Quellen der arabischen Medizin (German Edition)
It is a book compiled by a capable engineer according to his talents and his understanding on the basis of his knowledge of the sources and within the bounds of the con- ditions of his environment. Whether it reached the West from the Arabic-Islamic area or whether it developed v. It provides unique material on tech- nical instruments and devices, about their con- struction and the materials used.
Thus the book contributes fundamentally to the understanding of the general history of technology, although it is possibly not representative of the standard attained in the Islamic world in general. Some of the machines described show affinity to such which later appear in European books on me- chanical devices and automata, even though there does not seem to be a direct connection.
This nobleman from the west- ern part of the Islamic world came to Palermo either as a traveller or as a guest of the Norman king Roger II r. There he prepared, during his stay of many years, upon commis- sion by his host, a circular world map on  a silver disc, 70 regional maps and a book entitled Nuzhat al-mustaq fi htiraq al-afaq on the geog- raphy of the world.
For the succeeding king, Guillaume I r. In the year CE. The world map and some of the sectional maps survive as the final product of multiple copying in a number of manuscripts of the geo- graphical work. The question of how al-Idrlsi was able to create these maps, and the ques- tion of the importance of the entire work for the history of geography, were discussed for a long time and found widely differing answers. In the discussion of the map it was almost al- ways assumed that al-Idrlsi must have used the Ptolemaic world map as his model. While referring to the detailed discussion of this question in volumes 10 and 1 1 of my Geschichte des arabischen Schrifttums and to the yet un- published manuscript of the volume on anthro- pogeography, I will state my view very briefly here: The Ptolemaic Geography itself actually consists of an instruction for drawing maps and as such most probably did not include any maps.
Leaving aside certain obvious errors and deviations, such as the omission of the grat- icule which was erroneously replaced by lines of equal distance meant to represent the seven climates, the Idrisi map surpasses its model in various respects. Thus Europe, in particular the Mediterranean area, is represented more ac- curately, North-East Asia has been completely revised, and Central Asia with its systems of v. Hence the question arises how a geographer in Sicily in those days could have accomplished this cartographic survey, which in fact required work to be carried out locally and for genera- tions.
In fact, I believe that the results of such work reached al-ldrisl in the form of a book supplied with maps. The work written by one Hanah Gagan or Ganah b. Haqan al-Klmaki is mentioned by al-Idrisi amongst his sourc- es. Apparently, this geographical-cartographi- cal work by a prince of the Kimak-Turks was based on a long-term collection of data, gath- ered locally in the tradition of Arabic-Islamic cartography.
As far as I am aware, no historian of geography has as yet asked him- self from where this depiction of Asia in those Western maps originated. The circular world map which sur- vived in several manuscripts of his Geography and which had suffered from repeated copying was known only to a few arabists prior to the appearance of the commendable work Mappae 22j Nuzhat al-mustaq, in: al-Idrisi.
Opus geographicum, ed. Bombaci et al. In his book Miller published the surviving copies of the circular world map, the sectional maps and a world map reconstructed by him after the sectional maps. In spite of al-Idrisi referring to his world map as being circular and although its copies as preserved in various manuscripts are, indeed, all circular, Miller was convinced that the world map must have been rectangular infra III, 28 and consequently felt justified in reconstructing the missing original by patching together the seventy rectangular sectional maps. The orthogonal world map thus reconstructed found wide distribution, even though not only is the north depicted as wide as the regions of the equator, which distorts the cartographic im- age, but also the configuration of northern Asia and Africa is obscured completely.
With the aid of elec- tronic data-processing, we have attempted to graduate the sectional maps orthogonally and to transform them into a stereographic projection, occasionally making reference to the extant cir- cular world map. The parts concerning Sicily, Italy, France, Germany, the Scandinavian and Slavonic countries and the Balkans have conse- quently been made the subject of detailed stud- ies by arabists. Arabische Welt- undLanderkarten des 9. Jahrhunderts in arabischer Urschrift, latei- nischer Transkription und Ubertragung in neuzeitliche Kartenskizzen. Edited with introduction by Konrad Miller.
