyramids of Egypt which are but great stone tumuli the tombs of kings.

These all point to a house where the body may repose, and the spirit of the deceased may visit and enjoy rest and comfort ; a house corresponding in some respects to that occupied by him while living in this world. The tomb was a great institution with the ancients. As soon as the Egyptian entered upon the responsibilities of life, he began to prepare his tomb. On its walls he depicted the chief incidents of his personal and family life in this world, and his successors portrayed his chief employments in the spirit world.

The hills around Memphis, the capital of oldest Egypt, are honeycombed for miles with these rock-cut tombs. They are modelled after the pattern of the house, having usually two chambers, an outer and an inner one. The outer was the place of meeting between the living and the dead, the surviving friends feasted there during their annual visit to the tomb, while the dead were laid in the inner chamber, in the midst of familiar objects.

Here everything was designed to keep up the notion that the dead were still living and visited their own houses. The roof of the chamber was carved in imitation of the roof- tree, the rafters, and even the tiles of the house. The rock around was hewn into couches, with cushions and footstools like those on which they reposed when living.

Thomson " The Land and the Book " mentions that house-tombs cut in the rocks abound near ancient Sidon, and are found in Petra and Judaea. In China, at the present day, the graves are not deep, but consist mainly of conical mounds, tumuli, ranging from two to ten feet above the level of the ground, and in the case of kings, to forty or fifty feet. They are all ranged in family groups. Food and Furniture. The dead were supposed to have the same wants as the living, and therefore ample provision was made for them.

They believed that spirits could make use of the spiritual ideals, or essences of the material things around them, just as their bodies in life could make use of their actual substances.

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It thus became the recep tacle of many articles of home and personal use vases for unguents, the instruments for the stibium, with which the eyes were painted ; changes of raiment, linen for all uses, vessels for food and drink ; tables, chairs, stools, and head-rests ; spoons and viands placed for the feast ; amulets, in precious subtances or in porcelain ; costly ornaments for women, play things of children, games of men, and the implements of their sports and handicrafts, and the domestic utensils of the house mother.

In the same way the ancient Etruscan tombs were supplied with all things thought necessary for the comfort of the departed spirit. On the floors were the wine jars, the vases and utensils consecrated by long use ; and on the various projections were suspended the mirrors, arms, and golden ornaments that were most prized. And such relics are found in barrows and burying places of all primitive nations. Through them the dead yet speak, out of a hoary antiquity, of the personal and social life, manners, and customs of that strange old world.

The same beliefs as to the wants and comfort of the departed spirit obtain in many lands at the present day. In China, food and even clothes are presented at the grave periodically. Devotion is expressed by the burning of incense, libations of wine, and the burning, i. He was one of the richest Chinamen in that country, and owned large amounts of property in New York, Boston, and Philadelphia. Nine days were occupied in preparing for the funeral. One thousand Celestials followed the body of the former general to the grave. The deceased was dressed in the robes of a mandarin of the dynasty of Ming.

His queue was wound round the top of his head, filled with gold pieces. Gold was put in his hand and Chinese paper money in his coffin. The casket containing his body was also surrounded by various articles of food for use on his way to the other world. The money was for the purpose of paying the expenses of his journey. The funeral throughout was conducted with all the ceremony of Pagan pomp, and exactly in the same fashion as if it had taken place in China.

These offerings are made sincerely and devoutly by some, and by others selfishly, to avoid the consequences of the dis pleasure of an angry parent, now in a much better position to lodge complaints in the supreme celestial courts, against undutiful heirs on earth. And these views are shared by the kindred people of Japan. Lady Brassey, in her " Voyage in the Sunbeam" says: "To-day being the Japanese New Year s Day, all the little shrines in the houses and along the road were prettily decorated, and had offerings of rice, saki, and fruit deposited upon them. The spirits of the departed are supposed to come down and partake, not of the things them selves, but of the subtle invisible essence that rises from them," p.

The idea that the soul needed in the spirit-world the food, arms, implements, and ornaments which had been required in the present life, is beautifully expressed in Bryant s song of the Indian maid to her departed hero Twas I the broidered mocsen made That shod thee for that distant land ; Twas I thy bow and arrow laid Beside thy still cold hand. With wampum belts I crossed thy breast, And wrapped thee in the bison s hide ; And laid the food that pleased thee best In plenty by thy side ; And decked thee bravely as became A warrior of illustrious name.

