Instruments and Methods for the Radio Detection of High Energy Cosmic Rays (Springer Theses)
Matthews and S. Moore and J. Mumford and M. Roberts and P. Shen and P. Sokolsky and R. Springer and S. W Clay and H. R Dawson and Y Ho and M. A Huang and C. H Jui and M. C Knapp and W Lee and E. N Matthews and T. B Thomas and L. R Wilkinson and N. Energy estimation of UHE cosmic rays using the atmospheric fluorescence technique C.
Song and Z. Cao and B. Dawson and B. Fick and P.
Sokolsky and X. Zhang Astroparticle Physics Wilkinson and T. Al-Seady and K. Belov and D. Bird and J. Boyer and G. Chen and R. Clay and H. Dai and B. Dawson and Y. Ho and M. Huang and C. Jui and M. Kidd and D. Kieda and B. Knapp and W. Lee and E. Loh and E. Matthews and T. O'Halloran and A. Salman and K. Simpson and J. Smith and P. Sokolsky and P. Sommers and S. Thomas and L.
Wiencke and N. Wild Astroparticle Physics Hayashida, H. Hirasawa, F. Ishikawa, and others The Astrophysical Journal Letters Radio-controlled xenon Flashers for atmospheric monitoring at the HiRes cosmic ray observatory L. Ding, C. Jing, G. Jing, J. Ren, Q. Zhu, H. Dai, E. Loh, P. Sokolsky, P. Sommers, J. Tang The Astrophysical Journal A measurement of the air fluorescence yield F.
Kakimoto and E. Loh and M. Nagano and H. Okuno and M. Teshima and S. Detection of a cosmic ray with measured energy well beyond the expected spectral cutoff due to microwave radiation D. Bird, S. Corbato, H. Dai, and others The Astrophysical Journal The cosmic-ray energy spectrum observed by the Fly's Eye D. Corbato, and others The Astrophysical Journal The calibration of the absolute sensitivity of photomultiplier tubes in the high resolution Fly's eye detector D. Bird and S. Dai and J. Elbert and M. Kieda and E.
Loh and P. Sommers and J. Tang and S. Wiencke and Q. Evidence for correlated changes in the spectrum and composition of cosmic rays at extremely high energies D. Dai, B. Dawson, J. Elbert, T. Gaisser, K. Green, M. Huang, D. Kieda, S. Ko, C. Larsen, E. Loh, M. Luo, M. Salamon, D. Smith, P. Sommers, T. Stanev, J. Tang, S. Thomas, and S. Tilav Phys. Luo, S. The AMS systems have been operating at the highest sensitivities with minimum sample size, and small matrix and interference effects. All these new developments in radiometric and mass spectrometry sectors for ultra-sensitive radionuclide analyses have had great impact on investigations of rare nuclear processes and applications in environmental, life and space sciences.
However, there is still a room for new exciting developments which can be documented by the development of new ultra-sensitive laser based analytical techniques, ultra-trace isotope detection of noble gases, development of positive ion sources for tandem accelerators, development of ion traps technologies, to mention at least a few of them.
Developments in analytical technologies will further support a transfer from bulk sample analyses to compound specific isotope analyses with on-line coupling of analytical instruments. These new developments would make a single atom counting technology available for many radionuclides, what would be the major achievement in ultra-sensitive analysis of radionuclides, and their wide applications in all sciences based on radionuclide studies.
The new technologies will, however, bring new problems, which will require additional attention: i A danger of contamination will considerably increase—therefore clean laboratories of class 10— will be required; ii super-clean chemistry during sample preparation will become even more important; iii sample inhomogeneities could mask investigated effects—therefore compound specific isotope analysis of samples will be widely required. Ultra-sensitive radioanalytical technologies have always been crucial for realization of new scientific ideas in all branches of science.
We believe that further developments in new single atom counting technologies will open windows for new even more exciting scientific investigations in the future. My scientific carrier was strongly influenced mainly by three past events. The first one was associated with my stay during — at the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research in Bombay where I had a privilege to work under the leadership of late Prof. Lal, who had heavily influenced my further research orientation on radionuclides both cosmogenic and radiogenic as tracers of processes in terrestrial and extra-terrestrial bodies.