Stuttgart reprint: Islamic Geography, vols. Its founder was Sihabaddln Yahya b. Habas as-Suhrawardi d. The basis of his new philosophical system was a metaphysic of light. Ahmad al-Gawallql, a philologist from Baghdad d. C A 1 I az-Zauzani d. Muhammmad b. Ahmad al-Maidanl d. A book brought to the atten- tion of the interested public in by Claude Cahen yields valuable information on this mat- ter, rendering various theories and assumptions by historians of this subject obsolete. This book, entitled Tab sir at arbab al-albab , was written under the Ayyubid Sultan Salahaddln Saladin, r.
Murda at-Tarsusi infra V, 94 passim. Brockelmann, Geschichte der arabischen Litteratur, vol. Ahmet H. Karatay, vol. Brockelmann, op. I do not take into account the book Muqaddimat al-adab by Mahmud b. The Persian, Turkish and Mongolian glosses which are available in various manuscripts seem to be later inter- polations, see Heinz Grotzfeld, ZamahsarVs muqaddimat al-adab, ein arabisch-persisches Lexikon?
A geared winch mechanism allowed for its large bow, made of several layers of wood and horn glued together, to be drawn by merely one or two men instead of about twenty. In the 13th cen- tury this type of crossbow also started to appear in the West. It seems that the crusade invasions gave the impulse for the Muslims of Syria and Egypt to search for the most effective means of defence possible.
Yet it is char- acteristic of this century that the subject matters inherited from earlier generations were as far as possible subjected to systematization. They were established for the first time as strictly defined disciplines or revised in order to account for the progress made in the course of time. An unfortunate opinion, brought into circu- lation at some point or other in complete igno- rance of the history of Arabic-Islamic science and contradicting historical facts, states that this century already carried in it the beginnings of stagnation.
The opposite is true. The progress made in the theoretical branch of astronomy shows itself in the attempts to reform the Ptolemaic planetary models supra, p. In order to restore the prin- ciple of uniform circular motion in the orbits — a principle that Ptolemy had violated with the in- troduction of the equant into his planetary mod- el — Naslraddln at-Tusi made a ground-breaking attempt. In his model he retains the centre of the equant, so that the length of the eccentricity is equal to the diameter of the epicycle, while the mid-point of the eccentricity becomes the centre of the deferent, along which the centres of the epicycles of planets move from the east to the west, covering the same distances towards the east in the same periods.
Naslraddln eliminates the resulting violation of the uniformity of mo- tion by introducing a model of double epicycles in which a smaller circle with a radius equal to half of the radius of the larger circle and there- fore half of the length of the eccentricity rotates inside a larger circle between its centre and the circumference in the opposite direction from west to east.
If its radius is half that of the large circle, then any point on the small circle, while rolling, describes a diameter of the large circle. Cantor, Geschichte der Mathematik, op. Berlin and Leipzig , p. This resulted in an interesting model for Mercury. The project was accomplished under the leadership of Naslraddin at-Tusi between ca. With a main building planned in large scale for the purpose of astro- nomical observation and with large instruments, some of which built for the first time, this under- taking was of epochal importance in the history of observatories in the Arabic-Islamic culture area.
We can trace its after-effects not only in the Islamic world until the 1 6th century but also in Europe, where they began in the middle of the 1 6th century. The spirit of logical systematization and elaboration of the work accomplished by the predecessors is characteristic of this century. One of the most significant examples of this is provided by Naslraddin at-Tusi in his Kitab as- Sakl al-qatta c with which he established trigo- nometry as an independent discipline.
For a long time this achievement had been credited to J. Regiomontanus, until, towards the end of the 1 9th century, A. The polar triangle, or supplementary triangle, a basic ele- ment of spherical trigonometry which appears in Europe for the first time in the work of Fran? Although it had already been introduced by Abu Nasr b. A thirteenth century reform of Ptolemaic astronomy. In the western part of the Islamic world, Abu 1 -Hasan al-Marrakusi b.
The problem and its solution, described in the 10th volume of my Geschichte des arabischen Schrifttums, involves in its most general form the calculation of the hour-angle of a star from its altitude and azimuth, the rotation v. Al-B Irani had already placed the rules for the spherical triangle, discovered by his teachers, in the service of mathematical geogra- phy.
Amongst subsequent generations we find — tangibly for us in the case of al-MarrakusI — a further development in which all trigonometric- astronomical tools are improved in a system- atic manner for a precise determination of local time through the observation of fixed stars. This technique of astronomical observation, in which correct ascensions and declinations increasingly come to the fore as a system of reference, is en- countered in the West with Tycho Brahe in the second half of the 16th century.