Thou rt happy now, for thou hast passed The long dark journey of the grave ; And in the Land of Light at last, Hast joined the good and brave. The servants and family who had attended them in life, they would need quite as much in the hereafter. Art was called in to their aid, depicting in brilliant relief on the walls of the Egyptian tomb servants and trades people in the routine and ardour of work. In the midst of his family, engaged in pleasant games, or diverted by the graceful dance, the all-important dead person continually reappears, towering in colossal proportions above his pigmy attendants.

This ideal sociality led to a fearful realism in after ages. To provide suitable attendants and companions, prisoners, slaves, servants, and wives even, were slain upon the tomb of the departed. Hence the suttee of India, now abolished, and many cruel funeral rites of savage tribes. Among the ancient Scythians and other nations, it was common to bury the warrior in his armour with his weapons by his side.

The war horse was slain to bear his master on his long journey. And among the northern nations the dog was obliged to accompany his master to the land of death. The bodies of dogs often formed part of the funeral feast, and it was believed that the spirits of these sagacious animals could guide the souls of the departed to their final abode. The Greenlanders place the head of a dog in the tomb of a child, believing that as the dog can always find its way home, it can show the helpless infant the way to the country of souls. Skulls of dogs have been found in ancient burial mounds of the stone age, and in prehistoric tumuli, in countries so far apart as Ireland and Peru.

Their heaven was the counterpart of their life in this world, only higher and more lasting, just as their tomb was the counter part of their dwelling when living, only erected in a manner more durable and costly. The tomb was regarded by them as a more permanent tent and resting-place, in the great migration of humanity from this world to the next. So that the heraldic painting of the journey of a soul on the wall of the tomb at Veii, in Italy, is but a hieroglyph of what the form and contents of the tomb, themselves more clearly pro claimed.

Sepulchral Rites. The most ancient tombs in Egypt were furnished with chapels, which were regarded as the most important part of the tomb.

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From the first to the eleventh dynasty there is scarcely a trace of a temple to be found. Over the entrance was inscribed a prayer for a good funeral, a happy journey to the other world, and liberal funeral offerings. The chapel was the centre of family interest, arid was devoted to family meetings, festivals, and worship. Statues in wood or stone were placed in niches representing the dead, and embodied in some mysterious way their doubles. And in the chapel, open to the passers-by, prayers were offered and banquets held by friends in honour of the dead, under the belief that the departed spirits were present and took part in them.

In like manner the tombs of the Etruscans were their temples the sacred places where they came to perform the rites of their religion, which consisted in feasting with, and worshipping the spirits of their beloved dead, and making offerings to them. The survivors met in the tomb to feast and worship with the dead as one family, and thus maintain its unity and completeness in both worlds.

The dead still lived ; and though death might intervene and remove some of the members from sight, yet it could not break up and destroy the family circle. This deep-rooted instinct of human nature manifested itself, as we have just seen, in the house tombs of the Egyptians and Etruscans, and among all the ancient nations. A vivid exemplification of it is furnished among the Chinese of the present day. They believe that the duties of a living child to a parent are as binding after death as before.

The dead parent is obeyed and loved and reverenced as when living. The dead hand has as much power as the living, and often a great deal more. Wordsworth has given voice to it in his touching ballad, "We Are Seven. Seven in all," she said, And wondering looked at me. I pray you tell. One family we dwell in Him ; One church above, beneath ; Though now divided by the stream, The narrow stream of death. Even now, by faith, we join our hands With those who went before ; And greet the blood-besprinkled bands On the eternal shore.

This general similarity of the funeral rites and modes of burial of all nations, and all times, from the most remote antiquity till now, is very striking, and seems to indicate a common origin. One class of ideas has given birth to them all. They all embody and express belief in a life after death, the separate conscious existence of the soul, and that the care of the body had a close connection with the soul s welfare in the Hereafter.

