Parteien – Wohl oder Wehe der Demokratie? (German Edition)

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His experience in the humane enterprises of the city, and his practical knowledge of books and libraries qualified him for the position which he still holds as President of the great Free Library System of Philadel- phia, Chairman of the Library Committee of the University of Pennsylvania and the Drexel Institute, and the prominent part which he has taken in the movement for the Extension of Uni- versity Teaching.

In all of these practical affairs, Mr. Rosengarten has main- tained his interest in historical and scientific research, and has given evidence of his scholarship in a large number of publications. Out of a lecture, delivered at the request of the German Society, many years ago, was developed his book, "The German Soldier in the Wars of America. As the friend of George Bancroft, he rendered important service to this historian's great work, The History of the United States.

After the burning of the library of the Uni- versity of Strassburg, in Alsace, he assisted in making a collec- tion of books for the rehabilitation of that library. Thus it was but fitting that he should become the first president of the German American Historical Society, which was organized and incorporated in He was chosen in one of the Board of Trustees of the University of Pennsylvania, and has been devoted to the interests of the institution in all its varied activities. Unlike most men, he has not limited his interests to one or two favorite subjects.

His has not been the gift of buildings for a specific purpose, which the passerby could see, but his beneficence has been bestowed on many departments to cover the hundred urgent needs — to buy books and apparatus, to publish scientific results, to carry on special investigation, to photograph and copy valuable manu- scripts — all aids so essential to scientific research, and aids which the donor of large, individual sums, not acquainted with the needs of university work, often overlooks in endowing buildings. Only the giver, with scientific insight, can see the value of Fel- lowships, Scholarships, and the hundred invisible aids which pro- mote the true progress of a university.

Prof. Dr. Merkel: Ende der Sozialdemokratie? - 11.03.19

It is this deeper in- sight which has made Dr. Rosengarten one of the most generous and versatile benefactors of the University, and the departments of History, Language, Literature, Mathematics, and Natural Science can all testify to his generosity. Many of the scientific enterprises, which now bear the name of Pennsylvania far be- yond the sea, have been made possible through such varied gifts. Frazier severed his connection as Giair- man of the Library Committee, it was feared that no one could be found to continue his generosity toward the Library.

For- tunately, Dr. Rosengarten was willing to assume the burden, thus becoming the moving force both in the University Library and the Free Library work. It is not too much to say that his services in promoting the interests of German culture in America have been even greater. His subscription was among the first on the list for the purchase of the Bech- stein Library. His name is always to be seen among the sub- scribers of every good German cause. March The same easterly wind continued, but, as it was very meagre, we made little progress.

The day was clear and beautiful most of the time, but still I had to wear my wolfskin jacket. Our latitude was 49 degrees, 35 minutes. The weather was beautiful and almost calm. What little breeze we had was favorable, or SE. In the afternoon we hove to while the Commodore and our Captain were at a banquet on board a ship which was about to go with some others to West India, or Guiana and the Barbadoes. Tow- ards night the wind began to freshen up a little from the south. April I. The wind was slow, and began to shift to the east.

Andrezv Rndman April. In the afternoon the wind chansfed to SE. We went six and a half miles an hour, and could have gone more, if the fleet had not hindered us. In order to wait for them we had to shorten sail and sail thus all day the 3d. April 2. Four ships left us, bound for the Barbadoes and Guiana.

They gave us a farewell salute, which our Commodore answered. April 3. There was a fine, even east and NE. Our latitude was 47 degrees. From 12 o'clock of the 3d to T2 o'clock of the 4th we sailed miles. April 4. Which was Easter Sunday, the same wind contin- ued, and was good and strong. God be praised. Corbin preached on the ship. Text, Mark April 5. The same wind continued, and to-day we sailed miles, and could have gone too miles further if the fleet had not delayed us. We took an observation and found our latitude to be 45 degrees, 9 minutes. To-day our Commodore captured a prize, a flyboat.

April 6. Our Commodore chased another French ship, and returned with it on the 7th. It was a half-caper, carried 8 gims. It was a beautiful ship of the French type. The flyboat was of Dutch make, probably taken from them by the Dutch. April 6 and 7. The same wind continued, but began to die down gradually. In the night the wind turned to the south, and on the 8th we had a hard storm. We were, nevertheless, able to keep our course. In the afternoon the wind shifted to the south- west, or straight against us ; therefore, we had to sail NW.