He left us a table of coordinates compris- ing about localities. It goes without saying that such a profound improvement of the coordinates of a vast geo- graphical area stretching from Spain to Baghdad could not possibly have been achieved by a sin- v. Abu 1 -Hasan al-Marrakusi indeed makes no such claim. On the contrary, he points out that he marked his own coordinates with red ink in his autograph in order to distinguish them from older ones.
It seems to be adequately documented to- day that the beginnings of astronomical-geo- graphical attempts at mathematically surveying as much of the areas west and east of Baghdad as possible took place in the first half of the 5 th century, independently from one another. At first those ta- bles appeared slowly, but later, from around the beginning of the 14th century into the 18th cen- tury, started to mushroom and amount to several hundred; upon examination they turn out to be either corrupt copies or mixed tables derived from various Arabic originals which contained data according to either of the two prime merid- ians and which in turn sometimes still drew on Ptolemaic tables.
Yet we must stress that this statement does not imply that those maps were drawn by Europeans ac- cording to coordinates found in Arabic tables. They are copies or compilations of maps of un- equal quality that where occasionally brought to Europe from the Arabic-Islamic world. Schoy ,LangenbestimmungundZentralmeridian bei den alteren Volkern, op. Abi s-Sukr al-Magribl d. The integration of longitudes was car- ried out consistently in the astronomical tables of the two scholars, namely, the az-Zlg al-Ilhani and the Adwar  al-anwar mada d-duhur wa- l-akwar. The scope of this project is illustrated by two examples.
Traces of in- consistent integration are found, for example, in the tables of Kusyar b. Only from the 19th and 20th century did European cartog- raphers gradually succeed in correcting these longitudinal differences further. There is evidence leading to such an assumption involving a pres- ently lost manuscript which perhaps was an au- tograph of the astronomical at-Tadkira fi l-hai'a by Naslraddln at-Tusi which appears to have contained such a world map.
This agrees with a passage in the Records of the Yuan-dynasty by Song Lian CE referring to astro- nomical instruments imported into China from the West i. It describes six astronomical instmments and a terrestrial globe which were presented in the year i. We may also mention that the en- voy Gamaladdin has been identified as the first director of the observatory founded by Qubilai in the Mongol realm.
Moreover, Gamaladdin authored a geography of the entire dominions. However, only a few fragments of this compre- hensive work have survived incorporated into later compilations. Concluding the discussion of note- worthy achievements of the 13th century, the emergence of perfect or near-perfect maps of the Mediterranean and of the Black Sea shall be mentioned.
The origin of the oldest maps of this type known in the European culture area is dated around the turn of the 13 th to the 14th century. The question of their origin has been discussed for about the last years. Hence it was understandably not known that in the Arabic-Islamic culture area the west- eastern dimensions and distances between, e. In sev- eral chapters of the volumes io and n of my Geschichte des arabischen Schrifttums, I have tried to explain my opinion of a long historic evolution of the cartographic depiction of the Mediterranean.
Various cultures made their con- tributions in the course of that development, the finally leading to the so-called portolan charts which can be ascribed to the Arabic-Islamic cul- ture area. The circular world map, appended by Brunetto Latini to his Livres dou tresor ca. As Florentine ambassa- dor in Toledo and Sevilla, Latini had the oppor- tunity to acquaint himself with the adoption of Arabic-Islamic sciences which was then in full swing.
He also helped Dante Alighieri deepen his knowledge of Islam. It does not however reflect the advances v. It must be also noted that the Brunetto Latini map is southern-oriented as was the Arab custom. They are the five maps which Marco Polo is said to have brought back from his jour- ney. This was the region where mathematical geography and, based on it, the new cartography was cultivated most intensively. In Maraga and later in Tabriz, the capitals of the Ilkhans, new centres of the sciences arose from whence books, instruments, maps and further materials found their way to the West, mostly via Constantinople.
Towards the middle of the last century these maps came into the focus of research. This model is supposed to have been the graduated terrestrial globe which was brought from Maraga to Da Du Beijing by the above-mentioned astronomer and geogra- pher Gamaladdln in the year , to be handed, together with six astronomical instruments, to the ruler Qubilai Han. This assumption may be correct, but I am more inclined to believe that planispheric world maps from the east of the Arabic-Islamic world reached China — shortly after their appearance — as well.