Machi, I got strong extra-budgetary financial support from Japan to establish in Monaco modern radioanalytical laboratories including an underground laboratory. However, I have also been very lucky to work with excellent people worldwide. Breier, M. Emrich, M. Jurina, J. Kaizer, I. Masarik, J. Szarka, I. Vojtyla, J. Zeman, and others. Aggarwal, L. Araguas—Araguas, M. Baxter, M. Betti, J. Comanducci, C. Dovlete, M. Eriksson, S. Fowler, K.
Groening, T. Huynh-Ngoc, Y. Ikeuchi, T. Ito, R. Kaiser, J. La Rosa, S. Lee, I. Levy, L. Liong Wee Kwong, H. Livingston, F. Mantoura, J. Miquel, M. Nakano, H. Nies, B. Oregioni, I. Osvath, H. Petersson, M. Pham, J. Sanchez-Cabeza, J. Scholten, S. Steyskal, O. Togawa, E. Wyse and others. It has also been a great pleasure to take part in many international projects and collaborate with distinguished scientists from all over the world on various aspects of environmental radioactivity and rare nuclear processes to mention at least the leaders of the groups participating in joint projects: A.
Aarkrog Riso , V. Alexeev Moscow , M. Aoyama Tsukuba, Fukushima , T. Aramaki Mutsu , P. Bailly de Bois Octeville , J. Baskaran Detroit , L. Bokuniewicz Stony Brook , K. Buesseler Woods Hole , A. Burnett Tallahassee , G. Burr Tucson , F. Chamizo Sevilla , M. Charette Woods Hole , A. Chatt Halifax , J. Chisholm Monaco , L. Coppola Toulouse , R. Delfanti La Spezia , L. Fifield Canberra , E. Fukasawa Yokosuka , R. Golser Vienna , I. Hamajima Kanazawa , S. Hauser Palermo , K.
Instruments and Methods for the Radio Detection of High Energy Cosmic Rays - INSPIRE-HEP
Hirose Tsukuba, Tokyo , G. Hong Seoul , M. Hotchkis Sydney , X. Hou Riso , M. Hult Geel , Y. Igarashi Tsukuba , Y. Ikeuchi Chiba , K. Inn Gaithersburg , T. Ito Tokai , J. Jaubert Monaco , P. Jean-Baptist Gif-sur-Yvette , C. Jeandel Toulouse , A. Ioannidou Thessaloniki , J. John Prague , A. Jull Tucson , P. Kershaw Lowestoft , W. Kieser Toronto, Ottawa , C. Koeberl Vienna , M. Koehler Dresden , K. Kontar Moscow, Findlay , J. Kumamoto Yokosuka , W. Kutschera Vienna , M. Laubenstein Gran Sasso , H. Li Taipei , A.
Litherland Toronto , H. Loosli Bern , G. Moore Columbia , U. Morgenstern Lower Hutt , C. Musa Paris , M. Nakano Tokai , H. Nies Hamburg , S. Nisi Gran Sasso , H. Ogrinc Ljubljana , J. Ozorovich Moscow , S. Pagava Tbilisi , L. Palcsu Debrecen , S. Pan Nanjing , W.
Plastino Roma , A. Priller Vienna , K. Roos Riso , T. Ryan Dublin , S. Shima Mutsu , H. Simgen Heidelberg , B. Steier Vienna , T. Stieglitz Townsville , I. Svetlik Prague , M. Taniguchi Kyoto , F. Togawa Tokai , Z. Top Miami , Ch. Tsabaris Athens , G. Ustinova Moscow, Dubna , P. Vojtyla Geneva , R. Woodhead Lowestoft , I. Hirose for valuable comments which helped to improve this paper. Hevesy Medal Award Lecture. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry. J Radioanal Nucl Chem.
Published online Mar Pavel P. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Povinec, Email: ks. Corresponding author. Received Dec 7. Abstract Recent developments in radiometric and mass spectrometry technologies have been associated in the radiometric sector mainly with underground operations of large volume Ge detectors, while the mass-spectrometry sector, represented mainly by accelerator mass spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry has become the most sensitive technique for ultra-low-level analyses of long-lived radionuclides.
Keywords: Radionuclides, Ge detector, Underground laboratory, Accelerator mass spectrometry, Atmosphere, Marine environment. Introduction Radioanalytical technologies have always been a limiting factor for experiments in nuclear sciences comprising investigations of rare processes in nuclear physics and chemistry, in space research, in environmental radioactivity studies, in isotope oceanography and hydrology, in biomedical research and in many other branches of science.