April 9. The weather became quite warm, and everybody had to take off his wolfskin jacket. The crew thought we must be Diary of Rev. Andrezv Rudman ii near Newfoundland Bank, judging from the foggy weather, for the weather is continually foggy on this bank. We were told that this bank is over leagues from Lizard.

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April 9 and ID. The wind was again from the south, and the weather was dismal and foggy. The wind was so dull that we could not sail more than two and a half miles an hour at most, although we carried all our sails. April II. The first Sunday after Easter. We got a strong wind from the south in the afternoon. We then sailed W.

After that we could not sail more than three to three and a half miles an hour. Towards night the wind turned to SW. I gave Mr. I also wrote a hymn, beginning, 'Tdel nig i evighet. The weather was very foggy, and the same con- trary wind continued. At midnight there arose a terrible storm just like the one we had under Skagen at Jutland, if not worse. The waves rose to an awful height, the sea became white and was driven before the wind like snow. This storm continued on the 13th all day; it hailed and the weather was very cold.

April Just before this terrible storm came, we saw four or five St. Elmo's fires, or Castor and Pollux. They burned as bright as lanterns. The crew knew at once what it meant, namely, that a storm was brewing. But, God be praised, we lost nothing in this storm, only our dog-vanes, which were blown to pieces. Andrew Rudtnan One may judge how high the waves were from the fact that when we were down between them I could see neither the sails nor the tops of the masts nor anything else of the ship which was only two or three gunshots away from us, and was a full rigged three- master.

But I have seen the wonders of God in the sea, for I saw large ships rocking between mountains of water like little yawls, and when the waves beat against the ship it creaked so that I thought every joint would break. But, God be praised, for He held the ship together and made it strong. The storm began to abate a little in the night, so that we could shake out reefs and get under way at lo o'clock on the 14th. We sailed northward to find the fleet, and at seven o'clock we went about and sailed SSW.

We were then ten ships. We did not see the other three. The same wind continued, but was very mild. We hove to and waited for the other ships. The wind increased, so that we had to shorten sail in the afternoon and heave to. In the night there was another severe storm, in which the ship pitched terribly. One wave broke over the quarter deck, swept the whole deck, and dashed against the gallery so hard that we thought the ship was going to break to pieces.

The salt water came in through the gallery and spark- led on the floor like fire. I did not mind the storm, but delivered myself up to God and, trusting in Him, I From the phosphorescence. Diary of Rev. Andrew Rudman 13 lay down to sleep, in Jesus' name, and slept all night, except when the ship struck heavily against the waves; then I would awake, a little frightened, and breathe a prayer, after which I would go to sleep again. The wind went down a little, and we were able to get under way.

We sailed by-the-wind. April 19 and 20, The weather was calm. Later a breeze sprang up, and we were able to keep our course, W. I had my arm lanced, on account of a fever and burning in the head. The blood looked healthy, nor could we no- tice any excessive heat in it, God be praised. May God grant that this lancing may benefit me. Belthasar Emrich, the doctor on the ship, did the lancing. He is a Swede, born in Stockholm, The same day the bosons caught a very large turtle, a strange looking fish, having four feet like fins and a head like that of a parrot.

It was large and round, like "Unnbulla'," the shell was hard as iron. April 23, The weather was perfectly calm; just before noon it rained a little. Towards evening a gentle breeze sprang up from the east, at which we rejoiced. The sky looked as if we would have a steady strong wind. Our hopes were high, but in the night the wind shifted to the SW. It rained, and when the clouds came it blew terribly. The wind went down a little, so that we could carry the lower sails. In this way we went straining against the wind, but were able to keep our course. In the morning we had a fine ENE. May God grant that it may be steady.

But it did not last longer than that day. Then we got a west wind, against which we had to tack ; it continued the rest of April. Andrew Rudman May. May I. We got a tolerable wind, and were able to keep our course ; but towards evening it shifted to the west again.

This wind continued on the 2d, which was the fourth Sunday after Easter. May 2. We saw sdmle huge fishes, whales. Sometimes they would show their tails, which were two or three yards broad, above the water. May 3. We had a north wind, and sailed westward. Later the wind shifted to the east. May 3, 4, 5, 6, we had a good side wind, most of the time from SSE. We sailed a good distance in this wind.

