Lanello rubato (Italian Edition)

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The story of this really long link I'm really satisfied! I purchased 4 well for Christmas gifts and I'm sure will be very appreciated! The service was perfect. Beautiful ring. The men- tal image of someone vivace includes all the aspects of the meaning of the adjective identified in the previous section, with a specification that this is not what one sees, but what one imagines.

Section [D] captures the reason for playing music vivace and states that it is a matter of expressive potential, captured with CAN. The idea is that the performer plays in a particular way to express what they feel at that moment; at the same time, the audience can know what the per- former feels and can feel the same. The reason is that compositions marked with vivace are not only in major key, but can also be in minor key, which according to the doctrine of the affec- tions section 2 evokes negative emotions. Therefore, it would not be justified to posit such a component for the invariant meaning of vivace.

The meanings of rubare in Italian The other musical term which we analyse in this paper is tempo ru- bato. As with vivace, we believe that in order to understand better the meaning of this musical term it is necessary, first, to analyse the mean- ing of the word as used in Italian in contexts other than the musical one. In this respect, it is necessary to specify that in Italian there is another similar verb for the act of taking something away from someone: derubare.

Independently of whether the object is concrete or abstract, if the act of rubare is done illicitly it always implies criticism and requires com- pensation, i.

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Significantly, in the CORIS-CODIS corpus rubare in this negative connotation occurs in combination with nouns like ladro, furto, rapina thief, theft, robbery and with verbs like rapire kidnap , frodare de- fraud and uccidere kill , which are associated with violence, decep- tion and imply social condemnation.

The use of rubare in the commandment clearly emphasises the strong negative connotation of this verb and the con- demnation of the act. Facciamo a gara su chi deve ru- bargli l'attenzione. Further- more, although the act is performed with some deception it does not have a negative connotation. Non so come facevo a rubare il tempo per scrivere.

Thus, it is necessary to distinguish two separate meanings of rubare: one meaning related to both concrete and abstract things which carries a negative connotation, and a figurative meaning related only to ab- stract things which does not carry a negative connotation. It is important to mention that this figurative sense of rubare is not a recent development of modern Italian, but it is attested in texts as old as Alessandro Manzoni, I Promessi Sposi, , Capitolo 2 Lucia had just come forth adorned from head to foot by the hands of her mother.

Her friends were stealing glances at the bride, and forcing her to show herself. The meaning of tempo rubato in music So, what does it mean to play music in tempo rubato? For years if not centuries , this much disputed term has been interpreted by music theorists and composers in different ways, which is why many teachers to this day struggle to explain to music students what exactly it means. It is often believed that to play in tempo rubato is essentially a matter of personal interpretation; howev- er, this does not eliminate the necessity for a clear explanation of the meaning of this term which can be used effectively for pedagogical purposes.

As the expression itself indicates, rubato is about the tempo of a piece; it means to alter the rhythm of that piece when not expressly in- dicated by the composer for expressive purposes. Traditionally, music theorists distinguish two kinds of rubato: rhythmic and agogic. Rhythmic rubato applies to individual notes or to specific parts of a composition and consists in taking the liberty of ac- celerating and decelerating or vice versa the rhythm when this is not indicated on the score while keeping the bass constant, i. Rossi-Doria [] emphasised that this technique is very much rooted in the Italian musical tradition.

He added that it was the composer Girolamo Frescobaldi who first advocated the use of rubato in instrumental music in the preface to his Primo Libro di Capricci The idea was that just as singers could emphasise the lyrics of a song by singing in a certain way so musicians could put more emphasis on certain parts of the piece. Generally speaking, the idea is that the performer should not play in tempo rubato too often, but only at specific moments during the execution, otherwise the desired expressive effect is not achieved and the result is a complete non- metronomic execution without a basic tempo.

As Matthay [] explained, if, therefore, we wish to give extra time to certain notes, we must corresponding- ly take away time from other notes, to make up for the extra time this spent; or again, if we wish to hasten certain notes of a passage, we must delay other notes cor- respondingly for the same reason; and thus we shall be able to keep our tempo out- line, in spite of all this time-bending and swerving 63 This return to the pulse must always occur at the most important point or note of the phrase, that is near its end.

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We believe that there are two reasons why rubato is often confusing and difficult to understand. The first is that the meaning of rubato has never been clearly ex- plained, especially with the essential support of an in-depth analysis of the figurative meaning of rubare in Italian. The second is that definitions of rubato have never been phrased in clear and cross-translatable terms, which would have made them acces- sible even to those who cannot speak Italian. Section [B] is intended to capture the way of playing tempo rubato.

First of all, the section captures the idea that there is a difference in the way people hear sounds used here as a semantic molecule in comparison with how one would normally hear them. Most importantly, the last component in this section is intended to capture the idea that when rubato is applied the length of the bars and the duration of the whole piece do not change. Section [C] captures the mental image associated with playing tempo rubato and is based on the explication for rubare proposed in the pre- vious section.

Conclusion: implications for music teaching and further research In conclusion, the semantic analysis of vivace and rubato presented in this paper was made with two main objectives in mind: one was to elucidate the meanings of these two musical terms from a cultural- semantic perspective and highlight the relationship between these terms and Italian language and culture, bearing in mind that these terms are also used internationally; the other was to provide explanations which are clear, intelligible, are not phrased in technical jargon and do not ex- plain the meaning of these terms via other agogic terms.

In this way, the explications proposed can be accessible to non-musicians as well as music students. The Natural Semantic Metalanguage has proved itself a valid meth- odology for both objectives.

Being phrased in clear and cross- translatable terms the Italian version of both explications is provided in Appendix 2 and, most importantly, without using any technical jar- gon or label specific of one particular linguoculture Italian or English , the proposed explications can be read by speakers of any language and therefore can be effectively used to teach music students with various linguocultural backgrounds the meaning of vivace and rubato even if they are not familiar with Italian.

This, we believe, would considerably facilitate the understanding of these terms and the learning experience altogether. In particular, the re- spective mental images associated with vivace and rubato portrayed in the explications could be used by the teacher to help the student under- stand how to interpret the piece and the emotional state in which to play.

While it is true that vivace and rubato are two of the most difficult agogic terms to teach, they are by no means the only ones. We do hope that other musical terms for example allegro and andante will be ana- lysed adopting this methodology in the future. At the same time, the va- lidity of this methodology for this kind of analysis is not limited to agogic terms, but it would be interesting to see other musical terms ex- plicated with NSM.

Figure 3. Brossard, S. Frescobaldi, G. Fubini, E. Antolini - M. Gialdroni - A. Pugliese ed. Galeazzi, F. Goddard, C. Understanding discourse in cultural con- text, Berlin, Mouton de Gruyter. Schnei- der 44, pp. Sharifian ed.