Ralegh: His Exploits and Voyages

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Soon after his Departure he returned again with a Boat full of Fish, to be divided between the Ship and the Pinnace, and then he left them. The next Day came the King's Brother Granganimeo, with a great many Atten dants; for the King himself, who was named Win gina, and his large Territories Wingandacoa, lay ill of the Wounds he had lately received in War. His Brother was highly pleased with his Entertain ment, and having received several Presents, soon after sent the Savages to traffick with the English; also came again himself, and exchanged 20 Skins, worth as many Nobles, for a Tin Dish, which he hung as a Gorget about his Neck, to defend him from the Arrows of his Enemies: Then also he brought his Wife and Children, with her Atten dants 40 or 50 in Number.

She was well-favour'd, but bashful, clad in a Mantle of Deer-skin, lined with Fur, and a Kind of Apron of the same, her Hair hung down long on each Side, with a Band of white Coral about her Forehead, and long Brace lets of Pearl down to her Middle, as big as Pease in her Ears, a Bracelet whereof, we delivered to your worship, says my Author to Ralegh. And when she could not prevail with them to stay, being but few in Company, though the Natives had no Edge-tools of Iron or Steel, and had proffered a great Box of Pearl for some Armour and a Sword, she sent her Women to watch them all Night in their Ships on the Bank side.

And indeed all the People, who saw them, admired much at their Ships, their Fire-arms, their Cloaths, and above all, their Complexions; for, except a Vessel which was cast away with some christian Adventurers about 26 Years before near Secotan, the southermost Town in Wingandacoa, never any People in Apparel, or of fair Colour were seen or heard of among them; which made them wonder so much at the Whiteness of their Skins, and so fond of seeing and touching them.

Under these favourable Recommendations, and the Distress which the Natives were in for some power ful Friends to defend them from the Invasions of their Neighbours, the Promises of visiting them again, wherewith the English left them, after having learnt as much of the Situation, State and Product of the Country, as was at this Time con venient, were very acceptable.

So bringing over a Couple of the Indians with them, named Manteo and Wanchese, to shew them our fine Country, they arrived safely in the West of England about the Middle of September following. There was then a Clerk of the Parliament so very indolent, or otherwise indisposed, that the Trans actions of the House of Commons at this Time were very imperfectly recorded. Yet we find Ra legh mentioned to have been chosen of the Com mittees upon some Bills that were then read.

Three Days after the said Bill was, without any Alteration, ordered to be engrossed. The next Day it was read the third Time, when it passed the House. Between this Time and the 24th of Fe bruary following he received the Honour of Knight hood; for being then in a Committee for consider ing after what Manner and Measure they should supply her Majesty by Subsidy: This is the earliest Time I meet with of his being stiled Sir Walter Ralegh; a Title which her Majesty bestowed, as all others of Honour, with Frugality and Choice.

About the Time that her Majesty granted Ralegh the Patent above-cited for the Discovery of remote Countries, she seems also to have given him an other to license the Vending of Wines throughout the Kingdom, that he might be better able to sus tain the great Charges which the other brought up on him. And hence arose his Con troversy at this Time with one of the Universities. Complaint being made to Ralegh, he wrote a Letter to The worshipful Dr. Howland, Vice-chancellor and the Rest of the Masters, to tell them how much he took this riotous Demeanor as a Contempt of the Queen's Grant to him; presuming, if he had given any unlawful Privilege, the Conference he had offered, by his Deputies, for a quiet Decision of the Matter by learned Council between them, would have been accepted.

Further telling them, that if the Abuse was not regulated, and the said Keymer permitted to enjoy the Liberty granted him, he would take some other Course for Reformation therein; but resting assured they would use such means as might occasion no further Trouble, he not desiring to execute his Grant to its Extent among their Vintners, who were the only Disturb ers herein, respecting more their own Gain than quiet Government; he only craves their Answer, and that the riotous Persons might not rest unpu nished: So bids them heartily farewel; from his Lodgings at the Court the 9th of July ; and subscribes himself Your very affectionate loving Friend.