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Certainly the numerous place names would fit more easily on maps than on a terrestrial globe. The phenomenon of  this simultane- ously-timed emergence of a practically identical new image of the world in Europe and China should, in my opinion, lead historians of geog- raphy to the assumption that a common model existed. Not only the Islamic cultural area pro- vides us with sufficient cartographic and math- ematical-geographical documents which prove that the sought after models are to be found in that period of the history of sciences which was shaped by that cultural area.
In any case, the first scholar who wrote about it, Gustavo Uzielli, introduced it as a work of the 13 th century. A few years later Theobald Fischer, in the context of his work on medieval world and sea maps, was inclined to shift its origin to v. Fischer, op. The pull of conventional mediaeval studies un- fortunately quite often keeps researchers from addressing issues of the date and provenance of technological innovations and new scientific or philosophical concepts surfacing in Europe outside Spain from the 1 2th century onwards in the context of the reception and assimilation of Arabic-Islamic sciences in general.
In connection with matters of geography, included in his astronomical work at-Tuhfa as-sahlya fi l-hai'a, he deals with the cartographic depiction of the oikoumene and the difficulty of fitting indispensable details in small formats. To this end he proposes a practi- cal method of laying out a simplified and sche- matized map of the Mediterranean.
Together with the Black Sea, the Mediterranean is pro- jected on a rectangular frame divided into squares. The longitudes and latitudes are meas- ured in squares rather than degrees. Apparently oceans and continents were dis- tinguished by colour. I am referring to the polymath Qutbaddln as-Slrazi d. In fact it is quite evident that Qutbaddln took his data from a map at hand. On this map, the coasts, bays, and cities in the West and in the North and even details of the Byzantine territory were inscribed.
Yaqut was primarily a man of letters and a philologist. In the field of geography, his lexical interest brought about two books. Besides lexical sources, Yaqut digested a number of titles of descriptive regional geogra- phy and mathematical geography as well as trav- elogues. Thus his work  became an invalu- able source for the historiography of sciences and culture of the Arabic-Islamic world.
In the commendable edition by Ferdinand Wiistenfeld , the book runs into pages. Turning to the field of medicine, a significant discovery in that century — which the historian of medicine L. Thanks to several studies by Max Meyerhof and Joseph Schacht, 2 8 we know today that this discov- ery by Ibn an-Nafis was borrowed by Michael Servetus Miguel Servet for his Christianismi restitutio Vienna ; consequently the lat- ter was considered its originator for centuries.
I g Studies on this subject published up to were collected and edited in: Islamic Medicine, vol. While staying in Cairo, the versatile physician and brilliant natural historian 'Abdallatlf b. Muhammad al-Bagdadl b. He wrote about his ob- servations and the results of his examinations in his anthropogeographical book on Egypt entitled Kitab al-Ifada wa-l-i c tibar fi l-umur al- musahada wa-l-hawadit al-mu c ayana bi-ard Misr, in which he dealt, inter alia,  with stones, flora and fauna, antiquities, architecture and the local cuisine.
In his anatomical study of thousands of skeletons he revised the errors and inaccuracies of his predecessors, in particular of Galen. One of his findings was that the hu- man mandible consists of one bone only, rather than two bones joined at the chin as Galen be- lieved. Leclerc, Histoire de la medecine arabe, vol.
Translated into English more reliable than the doctrines of Galen, de- spite the high rank befitting the latter. In his view, each culture also has its own special medi- cine, one yielding place to another in the course of centuries. He doubted whether it was at all feasible to deem the medical science of any one people the oldest. The Arab, in whose native re- gion cultures of diverse people from East and West fused, possessed the universal historical scope which no physician before him ever had; in the writings of Ibn Abi Usaibfa the history by Kamal Hafuth Zand and John A.
Videan, London , pp. Gunther Wahl, Halle , pp. Ihr Wesen, ihre Arbeitsweise und ihre Hilfsmittel, Stuttgart , pp. Medical historians in the West ob- served, what the Arab cosmopolitan attitude had long before seen, only after they had overcome the authority of antiquity and of the Bible. In some respects it seems almost modem.