We think it is clear also that they point, especially in the case of the Egyptians, to a belief in a resur rection a re-occupation of the body. The sepulchral rites in their material form present the strongest and most startling example of this. These tombs are all developments of one hereditary type ; they are all the expression of one hereditary belief; and they all serve the purpose of one great hereditary cultus.

The type on which they are modelled is the house. Does not this remarkable similarity of funeral rites and customs of all nations, and the no less remarkable unanimity of sentiment which has given birth to them, show that the belief in a life to come is an original and universal instinct of humanity, " a God-given feature of our spiritual nature, yearning after a lost immortality, and clinging to the hope of a better being in a future state?

And is it not, after all,, inseparable from a belief in a God whose children we arc, and who can transfer us from this lower sphere to better mansions in His heavenly home? Out of this sublime idea of God springs, as a necessary correlative, the idea of a spirit world. Belief in God and a future life is not the product of evolution, or the result of long and patient quest after truth through the ages, or of any process of elimination from crude and gross mythologies.

The processes here are not from the lower to the higher, from a rude embryotic idea to a perfect development ; but, on the contrary, what is most ancient is most clear and most perfect. The nearer we get to the origin of the human race, the more simple and sublime we find men s views of God and a life to come.

The stream is purest at its fountain head ; it is in its downward progress that it becomes polluted by human additions. The light is clear in the morning of the world, but becomes obscured by earthly exhalations.

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The most ancient Egyptians had a very exalted idea of God. He who alone is truly the Living One, is adored as living in the truth and in justice, considered as the unchange able Rule of Right in the moral world, and of order in the physical creation. In the domain of religion, where there is so much scope for the imagination and the emotional part of human nature, the processes of evolution are especially liable to work in the direction of degradation. The history of all religions testifies to the constancy and uniformity of this tendency, which may be regarded as a law. In youth, full of life and energy, parasites growing up in and around them have marred their beauty and eaten out their vitality, so that in old age they are decrepit and hide-bound.

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The religions of Zoroaster, Buddha, and Mohammed are notable instances. The cruel customs of Hinduism Suttee, infant marriages, and the non-marriage of widows are of mediaeval growth, and have no place in the ancient Vedas. A religion reaching back to the most remote antiquity, like that of Egypt, must have undergone many changes of a downward tendency, and this tendency can be distinctly traced in its long life. The Egyptians delighted in sym bolism. Hunter and Duke of Argyll. And by the operation of another law of human nature, the symbols of sacred things themselves become sacred ; and the media of worship become, in due time, the objects of worship.

The Roman Catholic sacrifice of the Mass is a striking instance of this. Hence, the animal worship of the Egyptians, and the worship of the elementary forces of nature and the heavenly bodies of other lands. Manetho tells us, animal worship was introduced by the second king of the second dynasty. Beginning with three, the number grew, until these symbols of the Divine became a mighty multitude of animal gods, and the great Divine idea that lay at the heart of the Egyptian religion became utterly depraved by animal worship ; and, as men become like their gods the Egyptians having degraded God to the level of the animals, soon became themselves degraded to the same level.

The same downward progress is seen in the treatment of the dead. The earlier re-unions of the family in the tomb-chapel for the pur pose of feasting and worshipping with the dead, led by easy stages to the worship of the dead. Praying with them glided into prayer for them, and soon degenerated into praying to them. Regarding them as still living, meeting with them, and feasting with them, led to consulting them on personal and family affairs hence necromancy, which became so wide spread in after ages.

Out of all this sprang an elaborate tomb ritual, and a numerous body of priests Choachytes to perform the tomb services. The priests eventually obtained a vested interest in these sepulchral rites, which could be bought and sold, as masses are contracted for in Catholic countries, and transmitted by will to their children. History repeats itself. What M. Renouf says of the Egyptian religion may, mutatis mutandis, be said of all : " It is incontestably true that the sublimest portions of the Egyptian religion are not the comparatively late result of a process of development or elimination from the grosser.

The sublimer portions are demonstrably ancient, and the last stage of the Egyptian religion that known to the Greek and Roman writers was by far the grossest and most corrupt. As far back as man can be traced, or anything known of him, we find him founding families and nations, possessed of clear and sublime conceptions of God, and of justice, order, and moral government ; of a strong practical conviction of a life to come, and of rewards and punishments.