But his too favourable Dealing with them had given such Encouragement, as, that, intending further to di sturb the Bearer, they had warned him to appear before them; with which he had persuaded him to comply. And herein tells them, he cannot a little marvel at their peremptory and proud Manner of Dealing.

That he was content to use all Manner of Courtesy towards them in Respect of his honourable good Lord the Lord-treasurer; but perceived his reason able, or rather too submiss Dealing, had bred in them a Proceeding unsufferable; having committed a poor Man to Prison, for doing nothing but what was warranted by the great Seal of England; which, supposing they had a Charter, he knew not that any Man or Society would so much take upon them to do, before a Trial.

As I reverence the Place, says he, of which you are the Governors, so I will not willingly take any Wrong or Disgrace from you. So having thought they would have vouchsafed him an Answer to his last Letters, he ends, subscribing himself Your Friend, as you shall gave Cause. This rous'd them to some Consi deration, and soon after, a handsome apologetical Letter was sent from the Vice-chancellor to Sir W. Ralegh, setting forth, that the hard Opinion he had conceived of them for this Matter, made them doubt what Manner of Answer they might address to him without Offence; and that their Silence was so ill taken, they knew not how their Endea vours to excuse it might give him Satisfaction.

That they had not neglected any reasonable Means to procure his Favour for the quiet Enjoyment of that whereof they had the Fruition for above two hun dred Years; nor omitted to become Petitioners to him in a very humble Manner. That his Counsel had not made any just Exception against their Charters; and those who had the Hearing of the Case, thought them to have the better Warrant.

Yet that he used such hard Terms, as they little looked for at his Hands; being by Birth a Gentle man; by Education trained up to the Knowledge of good Letters; instructed with the liberal Disposition of a University, the Fountain and Nursery of all Huma nity; and further, by God's good Blessing, advanc'd in Court, from whence the very Name of Courtesy is drawn. That the Prejudice he apprehended from their Example against his Patent, was unlikely to fall out; since other Places were not privileged as the Universities were.

Touching the Imprisonment of the Party, whom he charged them with proceeding against before Trial; and who, according to Mr. Brown 's Pro mise to the Lord-treasurer, was to have given over at Michaelmas last; however the Course thereof had been otherwise reported to him, it was only at this Time to correct his Contempt in not appearing, being lawfully warned, and refusing to answer be fore the ordinary Judge, or enter Bond for Ap pearance when Cause should require.

That for their own Part, it would be no Disadvantage whe ther he or other, one or many, were Vintners there; but in Regard of the Youth committed to their Charge, Duty bound them to consider who they admitted to keep Taverns, the Number whereof was also limited; which, if they exceeded, would endanger their Privileges; for the Preserva tion whereof as they had all taken a special Oath, so they right humbly eftsoons beseech'd him to have Regard of them for their Duties therein.

Con cluding thus; Whatever Kindness you shall any Ways shew to the University; as the Body thereof doth still continue, so the Memory thereof cannot de cay. There is not one of us, but you may readily com mand wherein it may please you to employ us; only we pray you, and that in the heartiest Manner, to vouchsase us your Favour in Matter of our Privi leges; That we may leave them in no worse Estate to our Posterity; than we did receive them of our Predecessors. Thus desiring God so to direct you with his blessed Spirit, as may be most to his Glory, and your greatest Comfort, we take our Leave; from Cambridge.

