Build Your Own Small Solar Power System
The tilt of the stand is nearly equal to the latitude angle of your location. I made a small wooden mounting stand for my 10 Watt solar panel. I have attached the pictures,so that any one can made it easily. Tilting : To get the most from solar panels, you need to point them in the direction that captures the maximum sun light.
Use one of these formulas to find the best angle from the horizontal at which the panel should be tilted:. For more details on tilting click here. First place the stand in such a way that the face is directed towards south. Mark the leg position over the roof. To get the south direction use this android app compass. Then make rough surface at each leg of the stand by using a sharp object.
I made around 1Sq feet size rough surface over the roof at each leg. This is helpful for perfect bonding between the roof and concrete. Prepare concrete mix : Take cement and stones with ratio then add water to make a thick mix.. Pour concrete mix at each leg of the stand.
I made a heap shape concrete mix to give maximum strength. Mounts the panels to the stand : At the back sides the solar panel have inbuilt holes for mounting. Wire the solar panel : At the back sides of the solar panel a small junction box is there with positive and negative sign for polarity. In a large size solar panel this junction box have terminal wires with MC4 connector but for small size panel you have to connect the junction box with external wires.
Always try to use red and black wire for the positive and negative terminal connection. If there is provision for earth wire the use a green wire for wiring this. After the calculating the battery capacity and solar panel rating you have to wiring them. In many cases the calculated solar panel size or battery is not readily available in the form of single unit in the market.
So you have to add small solar panel or batteries to match your system requirement.
To match the required voltage and current rating we have to use series and parallel connection. To wire any device in series you must connect the positive terminal of one device to the negative terminal of the next device. The device in our case may be solar panel or battery.
So if these devices were batteries and each battery had a rating of 12 Volts and Ah then the total value of this series circuit would be 48 Volt, Ah. If they were solar panels and each solar panel had a rating of 17 volts Osc voltage and were rated at 5 amps each then the total circuit value would be 68 volts, 5 amps. In parallel connection you must connect the positive terminal of the first device to the positive terminal of the next device and negative terminal of the first device to the negative terminal of the next device.
In parallel connection the voltage is remain same but the current rating of the circuit is sum of all the devices. Similarly if two solar panel of 17V and 5 amps are connected in paralel then the system will produced 17 Volts ,10 amps. I made the above inverter and battery stand by the help of a carpenter.
DIY OFF GRID SOLAR SYSTEM: 10 Steps (with Pictures)
The design idea I got from this instructable. The design is really helpful for me. At the back side I made a big circular hole just behind the inverter fan for fresh air suction from out side. Later I covered the hole by using plastic wire mesh. Few small holes are also made for inserting the wires from solar panel,charge controller and inverter to the battery and ac out put to the appliances. At the both sides panel 3 horizontal holes are provided for sufficient ventilation. A glass window is provided at the front side to view the different led indications in the inverter.
In the inclined plane of the inverter stand I have mounted the charge controller. In future I will installed my own made energy meter also. The first component we are going to wire is the Charge Controller. At the bottom of the Charge Controller there are 3 signs in my charge controller. As per charge controller manual always connect the Charge Controller to the Battery first because this allows the Charge Controller to get calibrated to whether it is 12V or 24V system.
After connecting the battery with charge controller you can see the Charge Controller indicator led lights up to indicate the Battery level. After connecting this inverter terminals for battery charging is connected to corresponding positive and negative terminals of the battery. Now you have to connect the solar panel to the charge controller. The terminal wires are normally smaller in length. To connect the wire to the charge controller you need a special type connector which is commonly known as MC4 connector.
See the picture.
After connecting the solar panel to the charge controller the green led indicator will light if sunlight is present. Note : Always connect the Solar Panel to Charge Controller while facing the Panel away from the sun or you may cover the panel with a dark material to avoid sudden high voltage coming from the solar panel to the Charge Controller which may damage it. If it gets mixed up, the equipment can go burst and may catch fire. So you need to be extremely careful when connecting these wires. It is recommended to use 2 color wires i. If you don't have red and black wire you may wrap red and black tap at the terminals.
Connect the dc load or dc light at last. Additional Protection : Though charge controller and inverter have inbuilt fuses for protection, you can put switches and fuses in the following places for additional protection and isolation. In between solar panel and charge controller 2. In between charge controller and battery bank 3. In between battery and inverter Metering and Data logging : If you are interested to know how much energy is produced by your solar panel or how much energy being consumed by your appliances you have to use energy meters. Besides this you can monitor the different parameters in your off grid solar system by remote data logging For diy based energy meter you can see my instructable on ENERGY METER which have both metering and data logging capability.
