Marcus and Selene in Alexandria
Kleopatra Selene II – Wikipedia
Caesarion headed to India but en route he was betrayed by his tutor, intercepted by Roman forces and executed. However the deaths of their mother and Caesarion left Cleopatra Selene and Alexander Helios nominally in charge of Egypt, so they were brought back to Alexandria to reign in name only until the kingdom was officially annexed by the Roman Empire two weeks later. When Octavian left the newly created province, he took the twins and Ptolemy Philadelphos back to Rome with him.
Octavian had originally hoped to take Cleopatra alive. Related Articles Publius Sittius and Caesar's Revenge Cleopatra For the first ten years of her life Cleopatra Selene had been raised in Egypt as an Egyptian princess at an Egyptian court; the fact that her father was a Roman citizen, former consul and triumvir was virtually irrelevant at this stage of her life. However, once both of her parents were dead and Egypt had ceased to exist as an independent kingdom, the question of what to do with Cleopatra Selene and her brothers needed to be answered.
In the absence of any surviving relatives, responsibility for them passed to Octavian and he in turn passed it to Octavia. In addition to the members of these two households, Augustus had gradually accumulated a collection of royal children. Only a baby at the time, Juba had been taken back to Rome by Caesar and exhibited in the African section of his quadruple triumph. Juba was awarded Roman citizenship and spent his childhood and adolescence in Rome during which time he was given a Roman education and encouraged in intellectual pursuits, which led to him writing scholarly treatises on a range of subjects many of which were used by Pliny the Elder as sources for his enormous volume Natural History.
With his contemporaries Marcellus, Tiberius and Drusus he even undertook military service with the Roman legions in Spain before Augustus decided to confer on him the newly created client kingdom of Mauretania as his Numidia had now been turned into the Roman province of Africa Nova. Although Octavia had herself been unlucky in love, she was apparently something of a matchmaker. In 25 BC she was instrumental in arranging a marriage between Cleopatra Selene and Juba and the event was commemorated by the poet Crinagoras of Mytilene in an epigram that survives in its entirety:.
Great neighbouring regions of the world, which the Nile, swollen from black Ethiopia, divides, you have created common kings for both through marriage, making one race of Egyptians and Libyans. Let the children of kings in turn hold from their fathers a strong rule over both lands. Cleopatra Selene and Juba had much in common.
They were also politically problematic and marrying them and installing them as client rulers was a potentially excellent solution. So, following the wedding, Augustus proclaimed them king and queen of Mauretania and sent them there to rule as his clients.
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The young couple had had their lives turned upside down as a result of the actions of their parents. Once they arrived in Mauretania they were free to make their own decisions, accountable to no one, except possibly Augustus. They had much to do: the new kingdom of Mauretania was a vast territory, encompassing modern-day Algeria and Morocco, rather than modern-day Mauritania. As might be expected with one large kingdom created from two smaller ones, there were two capital cities, Iol now Cherchell on the Mediterranean coast and Volubilis now Walili further inland.
Mauretania also contained a smattering of Greek and Roman colonies, originally founded to facilitate trade with Hispania Baetica Andalusia. Cleopatra Selene and Juba proved more than equal to the task. Although Juba was now indisputably the King of Mauretania, he had never been King of Numidia, or anywhere else. Cleopatra Selene, on the other hand, had not only been declared Queen of Crete and the Cyrenaica in 34 BC, she had also reigned as the Queen of Egypt in 30 BC, if only for a short while.
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Consequently she possessed enough prestige to rule alongside her husband as a queen in her own right and consistently referred to her Greek and Egyptian heritage on the coins she issued in her own name as well as those she issued in conjunction with Juba. Their new kingdom was in serious need of modernisation, so they refounded Iol as Caesarea in honour of their benefactor Augustus. It could also have been an attempt to compete with Herod, the client king of Judea, who had done likewise several years earlier. They filled Caesarea with grandiose buildings inspired by those of Rome and also of Alexandria.
These included a lighthouse in the style of the Alexandrian Pharos, set up on an island in the harbour, a royal palace situated on the seafront and numerous temples to Roman and Egyptian deities. Their royal court attracted scholars and artists from across the Roman Empire and became a cosmopolitan fusion of Greek, Roman and Egyptian culture. Judging from a second commemorative epigram written by Crinagoras of Mytilene, her death seems to have coincided with a lunar eclipse, which would place it on or around 23 March, 5 BC:.