The Parliament being soon after, on the 29th of March , prorogued, Ralegh appears several Ways engag'd in the laudable Improvements of Navigation. For his Brother Adrian Gilbert of Sandridge, afterwards knighted, in Pursuance of the Arguments laid down by his Brother Sir Hum phrey, having been at great Charges in finding out the Northern Passage to China and the Moluccas; and in Consideration thereof been granted a Patent by the Queen two Years before this Time, to pur sue the Discovery by Partners, under the Title of The Colleagues of the Fellowship for the Discovery of the North-west Passage; Ralegh was now one of the Associates in this Enterprize; and after having duly consulted about the likeliest Means to Success, and liberally contributed towards the Expence, they chose Captain John Davis, an experienced Navigator, to be Undertaker of the Exploit.

Ralegh : His Exploits and Voyages

When he came to Land sixty-six Degrees forty Minutes Latitude, he anchor'd in a very fair Road, under a brave Mountain; which, for the splendid Appearance it made, the Cliffs thereof being as orient as Gold, they named Mount Ralegh, in Honour of their Proprietor; and soon after fell into the very Passage they sought, since well known by the Name of Davis's Streights. The farther Search whereof, through the same Patronage and Support, Captain Davis made in two Voyages more, the two following Years, and in a Manner compleated the said Discovery.

But about two Months before Davis begun his said first Voyage for this Discovery, Ralegh sent out his own Fleet for Virginia, which consisted of seven Sail, whereof some were his own Ships, and they departed from Plymouth on the 9th of April, the Year above specified. Ralph Lane, who was afterwards knighted, to be Governor of the Colony, which they now transported. There went besides, Mr. John Clark, and several others, whereof some were Captains, and others Assistants for Council and Direction in the Voyage.

John de Puerto Rico, where they were sadly stung with the Musketoes, and near which they took two Spanish Frigats; one whereof was freighted with a rich Cargo, and divers Spaniards of Distinction, who afterwards were ransom'd for good round Sums of Money. Arundel to the main Continent, where they found some of their Men, who had been con ducted thither twenty Days before, by Captain Ray mond. On the eleventh following, the General, accompanied by Arundel, Stuckley, Lane, Candish, Hariot, Amadas, Clark, and others, passed over the Water to the main Land, and victuall'd their Ships; in which Voyage they first discover'd the Towns of Pomeioc, Aquasgococ, and Secotan; also the great Lake Paquipe, and many other Places; then return'd to their Fleet.

They afterwards re visited those Parts, and were kindly entertained by the Savages. Coming at last to Anchor to Hato rask; Prince Grangino, or Granganimeo, before mentioned, came attended by Manteo to visit them on board the Admiral, which was named the Ty ger. Lane, were left for a Year in the Country, without Disturbance, to begin the Plantation.

On the 25th of August the General weighed Anchor, and set Sail for England; about six Days after he took a Spanish Ship of three hun dred Ton, richly laden; and on the 18th of Octo ber arrived with the Prize at Plymouth, where he was courteously received by his worshipful Friend. After Com missioners were sent over for this Purpose, and proper Methods taken to prevent frudulent Con veyances by the Rebels, there was at last a Scheme resolv'd on for the Plantation of Munster; and Se cretary Fenton carried over the Instructions towards the latter End of this Year.

The whole Forfeiture was above , Acres of Land; and after some Restitutions had been made, the Remainder was divided into Seigniories among certain Gentleman-undertakers, as they were called; but chiefly such as had been instrumental in appeasing the Irish Rebellion. And tho' many of the Un dertakers did not people their Seigniories with well affected English, but sold them to English Papists, or otherwise to their Profit; nor fortified accord ing to their Covenants; nor forbore encroaching upon the Lands of the loyal and protected Irish as the Crown on the other Side fail'd of maintaining certain Forces promis'd for their Security from fresh Invasions; yet I meet with none of those Irregu larities objected to Ralegh; on the contrary, that he peopled his Plantation unexceptionably; that he kept the said Estate to the latter End of the Queen's Reign, and then sold it to Richard Boyle, after wards the famous Earl of Cork, as, in a Memorial of his own Life, the said Earl has related.