Open in a separate window. Development of radiometric technologies Gas counting systems My scientific carrier started with development of methods for analysis of radiocarbon in atmospheric carbon dioxide [ 65 ], and at the beginning it was heavily influenced by W. Radiochemical separation methods Recent developments in radiometric and mass spectrometry technologies have been contributing significantly to new scientific investigations carried out in nuclear and environmental sciences.
Gamma-spectrometers operating in surface laboratories Ge detectors with anticosmic shielding Availability of large volume Ge detectors has been the most important developments in the radiometric sector. Multidetector gamma-spectrometry In some applications, a better sensitivity can be obtained by operating a Ge spectrometer with Compton suppression, or as a gamma—gamma coincidence spectrometer. Underground gamma-spectrometry laboratories We have seen that the Monte Carlo simulation tools based on the GEANT proved to be capable to model background characteristics of Ge detectors, and thus to optimise the design of low-level gamma-spectrometry systems.
Shallow-depth laboratories It has been well known from cosmic-ray physics that fluxes of secondary particles have different behaviour in rocks. Deep-underground laboratories The most important recent breakthrough in the radiometrics technologies is represented by operation of gamma-spectrometers in deep underground laboratories. Developments in mass spectrometry technologies As we already mentioned, the most important recent developments in the radioanalytical technologies for analysis of long-lived radionuclides have been applications of mass spectrometric systems, especially the AMS and the ICPMS.
Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry ICPMS ICPMS has developed into a powerful technique for the analysis of elements, stable and long-lived radioactive isotopes in the environment. Accelerator mass spectrometry AMS AMS represents the most important breakthrough in the analysis of some of the long-lived radionuclides. A comparison of radiometric and mass spectrometry techniques In the case of 3 H there is not an alternative method to in-growth 3 He mass spectrometry method for 3 H analyses down to 0.
Centre for Nuclear and Accelerator Technologies CENTA Recent developments in AMS technologies and their applications in nuclear sciences physics and chemistry , and in environmental, space, biomedical and material researches have been an inspiration for creation of many new tandem accelerator laboratories.
Al 2 O 3 versus AlN targets for 26 Al analysis by AMS Al 2 O 3 targets have been mostly used in ion sources for the production of aluminium negative ions for AMS analysis of low-level concentrations of 26 Al in environmental, biological and space samples with detection limits down to 0. Examples of large-scale projects carried out with new radioanalytical technologies We have only a limited space available to show where new radioanalytical technologies made important breakthroughs in new science.
SuperNEMO and rare nuclear processes and decays Background is playing an essential role in underground experiments investigating rare nuclear processes and decays such as neutrinoless double beta-decay experiments e. Radioanalytical impacts on environmental studies New ultra-sensitive radioanalytical technologies made important breakthroughs in environmental sciences, however, we can present in this review only a few examples of successful studies tracing radionuclides in the atmosphere, groundwater and in the marine environment. Atmospheric radioactivity We shall focus on investigations of Cs from global fallout, Chernobyl and Fukushima accidents as Cs has been considered to be the most important radionuclide for the long-term radiological impact after nuclear accidents mainly because of large releases, its relatively long physical half-life and its bioavailability.
Global marine radioactivity studies Circulation of water masses in the world ocean play a crucial role in the protection of the marine environment against contamination from land based sources, as well as for climate change studies, in which oceans are dominant players. Southern hemisphere ocean tracer studies BEAGLE expedition The Southern Hemisphere Oceans Tracer Studies SHOTS project was carried out during — [ — , ] with the aim to collect radionuclide water profile data for better understanding of circulation processes in the south oceans.
Fukushima impact on the Pacific Ocean waters From many results, we published recently on Fukushima radionuclides in the Pacific Ocean we present here at least a few data on Cs, 3 H and 14 C in the water column of the NW Pacific. Conclusions and outlook We may summarize that the new developments in ultra-sensitive radioanalytical technologies have had great impact on nuclear and environmental investigations. Acknowledgements My scientific carrier was strongly influenced mainly by three past events. Footnotes Hevesy Medal Award Lecture.
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A detailed investigation of systematic effects was performed to accurately recon- struct LOPES lateral distributions. In particular, a method has been developed to appropriately treat the influence of radio noise on measured lateral distri- butions.