The moon herself grew dark, rising at sunset, covering her suffering in the night, because she saw her beautiful namesake, Selene, breathless, descending to Hades, with her she had had the beauty of her light in common, and mingled her own darkness with her death. Ptolemy died without issue and, when Caligula was assassinated the following year, his successor Claudius decided to take advantage of the situation and assume control of the kingdom. After only 65 years the territories so recently unified were once again divided and then converted into the Roman provinces of Mauretania Caesariensis and Mauretania Tingitana.
Cleopatra Selene, Juba and Ptolemy were forgotten. This article originally appeared in the April issue of History Today. Skip to main content. Google Tag Manager. Cleopatra's Daughter. Jane Draycott Published 22 May A fragment of a Ptolemaic relief believed to show Queen Cleopatra. Miscellanies is our free weekly long read. Sign up here and get it in your inbox. Roman Prisoner By the time Octavian arrived in Egypt in the summer of 30 BC Antony and Cleopatra were ready to make one last stand but, preparing for the worst, had sent the children away.
Related Articles. Merchants have operated for as long as industry, commerce, and trade have existed. In 16th-century Europe, two different terms for merchants emerged: meerseniers referred to local traders such as bakers and grocers and koopman Dutch: koopman referred to merchants who operated on a global stage, importing and exporting goods over vast distances and offering added-value services such as credit and finance.
The status of the merchant has varied during different periods of history and among different societies. In ancient Rome and Greece merchants could become wealthy, but lacked high social status. In contrast, in the Middle East, where markets were an integral part of the city, merchants enjoyed high status. In modern times, the term merchant has occasionally been used to refer to a businessperson or someone u.
Alexander's paternal grandparents were the Judean Prince Alexander and his unnamed wife. Alexander along with his sister and father were the last of the known descendants of the kings of Cappadocia. She was also the great-grandmother of the Emperor Caligula and Empress Agrippina the Younger, maternal grandmother of the Emperor Claudius, and paternal great-grandmother and maternal great-great-grandmother of the Emperor Nero.
One of the most prominent women in Roman history, Octavia was respected and admired by contemporaries for her loyalty, nobility and humanity, and for maintaining traditional Roman feminine virtues. Her mother later remarried, to the consul Lucius Marcius Philippus. This is the th century in the Holocene calendar; it spans the years 9, to 10, In the course of the century all the remaining independent lands surrounding the Mediterranean were steadily brought under Roman control, being ruled either directly under governors or through puppet kings appointed by Rome.
The Roman state itself was plunged into civil war several times, finally resulting in the marginalization of its year-old republic, and the embodiment of total state power in a single man—the emperor. The internal turbulence that plagued Rome at this time can be seen as. The ghost of Caesar taunts Brutus about his imminent defeat. It is one of several plays written by Shakespeare based on true events from Roman history, which also include Coriolanus and Antony and Cleopatra.
Although the play is named Julius Caesar, Brutus speaks more than four times as many lines as the title character; and the central psychological drama of the play focuses on Brutus' struggle between the conflicting demands of honour, patriotism, and friendship. Philo used philosophical allegory to harmonize Jewish scripture, mainly the Torah, with Greek philosophy. His method followed the practices of both Jewish exegesis and Stoic philosophy. His allegorical exegesis was important for some Christian Church Fathers, but he had very little reception history within the Rabbinic Judaism.
Some scholars hold that his concept of the Logos as God's creative principle influenced early Christology. Other scholars deny direct influence but say that Philo and Early Christianity borrow from a common source. Marcus Aurelius was a name used by men from gens Aurelia. He was also called Antyllus, a nickname given to him by his father meaning "the Archer". Despite his three children by Cleopatra, Marc Antony designated Antyllus as his official heir, a requirement under Roman law and a designation that probably contributed to his execution at age 17 by Octavian later the Emperor Augustus. Family Antyllus was the eldest child of Mark Antony by his third wife, Fulvia.
Maternally, he was the great-great-great grandson of Scipio Africanus. His younger full-blooded brother was Iullus Antonius. Biography Antyllus was born and raised in Rome.
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His mother, Fulvia Flacca Bambul. The early career of Julius Caesar was characterized by military adventurism and political persecution. Julius Caesar was born on July 13, BC, into a patrician family, the gens Julia, which claimed descent from Iulus, son of the legendary Trojan prince Aeneas, supposedly the son of the goddess Venus.
His father died when he was just 16, leaving Caesar as the head of the household. His family status put him at odds with the Dictator Lucius Cornelius Sulla, who almost had him executed. At about that time, Caesar found himself captured by pirates, only to crucify his former captors after he was ransomed. Soon he began his military career. He served in Hispania, married Sulla's granddaughter and was elected chief priest, all in rapid succession. Shortly after this, he was suspected, though not convicted, of involvement in the Catiline Conspiracy.