But as capacious as this Benefit seemed, it was rather ex pensive perhaps at first, than profitable to him. For Sir Richard Greenvil, who, at his Depar ture from Virginia, had promised the Colony he left behind to return punctually with Supplies by the following Easter at furthest, was not altogether so expeditious as they expected; probably through some Difficulties attending the Charge thereof, which Ralegh 's new Undertaking of planting also that Seigniory might probably render more burden some.

Greenvil brought over Letters from Gover nor Lane to a very worthy Encourager of all naval Adventurers; describing the Commodities and Fer tility of the Country they were about to cultivate and civilize; the said Governor also drew up Notes while he was there, which he afterwards metho dized into a Discourse of two Parts, displaying the Particularities of the Country of Virginia, and the Reasons which moved their Departure from thence in to England.

Domingo, Cartagena, and St. Augustine, determined, in his Way home ward, to visit his Friend's Colony in Virginia. They had despaired of Sir Richard Greenvil 's Pro mise; and the rather, because of the Preparations then making for Flanders, and other Parts of America. Their Corn was indeed within a Fort night of inviting the Sickle; but they were in Need of many other Provisions.

Hereupon Drake readily proffer'd them all Manner of Supplies, by Vic tuals, Men, Ammunition, and Ships, to carry on and compleat their worthy Undertaking. The Go vernor desired only a Ship, and so much Provision as about August would carry him and his Company to England, which Drake granted in full Suffi ciency; besides Pinnaces, Boats, and two expe rienced Masters or Pilots, to abide with them, and apply themselves earnestly in the Action.

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All this was performed in two Days. Then Drake prof fer'd them another Ship; but the rest of the Co lony, who were left behind, all begg'd to go for England; to which Drake consenting, took them aboard on the 19th of July, and set Sail. Sir Walter Ralegh had in the mean Time provided a Ship of a hundred Ton, freighted with all Kind of Provisions in a most plentiful Manner, for the Re lief of this Colony; but not sailing till after Easter, the said Colony was newly departed before this fresh Supply arrived at Virginia.

After some Time spent upon the Country, in seeking the Colony and not finding it, they returned with all the Provision aforesaid into England. About a Fortnight after, Sir Richard Greenvil arrived at Virginia with three Ships more, well stored for the same Company of Planters; but he, after much Search, missing also of them and of the aforesaid Ship, left fifteen Men at Roanoak with Plenty of Supplies, and made for England; and not without some Conquests over the Spaniards at the Azores in his Return.

And indeed Ralegh was also about this very Time victorious at the same Place; for, when he sent the aforesaid Ship to relieve the Colony, or soon after, he dis patched two more, named the Serpent and Mary-Spark, both of them his own, to the Azores against the Spaniards, under the Conduct of Captain Ja cob Whiddon, John Evesham, and others. In one of them was the Gover nor of St. Michael 's Island; in another, which they took near the Isle of Graciosa, was the famous Pedro de Sarmiento, Governor of the Streights of Magellan; who was the furthest and most expe rienced Navigator in all Spain.

But to return to the Virginian Colony; it arriv ed at Plymouth on the 27th of July following. There are some pleasant Stories of this Plant, with Relation to him, which have been as carefully preserved as the Box he kept it in. This I say, if true, has nothing in it of more surprising or unparallel'd Simplicity, than there was in that poor Norwegian, who upon the first Sight of Roses could not be in duced to touch, tho' he saw them grow, being so amazed to behold Trees budding with Fire: Or, to come closer by Way of Retaliation, than there was in those Virginians themselves, who, the first Time they seized upon a Quantity of Gunpowder which belonged to the English Colony, sowed it for Grain, or the Seed of some strange Vegetable in the Earth, with full Expectation of reaping a plentiful Crop of Combustion by the next Harvest to scatter their Enemies.