May 6. Towards noon we had hard weather, with light- ning, thunder and rain. Just after noon the weather became fine, and a breeze sprang up from the south. The squall we had was from SW. May 8. Three of our masts broke, the mizzen mast, the main mast and the top mast. We quickly raised and adjusted other masts in their places on the 8th and 9th. May 7 and 8. The same wind continued. On the 9th, which was Ember-Day, the wind shifted to NW. May We were accordingly farther to the south than we ought to be ; there- fore, we changed our course more to the west.

According to our reckoning, we were about miles from land. May II. The sky was clear and the weather beautiful. This continued on the 12th, when there was a dead calm. We had a SSE. It began to blow more and more, so that on the 14th we had a strong wind, with rain and fog. In the afternoon it began to clear up, and the wind shifted to SSW. We saw grass and occassionally branches of trees in the water. We also saw land birds. From these things, aside Diary of Rev. Andrew Rudman 15 from our reckonings, we judged that we were not far from land.

But later we found out that we were farther than we thought. According to the reckonings of the Commodore, and all the mates of the whole fleet, we ought to be at the end of our voyage, and — yet we did not sight land. Sometimes we had good breezes, but still we were so far from land that we could not get soundings. This false reckoning they attributed to the difficulty of allowing for the ocean current, and to the fact that we had often waited for the other ships. Which was the sixth Sunday after Easter, we had another little breeze, but it died down on the 17th.

We had fine summer weather all the time; sometimes we had a good breeze, but it was soon followed by beautiful calm weather. This kind of weather prevailed almost the whole month, but the wind was contrary most of the time, either from the west or south.

The night before Pentecost, there was a great deal of thunder and lightning. The thunder was not so loud as I have often heard it in Sweden, but the lightning was terrible. The wind was NW. We then saw a water-spout. It drew the water up out of the sea into the sky. The boatswain said that it was a small one compared to one he had seen between the Canary Islands and Spain. If the water- spout breaks and falls it will crush the ship.

After this we had calm, quiet weather. We fell in with two other ships. They were from Ireland. The second one came to us on the 28th, and informed us that according to their reckoning, they had still 80 leagues to go. We met a little ship called a brigantine, from Vir- ginia, bound for England. They informed us that they had sailed from there on the 25th, and that they now reckonned 50 leagues from land.

Wikipedia:Auskunft/Archiv//Woche 39 – Wikipedia

God be praised for this good news. Andrew Rudman Note. Bordley shot an albacore, but we did not get it because of the speed of the ship. There was such a dearth of tobacco on the ship that they scraped the bark from the hoops of barrels and smoked it. They also smoked the stems of raisins. They gave two biscuits, with pork and meat, for a pipe of tobacco.

But when the brigantine came, everybody got tobacco enough. A gentle breeze came up from the east, which continued on the 28th and began to increase a little on the 30th. At 12 o'clock P. We were then very glad. We sighted land at Island. God be praised that we at last have come so near ; but because the wind was SSE.

June I. We came towards land again, but did not come any nearer catching our prey than before; but we were a little farther to the south. June 2. We approached the cape again. In the afternoon a fine breeze sprang up, and we heaved anchor; we had dropped it a little during the ebb of the tide. We approached land and came, God be praised, to the James River. Therefore, it is so much more incumbent upon us to give very humble thanks to God, who so conveniently brought us in.

Ever- lasting glory be to God alone! June 3. We heaved anchor and sailed farther up the James Diary of Rev. Andrew Riidman 17 River to the Commodore and the other ships. The next day we went ashore. Going up into the woods, we found a beautiful sycamore, under which we fell upon our knees and praised God for his protection and prayed for further help and support. We re- mained ashore over night, and went aboard the next day.

The soil was sandy, a little mixed with mold, and very fertile. We saw oaks, sycamores, ash trees, bird cherries, walnut trees and mulberry trees. The mulberries were good. I saw some squir- rels, a large ugly snake, beautiful song birds, swallows the swal- lows are more grayish and have a coarser voice than those in Sweden , jays, thrushes, jackdaws, small birds, etc.

I recognized some species of grass as hieracium, pseudocamedrys, veronica, etc. But I saw many kinds of grasses that I have never seen be- fore, concerning which, God willing, I shall learn more in the future. June II.

