The Silverdale Chronicles: Surviving Assassinations
As the Viking Age drew to a close, Scandinavians and Normans continued to have opportunities to visit and raid Iberia while on their way to the Holy Land for pilgrimage or crusade, or in connection with Norman conquests in the Mediterranean. It seems clear that rather than being Normans, these men were Varangian mercenaries fighting for Byzantium.
Later several Anglo-Danish and Norwegian nobles participated in the Norman conquest of southern Italy. Harald Hardrada , who later became king of Norway , seems to have been involved in the Norman conquest of Sicily between and ,  under William de Hauteville , who won his nickname Iron Arm by defeating the emir of Syracuse in single combat, and a Lombard contingent, led by Arduin.follow site
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The well-known Harald Hardrada would also serve the Byzantine emperor in Palestine as well as raiding North Africa, the Middle East as far east as Armenia, and the island of Sicily in the 11th century, as recounted in his saga in Snorri Sturluson's Heimskringla. Evidence for Norse ventures into Arabia and Central Asia can be found in runestones erected in Scandinavia by the relatives of fallen Viking adventurers. Several of these refer to men who died in " Serkland " possibly Arabia. Meanwhile, in the Eastern Mediterranean the Norse referred to as Rus' were viewed more as "merchant-warriors" who were primarily associated with trade and business.
The Vikings settled coastal areas along the Baltic Sea , and along inland rivers in Russian territories such as Staraya Ladoga , Novgorod and along major waterways to the Byzantine Empire. The real involvement of the Varangians is said to have come after they were asked by the Slavic tribes of the region to come and establish order, as those tribes were in constant warfare among each other "Our country is rich and immense, but it is rent by disorder. Come and govern us and reign over us.
The tribes were united and ruled under the leadership of Rurik , a leader of a group of Varangians. Rurik had successfully been able to establish a set of trading towns and posts along the Volga and Dnieper Rivers, which were perfect for trade with the Byzantine Empire. Rurik's successors were able to conquer and unite the towns along the banks of the Volga and Dnieper Rivers, and establish the Rus' Khaganate. Around , Varangians appeared near the village of Bashi on the Rioni River, to establish a permanent [ clarification needed ] settlement of Vikings in Georgia.
The Georgian Chronicles described them as 3, men who had traveled from Scandinavia through present-day Russia, rowing down the Dnieper River and across the Black Sea.
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King Bagrat IV welcomed them to Georgia and accepted some of them into the Georgian army; several hundred Vikings fought on Bagrat's side at the Battle of Sasireti in Other Vikings continued westward, thereafter disappearing from history. Swedish researchers recently suggested that the story in the Georgian chronicle was about the Swedish expedition by the Viking chieftain Ingvar den Vittfarne Ingvar the Far-Traveled , which features in many rune stones in mid-Sweden. Iceland was discovered by Naddodd , one of the first settlers on the Faroe Islands , who was sailing from Norway to the Faroe Islands but got lost and drifted to the east coast of Iceland.
Iceland was first settled around According to the story, he threw two carved pillars overboard as he neared land, vowing to settle wherever they landed. He then sailed along the coast until the pillars were found in the southwestern peninsula, now known as Reykjanesskagi. In the year , Erik the Red was believed to have discovered Greenland after being exiled from Iceland for murder in Three years later in , Erik the Red returned with 14 surviving ships as 25 set out on the expedition.
Two areas along Greenland's southwest coast were colonized by Norse settlers, including Erik the Red, around The settlers arrived during a warm phase, when short-season crops such as rye and barley could be grown. Sheep and hardy cattle were also raised for food, wool, and hides. Their main export was walrus ivory, which was traded for iron and other goods which could not be produced locally.
Greenland became a dependency of the king of Norway in The Catholic diocese of Greenland was subject to the archdiocese of Nidaros. However, many bishops chose to exercise this office from afar. As the years wore on, the climate shifted see Little Ice Age. The Greenland colony gradually faded away. By , it had lost contact with Norway and Iceland and disappeared from all but a few Scandinavian legends.
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Subsequent expeditions from Greenland some led by Leif Erikson explored the areas to the west, seeking large timbers for building in particular Greenland had only small trees and brush. Since , five other potential settlements have been discovered ranging from Tanfield Valley in the north to Point Rosee  in the south. There is also evidence for Viking contact with Native Americans. Fighting between the Natives and the Vikings did take place with the natives having the advanced weaponry of bows and arrows.
However trade by barter did also take place between them. This contact led to a mutual amazement of two peoples toward each other. However, the conflict between these two groups led to the Vikings eventual evacuation of the area. The Greenlanders called the new-found territory Vinland. In any case, without any official backing, attempts at colonization by the Norse proved failures. There were simply too many natives for the Greenlanders to conquer or withstand and they withdrew to Greenland.
Vikings may have discovered Svalbard as early as the 12th century. But this land might also have been Jan Mayen , or a part of eastern Greenland. The Dutchman Willem Barents made the first indisputable discovery of Svalbard in Studies of genetic diversity have provided scientific confirmation to accompany archaeological evidence of Viking expansion. They additionally indicate patterns of ancestry, imply new migrations, and show the actual flow of individuals between disparate regions.