But passing over these Tales; as Ralegh was the first, who brought this Herb in Request among us, and laid the Foundation for that great Traffick therewith, which has been of such considerable Be nefit to his Country; there is no less Honour due to him than has been conferred on that Ambassador, who had before brought it out of Portugal into France; where, in mentioning the Herb, they pay grateful Acknowledgments to the Importer, by calling it Nicotiana, after his own Name: Nay, his politick Sovereign Catherine de Medicis, did so zealously encourage the Use of it, that it was also afterwards in Honour of her called the Queen's Herb.

Nor was the Queen of England backward in listening to, and promoting the Advantages it was promised to produce. We may gather from some Authors, that she was very curious to know its Virtues and Properties; and that once conver sing with Ralegh upon this Subject, He assured her Majesty he had so well experienced the Nature of it, that he could tell her of what Weight, even the Smoke would be in any Quantity proposed to be consumed. Indeed it is not to be wonder'd that such a Philosopher, as could magnify the Power of Witches, after the Manner he has done in one of his learned Pamphlets, should be such a Politician as to discourage the taking of To bacco in another.

As for the Uses and Virtues of this Plant; since so many learned Writers have given us whole Books upon them, I shall only here observe from the first Author among us, immediately upon his Return with the Colony aforesaid from Virginia, where he had been em ployed by Ralegh to survey the Country; that the Savages distinguished it by sowing apart from all other Vegetables, and held it of highest Estimation in all their Sacrifices by Fire, Water and Air, ei ther for Thanksgiving to, or Pacification of their Gods.

And as by sucking it through it through Pipes of Clay, they purged all gross Humours from the Head and Stomach, opened all the Pores and Passages of the Body, preserving it from Ob structions, or breaking them, whereby they nota bly preserved Health, and knew not many grievous Diseases wherewith we in England are often afflict ed: So we ourselves, says he, during the Time we were there, used to suck it after their Manner, as also since our Return, and have found many rare and wonderful Experiments of its Virtues, whereof the Relation would require a Volume by itself, the Use of which by so many Men and Women of great Calling, as well as others, and some learned Physicians also, is sufficient Witness.

The learned Author of this Account, Mr. I remember to have met with a scarce old Tract in the Lambeth Library, written by a learned and ingenious Author of those Times; he adds: Yet you, more respecting the good Ends whereunto you le velled your Line for the Good of your Country, did not give over 'till you had recovered a Land, and had made a Plantation of the People of your own Eng lish Nation in Virginia, the first English Colony that was ever planted there; not a little to the Deroga tion of the Spaniards Glory and Impeachment to their Vaunts, who, because, with all cruel Immanity, they subdued a naked and yielding People, whom they sought for Gain, and not for Religion or the Planta tion of a Common-wealth, over whom, to satisfy their insatiable Covetousness, they did most cruelly tyrannise, and against the Course of all human Nature scorch and roast them to Death, as by their own Histories doth appear.

But if these your Actions were well looked into and with due Consideration, it shall be found much more honourable in sundry Respects for the Advance ment of the Name of God, the Honour of the Prince, and the Benefit of the Common-wealth. For what can be more pleasant to God, than to gain and reduce, in all Christian-like Manner, a lost People to the Knowledge of the Gospel and a true Christian Reli gion, than which cannot be a more pleasant and sweet Sacrifice, and a more acceptable Service before God?

Ralegh : his exploits and voyages

And what can be more honourable to Princes, than to enlarge the Bounds of their Kingdoms, without In jury, Wrong and Bloodshed, and to frame them from a savage Life to a civil Government, neither of which the Spaniards in their Conquests have performed? And what can be more beneficial to a Common-wealth, than to have a Nation and a Kingdom to transfer un to, the superfluous Multitude of fruitless and idle People here, at Home, daily increasing to travel, conquer, and manure another Land, which, by the due Intercourses to be devised, may and will yield in finite Commodities?