These two ideas, God and a future life, seem to be inseparably connected, and interwoven into the very texture of man s nature. We find also a wonderful unanimity of sentiment among the prehistoric nations on these great truths. Differing widely in many things, they yet all agree in the belief of a God, and a life to come in some form or other. And the unbroken continuity of this belief is as remarkable as its universality. It has survived all the mighty changes the human race has experienced all through its history.

All nations, always and everywhere, all through the ages have clung to this faith. Surely the most sublime spectacle in the world is this the whole race of man refusing to believe, notwithstanding all the ravages of death, that death ends all ; but as with one voice, from the very mouth of the grave, asserting their continued existence, and that death is not the Lord of life, but " mors jauua vita" the gateway through which men pass into a more complete life. The " records of the past," burial rites and customs, religious institutions, the doctrines of the great teachers of mankind, and the hopes and fears of men, are alike unanimous and emphatic on this point.

Whence then came these ideas and beliefs, and this universal consent? And how is it that what is most ancient is most clear and strong? And how is it that these convictions are so deeply rooted in human nature that all the chances and changes, the sins and sorrows, of the race have not been able to eradicate or efface them? Are we not justified in regarding this faith as an essential attribute of human nature, ever springing up, irrepressible, immortal? And arc we not further justified in regarding the idea of God, and of a future life and retribution, as inseparably connected, and as Having a common origin, either an original intuition, a God-given instinct in man, or a primeval revelation of God to His creatures, or both together ; the one being the comple ment and correlate of the other?

We have seen that the History and Archaeology of the ancient nations establish the universality of the belief in a life to come. We have seen also that the wondrous strength of conviction with which that faith was held, and its essential sameness among all peoples and in all ages, lead up to the conclusion that it must have had its source in an original intuition in human nature, or in a primitive Divine revelation, or both conjoined.

We now proceed to surer ground. For though history, art, burial rites and customs, expressing and interpreting human desires and necessities, aspirations and experiences, may go a long way to show the high probability of a future life, they cannot establish its absolute certainty. That is the high prerogative of the sacred Scriptures. The faith of the world in a life to come rests on the strongest of all foundations, the sure word of God. This knowledge would be transmitted from father to son.

That the knowledge and worship of God might not be entirely lost r God revealed Himself to Abraham, an illustrious Chaldean, and appointed him, with his descendants Isaac and Jacob, to the important trust of preserving this invaluable treasure, and imparting it to all the nations of the earth. Moses reformed and re-promulgated the Hebrew religion, giving it a new body and expression.

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He was born B. He was chosen of God to be Leader, Prophet, and Law-giver of the chosen peopA By him God delivered them from Egypt, communicated to them a better knowledge of Himself as the one eternal, holy, just, and good God a God of wisdom and order, as well as of purity and truth and by him also He gave them a politico- religious constitution for their government and worship. The Mosaic laws and institutions have a resemblance on their ceremonial side to those of Egypt, and yet are so different in other respects, that they may justly be regarded as a new creation.

The Egyptian moral code was perhaps as lofty as that of Moses, but he places moral obligation on an entirely new basis, and provides it with new motive power, viz. He had seen a noble religion, embodying the grand idea of a future life and retribution, which was to the Egyptians the religious basis of morals, degraded into a base superstition and mercenary sepulchral ceremonies. These, the most popular elements of the Egyptian religion, had utterly failed as a motive power. He therefore carries the Hebrews clear away from them all, and gives no instructions respecting burial rites and customs, or the form of the tomb, the all-important things among the Egyptians.

This is a huge mistake. If true, it would be the most astounding thing in the world, seeing that the Hebrews, and Moses himself, the great prophet of the Jewish religion, were so long in Egypt, where the doctrine of a life to come was the prominent and popular element of religion, and with which they could not fail to be well acquainted. But it is not true. All through the Old Testament there are abundant references to a future state, and rewards and punishments, which, like golden threads underlying the whole web of Jewish history, ever and again come to.

And this is true even of the first five books, commonly called the Pentateuch, which are generally admitted to have been written by Moses. It is true this doctrine does not occupy a prominent place in the Mosaic system, for which very good and sufficient reasons may be assigned. There are certain grand fundamental doctrines that the Scriptures never attempt to prove, but always assume. That there is a God, that man has a soul, that this soul is immortal, that man is responsible, and that there is a future life, are taken for granted throughout the Scriptures.