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I was ashore on the other side while the Captain was at the court or council which the Governor held concerning the ships and their freighting in the Tanna river, where the fort is. The weather was fine. There we ate a lot of mulberries, which agreed with us all except that they acted as a laxative. Some of the people living here said that they give them the cholera morbus if they eat too much of them. June We left the river James because our Captain found out that we could get no cargo there, and directed our course up the bay to Maryland.

We did not get far that day. During the night a strong storm arose, NE. Towards evening the wind went down and on the i6th, about noon, when the tide came in, we proceeded a little with the wind E. This is the last entry of the diary. Andrew Rudman Other Documents in the Diary.

As the Reverend Mr. Andrew Georanson'-' hath resided for some time past near the city of Philadelphia, it hath been my for- tune to be some time in his company, and so far as I have known, or heard, his conduct and behavior have been regular and laudable. Philadelphia, April 28, James Hamilton. The Reverend Mr. Georanson who hath resided in Philadel- phia ever since the year brought letters of recommendation to me from the honorable Thomas Penn, Esq.

As he has now a design of returning to Sweden, I do hereby certify that his conduct during his Residence here hath been exemplary and becoming his Profession, so far as hath come to my knowl- edge. Philadelphia, April 28th, John Penn. Andrew Georanson was sent over from Sweden in ; became rector of Wicaco church in ; officiated until the close of ; returned home in ; died in — Clay, Annals of the Swedes on the Delaware. He was appointed by his father and his uncle Thomas Penn to be lieutenant-governor of the colony of Pennsylvania in ; he retained his post until Oct.

He died in Philadelphia Feb. Kin Charakterbild aus dem Westen von Dr. Der Philosoph im Hinterwalde. Die Farmen mit ihren schmucken Hausern und Wirth- schaftsgebauden, welche die Reisenden vom Eisenbahnzuge aus, in den mittleren und westlichen Staaten Amerikas erblicken, sind grosstenteils iiber das Griindungsstadium hinaus und lassen nur errathen, mit welchen Schwierigkeiten dieselben vor 50 Jahren aus dem jungfraulichen Boden mit zuweilen starkem Holzbestand hergerichtet und gebaut wurden. Die deutschen Emigranten, welche hierher in die Freiheit fliichteten, waren mit keinen beson- deren Gliicksgiitern ausgestattet : wohl ihnen, wenn sie eine gute Gesundheit und ein paar starke Arme zur Arbeit mitbrachten.

Gehorten sie dem Gelehrtenstande an, so mussten sie sich erst an die Handarbeit gewohnen, und das war keine Kleinigkeit. Es legten sich von den studirten Achtundvierzigern, welche zu An- fang der fiinfziger Jahre vorigen Jahrhunderts nach Amerika ka- men, auch nur wenige auf den Landbau, ihre Hande waren nicht fest genug, den Pflug zu meistern und den rauhen Boden zu be- stellen.

Die jugendlichen Reformers wollten auch hier lieber das grosse Wort fiihren, wie in Deutschland, und stiirzten sich in Zeitungsunternehmungen oder in die politische Arena, wo sie sich zuweilen vermassen, alteren Ansiedlern ihre oft unklaren, radikalen Vorschlage aufzudringen. Da war es kein Wunder, wenn es zwischen den Grunen und Grauen oft zu Auseinander- setzungen kam und Jahre dariiber hingehen mussten, bis diese Gegensatze ausgeglichen wurden, um dann zum gemeinsamen Wirken vorgehen zu konnen.

Bayr- hoffer, geboren in Marburg, am Oktober , war in seiner Vaterstadt als ordentlicher Professor der Philosophic an der Uni- versitat angestellt, als er zum Mitgliede der Kurhessischen Stan- deversammlung gewahlt wurde und mit seinem Gesinnungsge- nossen Dr. Gottlieb Theodor Kellner zusammenwirkte. Seine Theilnahme an der sogenannten lichtfreundlichen Bewegung und an der Politik seines engeren Heimatlandes, zogen ihm Verfol- gungen zu, denen er sich durch die Auswanderung nach Amerika entzog.