Such progressive features are its medical organisation with specialised treat- ments, the playing of music to patients suffering from mental illness or insomnia, in-house medi- cal training,  an elaborate administration, fi- nancial security through sufficient income from an endowment with quite interesting conditions specified in the foundation deed and, finally, the building itself and its equipment. Ihr Wesen, ihre Arbeitsweise und ihre Hilfsmittel, Stuttgart , p. Terzioglu, op.
Yusuf al-UrmawI d. Abi Bakr as-Sakkaki b. It seems an intermediate stage in this process Facsimile editions by H. Hasaba, M. Neubauer, preface to the facsimile edition, Frankfurt Muhammad Ibn al-Atlr b. As far as we are aware, this is the most extensive and the most significant work of its type written since the world history by Muhammad b.
Garlr at-Tabarl d. The author appears to be  ex- tremely objective and reliable. In military technology, the ongoing necessity of defence against attacks by crusaders brought about further advances in weaponry in this cen- tury as well. The most important innovation in this field was the development of fire-arms us- ing gunpowder. The question has not yet been solved whether the knowledge of gunpowder reached the Arabic-Islamic culture area from ibid, vol.
Heinrichs, op. Bernard Lewis and P. Holt, London , pp. China or whether it was developed independ- ently. It is however probable that its driving power was recognised and used for military purposes in the Islamic world, even if fireworks were known in China at an earlier date. Through the loss of a substantial part of Andalusia, its scientific contributions, which had been on a high level for centuries, were diminished but did not yet cease. Yet the most important model aimed at restoring the principle of uni- form motion was conceived, as far as we know, in Syria.
Ibrahim Ibn as-Satir d. Particularly important is his model of Mercury in which he makes use of a smaller epicycle than Ptolemy. He achieved excellent results in his attempt to improve the inherited models of the lunar motions. The points in common between Copernicus and his Arabic-Islamic predecessors, as found so far, can be summarised as follows: 1. Copernicus as well as Nasiraddin at-Tusi and Qutbaddln as-Slrazi accept without reser- vation the principle that each planetary model must be based on a mechanism in which equal distances are covered by equal vectors with equal angular velocity.
Copernicus and his Arabic predecessors feature the mechanism of a double vector with radii equal or half the eccentricity in their plan- etary models, in order to emulate the function of the equant. Copernicus employs the mechanism of the double epicycles of at-Tusi in the Mercury model, as does Ibn as-Satir.
Convegno intemazionale aprile , Rome Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei , pp. Amongst the most important astronomical achievements of that age is a type of astrolabe which had been constructed in Syria by Ahmad b. Abi Bakr Ibn as-Sarrag d. The instrument infra II, combines in itself the functions of a normal astrolabe and those of the universal plate as had been developed in the western part of the Islamic world. With this instrument a stage of development in the con- struction of astrolabes had been reached which henceforth stood unsurpassed, both in the coun- tries of Islam and in Europe infra, II, It involved the knowledge and application of algebraic symbol- ism that remained — as far as we know now — un- known in the eastern parts of the Islamic world.
It is primarily found in the works of Ahmad b. Hasan Ibn Qunfud b. Muhammad v. Aballagh, Paris ; cf. Ibn al-Banna 5 excelled with further important contributions, among them an approximation formula for the extraction of the square root. Suter and H. Renaud and adopted in my Geschichte des arabischen Schrifttums, vol. Ibn Khaldun, The Muqaddimah. An introduction to history, translated from the Arabic by Franz Rosenthal, vol.
Suwlsl, Tunis , pp. Cantor, Vorlesungen iiber Geschichte der Mathematik, op. Aibak as-Safadi d. Hence, in the field of optics, this century pro- duced one of the most important scholars of the time. We are referring to Kamaladdin Muhammad b. Vernet in: Dictionary of Scientific Biography , vol. Wiedemann, Gesammelte Schriften vol. In Kamaladdln al-Farisf s opinion, the perception of a rainbow is caused by the optical behaviour of fine transparent spherical drops close to each other in the air, through double refraction and single or double reflection of the sunlight as it enters into and comes out of the individual drop.