However, attempts to determine historical population genetics are complicated by subsequent migrations and demographic fluctuations. In particular, the rapid migrations of the 20th century has made it difficult to assess what prior genetic states were. Genetic evidence contradicts the common perception that Vikings were primarily pillagers and raiders. A news article by Roger Highfield summarizes recent research and concludes that, as both male and female genetic markers are present, the evidence is indicative of colonization instead of raiding and occupying.
However, this is also disputed by unequal ratios of male and female haplotypes see below which indicate that more men settled than women, an element of a raiding or occupying population. Y-chromosome haplotypes serve as markers of paternal lineage much the same as mDNA represents the maternal lineage. Together, these two methods provide an option for tracing back a people's genetic history and charting the historical migrations of both males and females.
These are accompanied by one of the largest genetic records which have been collected by deCODE genetics. Together, these two records allow for a mostly reliable view of historical Scandinavian genetic structure although the genetics of Iceland are influenced by Norse-British migration as well as that directly from Scandinavia.
Haplogroup I-M , also known as haplogroup I1, is the most common haplotype among Scandinavian males. Haplogroup R1b is another very common haplotype in all of Western Europe. However, it is not distinctly linked to Vikings or their expansion. There are indications that a mutant strand, R-L, may have been carried to Great Britain by the Vikings,  but the topic is currently inconclusive. The mitochondrial C1 haplotype is primarily an East Asia-American haplotype that developed just prior to migration across the Bering sea.
There is evidence suggesting Y-Haplotypes may be combined with surname histories to better represent historical populations and prevent recent migrations from obscuring the historical record. Genetic techniques indicate that this mutation occurred roughly 60—70 generations ago or between and CE, assuming a generation length of 20 years. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article needs additional citations for verification.
Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Extension of Norse language in A. Paganism and mythology. Rituals and worship. See also: Danelaw. Norse invasions of England. Main articles: Scandinavian Scotland and Norse-Gaels. Viking wars in Ireland. See also: Viking raids in the Rhineland. Main article: Vikings in Iberia. Main article: Norman conquest of southern Italy. Main article: Varangians.
See also: Rus' Khaganate and Volga trade route. See also: Caspian expeditions of the Rus'. Main article: Settlement of Iceland. Main article: Norse colonization of the Americas. Further information: History of Svalbard. Many arrived with families and livestock, often in the wake of the capture of territory by their forces. The populations then merged over time by intermarriage into the Anglo-Saxon population of these areas. A bibliography of French-language , Caen, Centre for research on the countries of the North and Northwest, University of Caen, , p. The Oxford Illustrated History of the Vikings.
Oxford: OUP. Barrett, "What caused the Viking Age? Early Medieval Europe, Volume 19, Issue 3, pp. Halsall, "The Viking presence in England? The burial evidence reconsidered" in D. Hadley and J. In Sawyer, Peter ed. Britannia Online. Retrieved 6 May Lindisfarne: The Cradle Island. Stockfield, Northumberland: Oriel Press.
The Earliest English Kings. London: Routledge. Historic England. Retrieved 26 June Retrieved 15 July There, however, some of their leaders were slain; and some of their ships also were shattered to pieces by the violence of the weather; many of the crew were drowned; and some, who escaped alive to the shore, were soon dispatched at the mouth of the river.
Oxford Illustrated Histories. New York: Oxford University Press. Retrieved Several Viking leaders joined forces in the hope of winning status and independence by conquering England, which then consisted of four kingdoms. In a fleet landed in East Anglia and was later joined by others to form what a contemporary chronicler described, with good reason, as a 'great army'.
Manuscript B: Cotton Tiberius A. Retrieved 12 September The leaders appear to have included Ivar the Boneless and his brother Halfdan, sons of the legendary Ragnar Lothbrok, as well as another 'king' called Bagsecg , and several 'earls'; and if it is assumed that Ivar is the Imar who had been active in Ireland in the late s and early s, it would appear that he had been able to meet up with his brother and assume joint leadership of the army some time after its arrival in England. The Oxford Illustrated History of the Vikings 3rd ed.
The Oxford Companion to British History. Oxford: Oxford University Press. The commemoration of the 70th anniversary of the liberation of Auschwitz by the Red Army has been marred by controversy. A new edited volume on the life of the famous Cork priest, author and social activist Canon P. Apocalypse, monsters, time, space and the greatest surviving medieval world-map were among the topics of an intensive workshop at the School of History, UCC on Wednesday 4 th August. On 9 September, the School of History, UCC held a symposium on Applied History that involved the speakers with experience in the areas of heritage, education, career guidance, outreach, business and diplomacy.
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In a rapidly changing world of employment where traditional career pathways for history graduates are becoming increasingly more difficult, history educators are faced with challenges of providing knowledge while equipping the students with important transferable skills. Their mission was to map out a peace plan after the final destruction of Nazi Germany. Since then the word Yalta has taken on a variety of historical meanings.