Soon he was leaving for a governorship in Hispania and positioning himself to be one of the most important figures in history. Early life and family Caesar was. The Shakespearian macaronic line "Et tu Brute? Et tu, Brute? It is notable for its occurrence in William Shakespeare's play Julius Caesar, where it is spoken by the Roman dictator Julius Caesar to his friend Marcus Junius Brutus at the moment of Caesar's assassination.
The first known occurrences of the phrase are said to be in two earlier Elizabethan plays; Henry VI, Part 3 by Shakespeare, and an even earlier play, Caesar Interfectus, by Richard Eedes. Caesar utters these words in Act III, scene 1, as he is being stabbed to death, having recogni. What little is known about her life and background comes mostly from the early historian Flavius Josephus, who detailed a history of the Jewish people and wrote an account of the Jewish Rebellion of She is also mentioned in the Acts of the Apostles , 23; However, it is for her tumultuous love life that she is primarily known from the Renaissance.
Her reputation was based on the bias of the Romans to the Eastern princesses, like Cleopatra or later Zenobia. After a number of failed marriages throughout the 4. At the age of 13, he became the youngest sole legal Roman emperor throughout the existence of the united Roman Empire.
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Gordian was the son of Antonia Gordiana and an unnamed Roman Senator who died before Very little is known of his early life before his acclamation. Gordian had assumed the name of his maternal grandfather in AD. Inscription: IMP. In the following years, there was a growing opposition against Maximinus in the Roman senate and amongst the majority of the population of Rome.
In a rebellion brok. The Populares Latin: populares, "favoring the people", singular popularis were a political faction in the late Roman Republic who favoured the cause of the plebeians the commoners. The Populares emerged as a political group with the reforms of the Gracchi brothers, who were tribunes of the plebs between and BC. Although the Gracchi belonged to the highest Roman aristocracy, being the grandsons of Scipio Africanus, they were concerned for the urban poor, whose dire condition increased the risk of a social crisis at Rome.
They tried to implement a vast social program comprising a grain dole, new colonies, and a redistribution of the Ager publicus in order to alleviate their situation.
They also drafted laws to grant Roman citizenship to Italian allies, and reform the judicial system to tackle corruption. Both brothers were nevertheless murdered by their opponents, the Optimates—the conservative faction representing the interests of the landed aristocracy, who dominated the Senate. Several tribunes. The gens Catilia was a Roman family of imperial times. He was the maternal proavus, or great-grandfather, of the emperor Marcus Aurelius. At one time he hoped to obtain the empire himself, but he was removed from his office after expressing his disapprobation at the adoption of Antoninus Pius, who had been his colleague in the consulship.
He is described by the historian Lampridius as a vir omnium doctissimus, "the most learned of men. Gaius Plinius Caecilius Secundus, Epistulae, i. Anthony Birley, Marcus Aurelius Aelius Lampridius, Alexander Severus, Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography an. Theoclia was most probably born and raised in Arca Caesarea modern Arqa, Lebanon.
She may have had an elder brother called Marcus Julius Gessius Bassianus who served as a Magister master in the Arval Brethren during the reign of Roman emperor Caracalla who ruled from until Bust of Severus Alexander Mamaea. He was also a praetorian prefect under the Roman Emperor Alexander Severus. Life Little is known of the life and family of Paulus; he was a man of Greek descent, who originated from an unknown Phoenician town or from Patavium modern Padua Italy.
The possibility that Paulus could come from Patavium is based on a statue with an inscription found in Patavium dedicated to a Paulus. During the reign of emperors Septimius Severus and Caracalla, Paulus served as a jurist. He was exiled by the emperor Elagabalus and recalled from exile by his successor, emperor Alexander Severus. Paulus was a contemporary of the jurist Ulpian. He partly followed the career path of former Praetorian pre.
Decimus Terentius Gentianus was a Roman senator of the 2nd century AD who held a number of offices in the imperial service, as well as serving as suffect consul for the nundinium of July—September with Lucius Co[ There is evidence that he may have traveled to Roman Egypt: in the 14th century was seen the first six lines of a poem inscribed on one of the Pyramids of Giza, addressed to "a most sweet brother" named "Decimus Gentianus".
Ventidius Cumanus fl. AD A disagreement between the surviving sources, the Jewish historian Josephus and the Roman Tacitus, makes it unclear whether his authority was over some or all of the province. Cumanus' time in office was marked by disputes between his troops and the Jewish population. Ventidius Cumanus failed to respond to an anti-Jewish murder in Samaritan territory which led to the violent conflict between Jews and Samaritans. Following an investigation by the governor of Syria, Gaius Ummidius Durmius Quadratus, Cumanus was sent to Rome for a hearing before the Emperor Claudius, who held him responsible for the violence and sentenced him to exile.