Kamaladdln came to this conclusion after a se- ries of systematic experiments conducted with a spherical ball made of glass or rock-crystal in- fra III, To this end he used a mutton eye. This, of course, was at a time when the channels of the reception- and assimilation-process and its con- sequences were not understood as well as they are today. The common features in fundamentals as well as details are so numerous that they cannot possibly be inde- pendent achievements.
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The first half of the 14th century is indeed to be characterised as a period when the sciences of the Arabic-Islamic world found their way quickly from Northern Africa to France and Italy, and from Syria, Anatolia and Persia directly or via Constantinople to Italy and Central Europe. Mediators from the cleri- cal orders, particularly the Dominicans, proved particularly able in this process of reception and earned great merit.
The following titles are amongst them: Muqni c at as-sadl c an al-marad al-hcVil by Muhammad b. According to Max Meyerhof, 3 ' 6 the Arabic writings on the plague were far superi- v. Arnold, London , pp. Everybody who has seen the thing itself or gathered information about it knows that most of those who come into contact with people afflicted with the disease die and those with whom this is not the case remain healthy; furthermore that this disease occurs in a house or in a quarter because of a garment or a receptacle so that even an earring can cause the death of a person donning it and thus brings devastation upon the entire house; moreover that in one city the disease occurs in a single house and then blazes up in those individuals who have contact with the sick person, then in the neighbours and relatives and especially among those who  pay visits to the house of the sick person, so that the breach becomes wider and wider; furthermore that the population of sea ports enjoys perfect health until an infected man arrives from another country where the plague prevails notoriously and the date of the outbreak of the disease in the town coincides with the date of his arrival.
Muller, op. Its author was the Ilhanid grand vi- zier Rasldaddln Fadlallah b. Tmadaddaula b. It is, however, not the classical Mo-ching by the famous physician Wang Shu-ho CE , but a work called Mo-chueh, which deals with the modalities of pulse observations and the anatomy of the most important human organs. It originated in northern China at the time of the Kin-dynasty From the western part of the Islamic world we know the important table of coordi- nates, comprising 97 localities, by the astrono- mer and mathematician Muhammad b.
Ibrahim Ibn ar-Raqqam d. Of course, the correction was not restricted to the length of the grand axis. It is apparent in the distances be- tween the western border of the oikoumene and the places east of Baghdad as well. Other extant tables with significant corrections to the longi- tudes allow the assumption that these tables en- joyed a wide dissemination. One such table was discovered in Latin translation by the Spanish Arabist I.
Millas Vallicrosa in the middle of the 20th century and is of particular interest in this context. It was most probably composed in the east Andalusian town of Tortosa Turtusa , and it is surprising in that the reduction of longi- tudes has now been implemented for Baghdad as the prime meridian, even for the places in the west. This table has also reached us in a K.
It contains the coordinates of 3 1 places in Spain, Western Europe and the western Mediterranean. Although it is not free from spelling errors and misreadings, it pro- vides important evidence of the great advances made in Western Europe not least with regard to Arab-Spanish cartography. London can be taken as an example. Further examples can be found in my Geschichte des arabischen Schrifttums ; here I would like to emphasise that these corrections, essential for the history of mathematical geography, have so far remained completely unknown and thus did not play any part in the discussion on the origin of the new maps which emerged in Europe from the turn of the 13 th to the 14th century.
In the process of the mathematical survey of the areas to the west of Baghdad, Asia Minor, which was under Byzantine rule, and the Aegean remained for a long time outside the reach of Arabic-Islamic geographers and astronomers. Yet only an  early v. Sulaiman at- Tuqati. It also justifies the assumption that by that time fairly accurate results were achieved in the mathematical survey of Asia Minor.
We observe, for instance, that the longitudinal difference Rome — Constantinople and Rome — Alexandria deviate surprisingly little from the modem values. One of the most important examples known to me at this time involves the universal scholar Rasldaddin, whose work on Chinese medicine was mentioned above. The names of about 1 20 localities are placed within an orthogonal graticule. The user can read the coordinates from scales framing the map.
The significance of this map lies in the fact that the graticule is based on the integrated west- east longitudes — according to the above men- tioned p. Aged 22 he left his native town bound for Mecca, visited Alexandria and Cairo, went up the Nile to Syene now Aswan , from there to Syria and Palestine, v. Etienne Quatremere, Raschid-eldin. Histoire des Mongols de la Perse, Paris reprint Amsterdam , introduction pp. After 24 years he returned to Tangiers. A sec- ond journey took him to Andalusia, a third to Northern Africa.