In Russia the memory of Yalta is positively remembered, but its memory in the West is clouded by the Ukrainian crisis. The project will examine the arguments and activities of an influential group of medical practitioners who advocated public health measures strongly shaped by evolutionary theory in the period There is scope to revise these parameters and explore other spaces crucial to the pursuit of evolutionary medicine in Britain and Ireland between and The paper will examine the evidence for this important meeting, and consider its implications.
Tyronnell is located on Perrot Avenue, leading to Hayfield Manor. Dr Michael Dwyer's research features in today's Irish Examiner. The event is open to all members of the UCC community and the public who may wish to attend the proceedings. Geoffrey Roberts. Illustration, notes, index.
The project investigates the role of the religious orders in the establishment and development of urban and rural settlement across Ireland, placing the Irish studies in a broader European context. Monastic Ireland research seminar. This timely study explores the dilemmas of US intervention within the broad context of the history of foreign policy in America and with a specific focus on the Obama administration.
Framed by three dominant US narratives centred on the desire to feel good, safe, and strong, Prof David Ryan and Dr David Fitzgerald analyse the tactical use of language and 'lessons' of history and how these have shaped Washington's decisions, discourses, policies and interventions in particular ways. Dr Wiktor Szymborski from the Institute of History, Jagiellonian University, Cracow will deliver four seminars dealing with indulgences in medieval Poland.
Seminars will take between 9 and 13 March Open link to access full list. Listen back on Talking History. Ukraine is wedged in the middle. But the question is: does the West really care? Public Lecture. Thursday 12 June, 4. At the annual opening of the UN General Assembly Russia's President Vladimir Putin made it abundantly clear the West's business-as-usual approach to solving the world problems is outdated and counterproductive.
This approach manufactures problems like the crisis in Syria. Eddie Brohan, founder of the Broadcasting Hall of Fame, will speak on the origins of radio in Ireland in the perfect surroundings of the radio museum, formerly a female Gaol. Radio Seminar outlining the origins of radio in Ireland and celebrating its 90 year-existence in the surrounds of the radio musuem at the Cork city Gaol. Refugee — more knowledge and less fear. Conversations on the current refugee crisis. The carnage that followed the doomed Warsaw Uprising of raises the question what was it all for — and who was responsible for its failure, writes Prof Geoffrey Roberts.
For details visit University of California Press. Scientists secretly vaccinated more than 2, children in religious-run homes in suspected illegal drug trials, it emerged today. Water gives us life, but it also happens to be among the best places to ditch a body. Scientists know less about the bottom of the ocean than they do about the moon.
Meanwhile, deep lakes are murky and hard to explore. Not to mention, once a body is in water, it begins to bloat, dissolve and serve as sustenance for aquatic life. Gangsters, in particular, have found water to be a convenient burial ground, pioneering the whole cement-boots trope. Similarly, Lake Tahoe reportedly has bodies buried at its bottom from a bygone era of mob violence. Carini had been hit in the head with a hammer by the twins, who then allegedly dumped his body into Jamaica Bay with a cinder block and a bucket of construction materials attached to his feet.
Martinez, believed to be a member of the Crips , was found by college students. These stories, of course, are the exception. The beaches of the Salish Sea , which sits between Seattle and Vancouver, have long been haunted by the arrival of severed feet , almost always clad in shoes as footwear prevents fish from devouring them. In fact, over the past decade, 14 feet have been found on various beaches along the sea, likely due to the occurrence of extra high tides and strong currents in the region.
Also not long ago, a bag filled with 27 pairs of hands was found on an icy island in the Amur River , the 10th longest river in the world. The wrinkled and pale hands were found near the city of Khabarovsk , along the Russia-China border, at a popular fishing area. Next to the hands were bandages and plastic shoe covers often used in hospitals. A foot and unnamed body part were found on Copacabana Beach 36 days before the start of the Summer Olympics. The volleyball stadium was only a few hundred yards away. Police believed they belonged to a woman or a young adult.
The case disappeared in the media because Brazil had so many problems heading into the Olympics that it was hard to keep track of all of them. A dream vacation to Fiji turned into a nightmare in August for a Kiwi couple when they uncovered a head wrapped in green cloth and tied down with rocks, which were supposed to keep it submerged in the shallow water near Natadola Beach.
The head belonged to Yuri Shipulin, a Russian expat who moved to the island in with his wife, Nataliya Gerasimova. It is so public and a very popular picnic spot. His dad, John, was at work at the time. Leads about who abducted and killed Walsh were few and far between. And the Walsh family believed that the Miami-Dade Police Department botched the investigation by misplacing evidence. Pictures and details of missing children were aired after the movie.
All the while, FOX asked Walsh if he wanted to start his own show about wanted criminals. They claimed it was committed by Ottis Toole , an arsonist and serial killer who died in prison in Toole had first confessed to the crime in October , the day after Adam aired.
But he later recanted his confession, and a pattern would emerge where he would confess and recant a few more times. Further, rumors surfaced that Toole had been fed information about the case by a detective trying get a book deal. He sent similar letters to popular news organizations saying he could give them details about the murder, too, if they paid him for the interview.
North Carolina experienced a string of strange, grisly murders in the early s.