And how well you do deserve every Way, in following so honourable a Course, not we ourselves only can witness, but strange Nations also do honour you for the same; as doth appear by the Epistle of Bassimerus of France to the History of Flo rida, and by Julius Caesar a Citizen of Rome, in his Epistle to his Book, intitled Columbeados. To this we may here add the Testimony of Camden; who, speaking of this Undertaking of Virginia, at the Return of the last Colony sent thither by Sir Walter Ralegh, says, He was a Man never to be sufficiently commended for the great Pains he took in discovering remote Countries, and advancing the Glory of the English Navigation.

But it was translated into English the Year following by Richard Hakluyt himself, who also dedicates it anew to the same Patron: And indeed we find Ralegh from this Time a very con siderable Patron of learned and ingenious Authors, not only in History and Geography, but Antiqui ties, Chymistry, Poetry, and other polite Branches of Art and Science; for Admiral Coligny having sent over with the aforesaid Discoverers of Florida, a very skilful Artist from France, to take Draughts of whatever he found observable and worthy of Re presentation in the said Country: which he did, not only among the animal and vegetable Rarities thereof, but also, it seems, from the Customs of the Natives and historical Events among the Dis coverers themselves: This Painter living afterwards in London, at, or before the Publication of those Discoveries; was supported by Ralegh in the great Expence of publishing also his Draughts and De scriptions.

Hereunto we may further add, that there was about this Time also another Book dedicated to Ralegh, in Praise of Musick, wherein, besides the Antiquity and Dignity thereof, is declared the sober and lawful Use of the same in the Congregation and Church of God. I apprehend, there was a greater Propriety in the Publisher's Choice of this Patron to that Work, than is now commonly known; for I have some where met with Hints, that Sir Walter Ralegh was a great Proficient in Musick, either vocal, instru mental, or both; whence we might be somewhat induced to construe some Lines of Spenser 's con cerning him, hereafter quoted, in the literal Sense.

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How Ralegh used this Favour, and what Usage it also procured him, the same Dedication does somewhat further reveal in these Words. It is well known, that it had been no less easy for you, than for such as have been advanced by Kings, to have build ed great Houses, purchased large Circuits, and to have used the Fruits of Princes Favours, as most Men in all former and present Ages have done; had you not preferred the general Honour and Commodity of your Prince and Country before all that is private; whereby you have been rather a Servant than a Com mander to your own Fortune.

The Earl of Essex had now been near a Twelve month abroad, under his Father-in-law, Leicester, Governor of the Netherlands; was but nineteen Years of Age when he went over, being his first Engagement in any publick Action, yet no less than a General of the Horse; and before that, as himself says, he had small Grace, and few Friends at Court.

Ra legh seems to have little regarded these Aspersions, but constantly attended his publick Charge and Employments, whether in Town or Country as Oc casion called him. Accordingly we find him the latter End of this Year in Parliament, where, among other weighty Concerns, the Fate of Mary Queen of Scots was determined. There is nothing particular upon Record in the Journals of the House of Commons of Ralegh 's Opinion in this Matter, nor indeed any Debates upon the Sentence that had been pronounced against that Queen.

For on the 12th of November, a Petition agreed upon in both Houses was presented to Queen Elizabeth, by the Speaker Puckering, the Privy-council, and a Body of the Commons, joined with the Lord Chancellor Bromley and twenty other temporal Lords, for the speedy Execution of the said Queen of Scots, in Consideration of the treasonable and rebellious Prac tices wherewith she had been proved to endanger this Realm and its Ruler.

The said Petition was immediately printed, and that Queen in less than three Months after executed. He was appointed one of the Committee to confer upon the Amend ment of some Things, whereunto the Clergy were required to be sworn, and that some good Course might be taken to have a learned Ministry; for the Queen had in her Speech at the Close of the last Sessions told the Bishops of some Faults and Neg ligences, which if you, my Lords of the Clergy, said she, do not amend, I mean to depose you.