The world history in question is the monumental Gami c at-tawarlh by the above mentioned universal scholar Rasidaddin Fadlallah d.
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The first vol- ume deals with the history of Cenglz Han and his successors in East and West Asia, as well as with the Turkish and Mongol tribes. The second volume deals at length with the history of the nations that came into contact with the Mongols. The third volume devoted to geography is lost.
Qustantin al-Manbigi ca. Ahmad al-Biruni d. The latter in particular has earned its author a unique position in cultural history, as the book not only leaned upon local sources, but was written on the basis v. Franz Rosenthal, A history of Muslim historiogra- phy , Leiden , pp.
The initial one is entitled Manahig al-fikar wa-mabahig al-Hbar and was written by Gamaladdin Muhammad b. Ibrahim al-Kutubi al-Watwat b.
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Inspired by this work, the Egyptian historian Sihabaddin Ahmad b. The inclusion of history as a separate, new topic of- fered the opportunity to cover all human affairs and achievements in the book; but an-Nuwairi not only increased the number of topics funun compared to his predecessor, he also made a new arrangement of the material: 1. This encyclopaedia leads us to many traces of sources otherwise lost and it is one of the best textbooks on the history of that time.
The third encyclopaedia which appeared in this century is entitled Masalik al-absar fi mamalik al-amsar and was written by Sihabaddln Ahmad b. Yahya al- c Umari b. Sezgin, preface to the facsimile edition. Kratschkowsky in: Encyclopaedie des Islam, vol. New edi- tion, vol. Yet the book of Ibn Fadlallah is different from that of his predecessor in its aim, structure, and content.
Perhaps the Masalik al-absar could be labelled an anthropogeo- graphical encyclopaedia. The first four of its twenty- seven volumes are devoted to geography. Even though the entire work leaves the impression of a not yet fully fledged concept of an encyclopaedia, with its rich contents, it is one of the most significant literary achievements of the century, often going back to otherwise lost sources, and at the same time relating state of the art contemporary knowledge. Muhammad Ibn Haldun b.
Facsimile edition in 27 volumes, Frankfurt, Institute for the Flistory of Arabic-Islamic Sciences , in- dices in three volumes, ibid, Muqaddima, written after the world chronicle al- Ibar wa-diwan al-mubtada 3 wa-l-habar dedicat- ed to the Merinid ruler Abu Faris 'AbdaTaziz reign. It drew the attention of Arabists and non- Arabists after the two scholars Antoine-Isaac Silvestre de Sacy and Joseph von Hammer-Purgstall had drawn attention to its contents at the beginning of the 1 9th cen- tury. Quite frequently Ibn Haldun is seen as the founder of sociology and the philosophy of history.
Others find the basic problems of all branches of science addressed in his work. Regarding its treatment of the science of politics, the Muqaddima was compared to II principe by Niccolo Machiavelli d. Sarton, Introduction to the history of science, vol. Talbi in: Encyclopaedia of Islam. Sarton, op. Allan H. Besides this, in the same St. Petersburg manuscript we find the illustration of a firearm which appears to be a kind of mortar; however, the illustration does not match the description in the text.
It is possible that the illustration depicts yet another mortar-like weapon, different from the one in the description ibid. The earliest reference to the use of steel cross- bows in Europe dates from the year 5.
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Of the numerous works surviving from that century and kept in libraries as manuscripts, only a small fraction has been j44 Current accession number C with the title al- Mahzun fi gamf al-funun infra V, Jahrhunderts bis zu den Hussitenkriegen, vol. In this connection, we may point to the out- standing activities in the field of astronomy and mathematics during the first half of the century in Transoxania which are connected with the name of the statesman Ulug Beg Muhammad Turgay b. He turned Samarqand into what his grandfather Timur had envisioned, i.
Mas c ud al-KasI d. Of the institutions which he founded there, the most important was without doubt the monumental observatory — inspired by its foreru nn er in Maraga — where he himself worked alongside the scholars men- tioned above. Share Give access Share full text access. Share full text access. Please review our Terms and Conditions of Use and check box below to share full-text version of article. Get access to the full version of this article.
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