It is not too much to say that the whole system of revealed religion rests upon them. It can hardly be expected, therefore, that Moses would set himself to prove that there is a future life, any more than any other elementary truth of religion such as the being of a God. Besides, where was the need to teach by revelation what was already well known and universally believed by the Israelites, as their whole history testifies? For Moses to have solemnly set himself to reveal that there was a life to come, which everybody knew and no one disputed, would have been as absurd as to reveal to them that the sun shines.

Again, Moses did not need the sanctions of a future life and retribution to give power and stability to his authority. His Divine mission rested on clear and satisfactory ocular demonstration that could not be gainsaid. The wonders of Egypt, of the Red Sea, and the wilderness, convinced the nation that he was to them the hand and the mouth of God, and to disobey him was to disobey God. This new and unique economy was complete in itself without them.

It was as much political as religious, had more to do with the present than the future life, and placed religious duties upon an entirely new and peculiar footing. The Egyptians had worshipped their King as God. The God of Israel was the King of Israel, religious duties were political duties, and political duties were religious duties. Defection from God as the object of worship was defection from their rightful sovereign. To worship another god, or to practise any superstition, was to renounce allegiance to their King. This was high treason, a crime against the State. Whoever was guilty of idolatry, or of inciting others to it, was guilty of rebellion, and punished accordingly.

Death was the appropriate punishment of this rebellious idolatry, and the kindred arts soothsaying, magic, and necromancy. The grand feature in this politico-religious system was the ever-present God, dwelling, as it were, visibly among them, making his presence and power felt and seen in guiding and instructing, protecting and delivering, rewarding and punishing them, in a direct, immediate, and sensible manner.

To secure His favour here involved it hereafter, and hence was their great aim. That the eternal God was their portion and reward in the present roused in them such a victorious joy, and held out such prospects of earthly blessing, as took away the thought at once of the terror of death and the rewards of the life to come. They firmly believed, indeed, in a future life ; it had come down to them from Abraham as an article of their creed.

But, for the time, it was hidden in the splendid vision of their adoption by Jehovah as His people, and only gradually shone out in its due importance when that glory had faded, as the stars appear only when the world grows dark. The religion of Egypt in its decadence was mainly concerned with DeatJi. Jehovah would show, through Moses, that His religion was mainly concerned with Life. It seems to have been the Divine intention in the Mosaic Economy not to teach a system of theology, or a purely spiritual religion, but to teach the Hebrews, and the world through them, the nature of sin, of holiness, and retribution, by an elaborate system of laws and ritual, accompanied by temporal rewards and punishments using material and temporal things to lead up to, and explain, things spiritual and eternal.

Origen long ago suggested that a " higher meaning lay, as it were, in germ, in the rewards and penalties of the law, from which it came forth in completeness in due time. But to us the view has been obscured ; and, in not a few instances, the blinds have been drawn, and the view shut out altogether. Spiritual and eternal things are veiled in the types and shadows of a highly ceremonial ritual, and the eye is apt to rest on the present symbol rather than on the far-off thing signified.

In transcribing the Scriptures, an error of a word, or even a single letter in some instances, mars the sense. Then, too, the Old Testament has suffered from mistranslation. It should be remembered it was written in Hebrew, which has been for long ages a dead tongue, and there is no Hebrew literature of any moment to throw light upon its terms. Considerable help to a better understanding of it has now been obtained from the study of the cognate languages Arabic, Syriac, and Ethiopic and from the researches of scholars and archaeologists. From their literature, especially the Apocrypha and the New Testament, the Jews appear to have obtained a clearer and more definite meaning respect ing the " last things " out of the Old Testament than has been possible to us.

Still, there are many statements and allusions clear and decisive even to us. All these are the names given to the world beyond this, where disembodied spirits live, and move, and have their being. Sheol occurs sixty-five times in the Old Testament, and in thirty-one of these it is rendered Hell in the version of , in thirty-one Grave, and in three Pit.