After wiring every thing the off grid Solar system is ready for use. This is a simple design worksheet for stand-alone solar PV systems. It explains the design process and explains some of the practicalities of building a system. I hope it will be useful. The full credit goes to the authors of Re-Innovation. Very useful workbook for design Solar off-Grid power plant. Helpful for beginners, Learners and trainers to train trainees. Krishna shrivastava I am not an electrical engineer so many of the articles already on Instructables on this subject or on the internet seemed incomplete to me because they did not explain many of the details that you did.
Perhaps for the electrically inclinded those finer points are common knowledge and not necessary, but for me it exactly what I needed. The step-by-step approach with explanations and links to products was fantastic. I have never written an Instructable but I appreciate all the time and effort it requires to write something like this, so thank you very, very much.
Reply 2 months ago. Glad my work is helpful for you. Your kind words really motivate me to write an article like this in the future. Thank you so much. Reply 6 weeks ago. Question 2 months ago on Introduction. There may also be issues surrounding insurance and mortgages if you chose to install a pv system yourself. In order to be qualify for FiTs, however, the project will need to be administered by an MCS-accredited tradesperson, and the total cost of this option may not be much less than the cost of a full installation by a solar company.
Is my property suitable for solar panels? Can I build my own solar panel system? For Kids! To save money, many homeowners are turning to DIY or buying solar kits. You only need to check them and figure out if this is something you can do or not. When it is sunny, regardless of outdoor temperature, black solar cells heat up very quickly. The fan drives cold air from the inside of the home, through heated solar cells and then back into the room. Moving air acts as a medium for collecting solar power from each cell and then brings the heat back into the room.
The room, solar panel, air inlet, and air outlet form a closed loop air circulation system. The air cannot escape outside of the solar cell walls tube out of pop cans which helps to avoid fogging and deposition of dust on the inner side of Plexiglas. The following image shows a simplified sketch of all solar power system elements for air heating.
The fan draws cold air from the room, into the solar panel.
Solar Generator Problem#1: Ready-made models often deliver way too little power
The air goes through the filter and passes a one-way-pass-valve. To distribute the air through the solar system, there are separate air-directing compartments made of aluminum sheet 1 mm 0. These boxes are strategically placed on the lower and upper part of the solar system. The bottom of the collector's housing is channeling the air into solar cells tunnels constructed using pop cans. The air gets warm in contact with the solar cell wall. It raises and goes toward the output located in the upper corner of the room which is being heated. DIY solar panels are sun-powered, but electricity is stil needed to drive the airflow.
If you are living in a remote place and off-the-grid , simply hook up a small PV solar panel or wind turbine to power the air blower. If you manage to build a fully autonomous DIY solar panel aided with wind generator - you'll be a master of sustainable living. Before going solar, you'll need to conduct a thorough assessment of your home insulation. Idea is to improve heating efficiency and cut all possible losses.
Because you can actually install smaller solar panels after reducing heat losses in your home. And also get the same result as with the twice bigger solar system.
How to build your own solar panel system?
If you want to achieve this with only one simple and dirt cheap hack, then check out my post on how to improve the thermal efficiency of your home using bubble wrap insulation on windows. Tempered glass can be used as well but it will make your solar panels much heavier. The solar collector is made with aluminum beer and soda cans, painted matte-black paint resistant to high temperature.
The top of each can is cut and bent in a way to ensure efficient heat exchange between the pop cans and the flowing air. I have to warn you — solar installation is not very easy for the complete and total beginner. But do not get discouraged — that is basically why I have created this do-it-yourself solar guide. Wash them thoroughly to prevent strange odors from showing up during the first run of solar collector. Cans are generally produced out of aluminum, but there are some made of iron.
For this solar project, we need aluminum cans. You can test them easily with a magnet.
Carefully cut the top of each can with a sharp can-opener, then remove the loose top out of the can. Idea is to encourage turbulent airflow inside pop cans so that air passing through the tube can collect more heat from the warm wall of pop cans. It is important to do this before gluing the cans together. This procedure is extremely dangerous because pop can walls are very thin. Sharp parts may cause hand injury. After completed punching of the bottom hole, small parts of the metal could remain in the can.
Use pliers to remove these parts. Remove grease and dirt from the surface of cans.