John White, whom he appoint ed Governor, and with him twelve Assistants, to whom he gave a Charter, and incorporated them by the Name of the Governor and Assistants of the City of Ralegh in Virginia. Their Fleet, consist ing of three Sail, departed from Portsmouth on the 26th of April, , and in less than three Months following arrived safe at Hatorask, from whence they went to the Isle of Roanoak to look for the fif teen Men left there by Sir Richard Greenvil the Year before, meaning from thence to pass to the Bay of Chesepiock, where they intended to make their Seat and Fort, according to the Charge given them by Sir Walter Ralegh.

But when they came to the North part of the Island where Governor Lane had bu lt his Fort, they found it razed, and the Ground rooms of the Dwelling-houses, which had been also erected about it, inhabited by Deer, and over grown with Melons, or such like Sort of Fruit, which those Animals broozed upon. At Croatoan they were very well received and entertained by the Natives, thro' the Means of Manteo their Country man.

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Of these they learnt, that the Englishmen they were seeking, had been treacherously set up on by a Party of the Savages, who wounded some of them, and drove the rest to some remote and obscure Parts of the Country. Now having re-established their In terest and Alliance with the Natives, as far as this short Interview would permit, and delivered their Ships of the Provisions for the Colony, the Planters began to consider, they should be in Want of fresh Supplies; therefore upon some Difference about choosing a Factor to return for that Purpose into England, they unanimously petitioned the Governor to return himself, to which he at last consented, and the Ships with some few of the Company arrived in England, not without Storms, Sickness, and the Death of several of them by other like Casualties, about the latter End of the same Year.

It was but five Days after the going forth of this second Colony, that Mr. In this Dedication it will somewhat appear, that neither the Returns, which might have been made by any merchantable Products in Virginia, nor the Profits arising to him from any Spanish Prizes, which had been taken at Sea, were equivalent to the great Expences he had been at, in settling this Plantation; and further, that he had received no particular or private Assistance in this Enterprize from the Queen, because his Hopes therein, and her Majesty's Regard thereof, are so handsomely excited by the said Author.

For the Rumour grew stronger every Day of such a mighty Fleet threatning us, as if all Spain and Rome were to land upon our little Island, and over-run the whole King dom.

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  8. The Queen and her Privy-council therefore no longer delayed all proper Means for the De fence of the Realm; but out of all her Com manders by Land and Sea appointed those of most approved Abilities in naval and military Affairs, as well as of the greatest Authority in their respective Counties, to hold Consultations for the Security of her Person, her People, and their Possessions. And as there were such Consultations distinctly held by the most ancient and experienced Com manders at Sea; so we find by the like Appoint ment a Council of War also held on the 27th of November this Year, by others of highest Repute for their Knowledge, how to put the Forces of the Realm in the best Order, to withstand any Inva sion by Land.

    Besides this grand Scheme for the Safeguard of the Kingdom in general, Ralegh seems to have had some special Regard to several particular Places. Further, for Removal of the unserviceable Ordnance there to London; and that the Lord Marquis would give Order for his said hundred Men, by his Commission directed to the Lieutenant of Portland; and he will undertake to collect Men of Sufficiency, not of the trained Number. But as much engaged as Ralegh seems at this Time to have been for the Safety of the Kingdom, he found some Interval to consider also upon Means for the Relief of his Colony; for after Governor White returned, and had delivered him his Letters, with other Advertisements concerning his late Voyage, and the State of the Planters in Virginia, Ralegh immediately appointed a Pinnace to be sent thither, with all such Provisions as he apprehended they might want; and also wrote Letters to them, promising that he would prepare a good Supply of Shipping and Men, with all other Necessaries, to be with them the Summer following.

    In the mean Time, the Alarm so increas'd throughout all England, of that vast and formidable Armament made by the King of Spain, under the Sanction of the Pope's Crusado, for the Invasion and Conquest of the whole Island; that most of the Ships of War then in any Readiness, received Orders from the State to attend in their Harbours for the Defence of their own Country; and Sir Richard Greenvil was personally commanded not to depart out of Cornwall.