In the Revised Version it is rendered thirty times Sheol, fifteen times Hell, fifteen times Grave, and five times Pit. From this it is obvious that much of the obscurity resting on the doctrine of a future life in the Old Testament is mainly owing to mistranslation. Had Sheol been uniformly rendered Hades, or, better still, treated as the proper name of the unseen world, as it might have been in every case, we should have had sixty-five distinct proofs of the belief of the Jews in a future state.

The terms hell, grave, and the pit, may, at some former period, have simply indicated the state of the dead, but they have long ceased to have that meaning, and to retain them is misleading. The grave is now nothing more than the receptacle of the dead body, and hell is the distinctive name of the place of punishment. No doubt Sheol, like Hades, is sometimes used as the designation of the prison of lost souls, but, even then, it is better to let it remain Sheol, as the sense in which it is used can be gathered from the connection.

As with the Greeks, Hades was the god of the nether world, the abode of the shades ; and with the Anglo-Saxons, Hell, or Hela, was the goddess of death, and had charge of all the dead ; so Sheol is the world of spirits. Originally, then, Sheol, Hades, and Hell had the same meaning. As the material heavens, the hemisphere above the earth, was con ceived of as a hollow arch, so Sheol, Hades, and Hell were conceived of as a hollow world, or hemisphere under the earth, and these corresponded the one to the other. It is high as Heaven ; what canst thou do?

Deeper than Sheol ; what canst thou know?

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Though they dig into Sheol, thence shall mine hand take them ; And though they climb up to Heaven, thence shall my hand bring them down. I will go down to Sheol to my son mourning Grave G. Bring down my grey hairs with sorrow to Sheol They go down alive into Sheol Pit P. They and all that appertained to them went down alive into Sheol P. A fire is kindled in mine anger and burneth unto the lowest Sheol Hell P. The Lord bringeth down to Sheol The cords of Sheol were round about me Sheol I Kings ii.

Let not his hoar head go down to Sheol in peace Thou shalt bring his hoar head down to Sheol with blood Job vii. He that goeth down to Sheol shall come up no more It is deeper than Sheol, what canst thou know? Oh that Thou wouldst hide me in Sheol I look hope, wait for Sheol as mine house It shall go down to the bars of Sheol In a moment they go down to Sheol S, xxiv. So doth Sheol consume violently take away those who have sinned Sheol is naked before Him In Sheol who shall give Thee thanks?

The wicked shall return to Sheol Thou wilt not leave my soul to Sheol Thou hast brought up my soul from Sheol Let the wicked be silent in Sheol They are appointed as a flock for Sheol And their beauty shall be for Sheol to consume But God will redeem my soul from the power of Sheol Let them go down alive into Sheol Thou hast delivered my soul from the lowest Sheol II 24 xxiii. And the pains of Sheol gat hold upon me If I make my bed in Sheol, behold, Thou art there Our bones are scattered at the mouth of Sheol Let us swallow them up alive as Sheol Her steps take hold on Sheol Her house is the way to Sheol Her guests are in the depths of Sheol Sheol and Abaddon Destruction are before the Lord That he may depart from Sheol beneath And shall deliver his soul from Sheol Sheol and Abaddon Destruction are never satisfied Sheol and the barren womb say not, enough Nor wisdom in Sheol, whither thou goest Jealousy is cruel as Sheol Sheol hath enlarged herself, and opened her mouth without mea sure Sheol from beneath is moved for thee Thy pomp is brought down to Sheol Thou shalt be brought down to Sheol, to the uttermost parts of the pit Ye have said.

I shall go into the gates of Sheol Sheol cannot praise Thee Thou didst debase thyself even unto Sheol In the day when he went down to Sheol When I cast him down to Sheol, with them that descend into the pit 49 Version H. Version Ez. They also went down into Sheol with him The strong among the mighty shall speak to him out of the midst of Sheol Who are gone down to Sheol with their weapons of war I will ransom them from the power of Sheol O Sheol, where is thy destruction?

Amos ix. Though they dig into Sheol Out of the belly of Sheol cried I unto God Version H. Hell 31 15 G. Grave 31 15 P. Sheol 30 65 65 The spirit world is often referred to in terms synonymous with Sheol, with which they are used interchangeably, e.