Procuratorship of Iudaea Iudaea Province in the 1st century Nothing is known about Cumanus before he was appointed procurator of Iudaea in 48, in succession to Tiberius Julius Alexander. He is best known for being the famous lover of Julia the Elder. Life Early life Born in Rome, Iullus and his elder brother had a disruptive childhood.
His mother Fulvia gained many enemies including Octavian nephew and adopted son of Julius Caesar. His half-. He was a member of the Nerva-Antonine dynasty. Verus' succession together with Marcus Aurelius marked the first time that the Roman Empire was ruled by multiple emperors, an increasingly common occurrence in the later history of the Empire. The eldest son of Lucius Aelius Caesar, first adopted son and heir to Hadrian, Verus was born and educated in Rome where he held several political offices prior to taking the throne.
Hadrian died later that year, and Antoninus Pius succeeded to the throne. The gens Gessia was a minor Roman family, known chiefly from the east of Imperial times. Members of this gens are first mentioned toward the end of the second century BC.
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Although they were of senatorial rank, none of the Gessii are known to have held any curule magistracies. The emperor Severus Alexander is believed to have been descended from a branch of this family. Members This list includes abbreviated praenomina. For an explanation of this practice, see filiation. Publius Gessius P. Decimus Gessius D. Lucius Gessius Optatus, built an altar for Neptune at Roatto.
Primus, freedman of Publius Gessius. Gessia P.
Fausta, freedwoman of Publius Gessius. Aulus Gessius. The Roman world was largely free from large-scale conflict for more than two centuries, despite continuous wars of imperial expansion on the Empire's frontiers and the year-long civil war known as the "Year of the Four Emperors" over the imperial succession. Augustus was born Gaius Octavius Thurinus into an old and wealthy equestrian branch of the plebeian gens Octavia.
His maternal great-uncle Julius Caesar was assassinated in 44 BC, and Octavius was named in Caesar's will as his adopted son and heir. Along with Mark Antony and. Legio Prima Italica "Italian First Legion" : the epithet Italica is a reference to the Italian origin of its first recruits was a legion of the Imperial Roman army founded by emperor Nero on September 22, 66 the date is attested by an inscription. There are still records of the I Italica on the Danube border at the beginning of the 5th century. The emblem of the legion was a boar.
The sources mention the pec. This article concerns the period 39 BC — 30 BC. Ventidius finally defeats him in the battle at the Taurus Mountains. Labienus flees to Cilicia, where he is captured and executed. The pact helped to assure Rome's grain supply, the blockade on Italy is lifted. January 17 — Octavian marries Livia while she is still pregnant from a recently broken marriage. Octavian gained per. Alexander Gr. Alexander was taken prisoner, with his father and his brother Antigonus, by the Roman general Pompey, on the capture of Jerusalem in 63 BC, but escaped his captors as they were being conveyed to Rome.
Alexander's uncle Hyrcanus with whom Alexander's father Aristobulus had clashed applied for aid to Gabinius, who brought a large army against Alexander, and sent Mark Antony with a body of troops in advance. In a battle fought near Jerusalem, Alexander was soundl.
Commodus  31 August — 31 December , born Lucius Aurelius Commodus and died Lucius Aelius Aurelius Commodus, was Roman emperor with his father Marcus Aurelius from to his father's death in , and solely until During his father's reign, he accompanied Marcus Aurelius during the Marcomannic Wars in and on a tour of the Eastern provinces in He was made the youngest consul in Roman history in and later that year elevated to co-emperor with his father. His accession was the first time a son had succeeded his biological father since Titus succeeded Vespasian in He was also the first emperor to have both a father and grandfather who had adopted his father as the two preceding emperors.
Commodus was the first and until , the only emperor "born in the purple", meaning during his father's reign. During his solo reign, the Empire enjoyed a period of reduced military conflict compared with the reign of Marcus Aurelius, but intrigues and conspiracies abounded, leading Com. The gens Erucia was a plebeian family at Rome.
Members of this gens are first mentioned early in the first century BC; the name has been claimed as Etruscan. He was also one of the accusers of Lucius Varenus, who was likewise defended by Cicero, who calls Erucius Antoniaster, that is, an imitator of the orator Antonius. He was appointed Praefectus Praetori. In his early youth he served the god Elagabalus as a priest in Emesa, the hometown of his mother's family.