    Governor White nevertheless labour'd so earnestly for the Relief of the Colony, that he obtain'd two small Pinnaces, called the Brave and the Roe, wherein fifteen Planters, and all conve nient Provisions for those who winter'd in the Country, were transported; but the Names of the Captains who commanded those Vessels are not re member'd. The battle which ensues is part of a wider debate in early modern Europe of the senses in which, as we have seen, both Ralegh and Wroth participate.

    Indeed, we discover their creations being drawn regularly both towards the agonies of sensual inertia and elsewhere towards transcendent encounters bringing with them unexpected strains of knowledge: the former condition may bring with it lasting injury, the second remains transformational and yields access to a deeply precious fund of more nuanced understanding. O Antissius , hath life beene lent me to see this day! More broadly, as was proposed at the outset of this discussion, all of these many and various depictions of sensory engagement can invite early modern and late modern eyes to engage in more perplexing, ontological enquiries.

    For we haue now greater Giants, for vice and injustice, than the World had in those daies [when there were giants], for bodily strength; for cottages, and houses of clay and timber, we haue raised Palaces of stone; we carue them, we paint them, and adorne them with gold; insomuch as men are rather knowne by their houses, than their houses are known by them; we are fallen from two dishes, to two hundred; from water, to wine and drunkennesse; from the couering of our bodies with skinnes of beasts, not only to silke and gold, but to the very skinnes of men. However, in each case, readers of their narratives are called upon to interrogate their received thinking regarding of the sensory powers of the body and to reflect how these might be radically tested in the quest for higher forms of knowledge.

    Bentley, , p. Armitage ed. Kastner, vol.

    The Architect of English Expansion

    II, rep. New York, Haskell House Publishers, , 1st pub. For further discussion concerning early modern understandings of the faculty of sight, see Stuart Clark, Vanities of the Eye.

    Log in to My Virginia.

    Stafford and R. Read, , C4 v. LI, p. A Historical Edition , ed. In this instance, see p. See W. Jonathan Barnes, rev. Aristotle inherited the concept of the five senses from the Pre-Socratics, but his works notably De Anima and De Sensu et Sensibilibus part of Parva Naturalia were key in establishing the concept of subsequent generations: e.

    • Ralegh : his exploits and voyages (Book, ) [fyvowojo.ml];
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    For further critical discussion here, see: Mark Bradley ed. Jackson, , B2 v. Carolyn J. See Ralegh, Poems , op. Performed in the yeare , London, Robert Robinson, , p. See Renaissance Romance. For an equally stimulating critical account of the European evolution of the prose romance into the early modern period, see also Victor Skretkowicz, European Erotic Romance. Miller and Gary Waller eds. Sanchez, Erotic Subjects. Cavanagh, Cherished Torment. Here once again, we discover an example of Ralegh like Wroth querying radically uninspected prejudices of gender expectation and cultural priority which often enjoyed common currency in early modern society.

    For a broader discussion of how this episode approximates Christian hagiographic narration, see Skretkowicz, European Erotic Romance , op. Ralegh, Poems , op. Condition: Fair. No Jacket. Bound in brown cloth, blind stamped with image of a tall ship and decorated in black and gilt. Tissue guarded frontis, portrait of Ralegh. Some light foxing mainly confined to first and last few pages and page edges.

    Heroes of History series. Some very small frays to board edges and light bump to corners. Internally bright and clean. Would get better grade bar absent f. Notwithstanding faults mentioned, an attractive pocket copy. Size: 6" By 7. Seller Inventory More information about this seller Contact this seller 1. Published by T. About this Item: T.

    Condition: Good. Blue illustrated cloth with gilt and black titles. Light tanning to page edges and scuffed to corners, in good condition. Please allow days for delivery within the UK, please contact me for international delivery times and prices.