Er fand endlich nach langem Suchen des Professors Farm und ihn selbst beim Kiihemelken. Wir hatten bedenken sollen, dass auf den Bergen die Freiheit wohnt; also kann kein Korn dort wachsen. Die Gottin wohnt rentefrei bei uns; wir aber haben diese Praxis theuer be- zahlen miissen. Romantik ist ein hiibscher Nachtisch, wenn man satt ist. Volksphilosoph und Schriftsteller. Die ersten Zeiten in Amerika waren miihevolle, arbeits- schwere Jahre gewesen, da ein gut Theil praktischer Kenntnisse gesammelt werden mussten, um einigermassen Erfolg zu haben.

Bayrhoffer hatte sich dieser Thatigkeit denn auch mit Fleiss hin- gegeben, die Politik bot damals wenig Erfreuliches und der Fort- schrittsfreund musste auf bessere Zeiten warten. Die kamen ja auch, als die republikanische Partei geboren wurde und der Kampf gegen die Sklaverei ernstlich betrieben werden konnte. Bayrhoffer schloss sich dieser Partei an, half bei der Erwahlung Lincolns und unterstiitzte die Unions-Partei gegen die Rebellion.

Sein altester Sohn Karl zog als Freiwilliger mit in den Krieg. Als dann der Friede wieder hergestellt war, ging Bayrhoffer iiber die Grenzen seiner Partei, hinaus zu weiterer Reformarbeit. Bayrhoffer; gedruckt bei Denhard und Witte, Ottawa, Ills. Professor Leo in Halle hatte in seinem Buche Die Hegelingen mit Anderen auch Bayrhoffer und dessen Buch Die Idee und Geschichte der Philosophie den deutschen Regierungen dentinzirt, weil darin be- tont war: ,,Die Philosophie miisse sich mehr herabsenken in die konkreten Spharen des Lebens und der empirischen Wissen- schaft.

An diese Thatigkeit kniipfte er nun auf der Prarie in Illinois wieder an und wirkte durch sein Buch auch in weiteren Kreisen. Sehr ver- breitet ist das Werkchen nicht worden, es haftet hier alien unse- ren deutschen buchhandlerischen Untemehmungen die Unfertig- keit an. Es ist auch in anderen Dingen so. Trotz der Setz- maschinen. Der deutsche Schriftsteller hat hier mit undenklichen Schwierigkeiten zu kam- pfen. Druck und Verbreitung erinnern noch an die ersten Zeiten des Buchdrucks in unsern deutschen Kreisen. Ein deutscher Autor in Amerika, will er hier seine Arbeit in die Oeffentlichkeit bringen.

Hat er seine Biicher in den Handen, so muss er den Verkauf selbst besorgen, Er schickt davon nach grossen Stadten oder ins Land, wo Deut- sche wohnen, an Zeitungsherausgeber, Buchhrindler, Apotheker u. Exemplare seines Buches und verlasst sich auf ihre Mit- wirkung. Schliess- lich sucht er selbst an den Mann zu bringen, was er kann und Karl Theodor Bayrhoffer 23 muss dann zufrieden sein, wenn er die Druckkosten wieder zu- riickbekommt. So geht es den meisten deutschen Schriftstellern in der Union und Ausnahmen von der Regel giebt es nur sehr wenige.

Auch Dan. Bayrhoffer unternommen hatte, ist es nicht besser ergangen, obwohl das Werk eine bessere Aufnahme ver- dient hatte. Bayrho-ffer zwrsus Heinsen. Bayrhoffer war kranklich geworden ; er litt an einem chroni- schen Magenleiden und in Folge dessen an korperlicher Schwache, sodass es ihm unmoglich wurde zu reisen und Vor- trage zu halten, obwohl sein Geist ungeschwacht blieb. So ar- beitete er denn fiir verschiedene Blatter, welche von seinen Bei- tragen profitirten, da er immer etwas zum Nachdenken gab und auf seine Leser anregend wirkte. In Deutschland waren schon friiher in der philosophischen Monatsschrift von Bergmann einige Abhandlungen aus seiner Feder erschienen, in welchen er sich von Hegel losgesagt hatte und seine neu gewonnenen Ansichten dar- legte.

Danach waren ihm die Religionsansichten der Menschen vielfach eine Welt unwissenschaftlicher, menschlicher Phantasie und er verlangte, dass die wissenschaftliche Erkenntniss an deren Stelle gesetzt werde, in einem Bunde des empirischen und philo- sophischen Denkens. Waren diese Arbeiten mehr fiir Gelehrte be- stimmt, so bleibt er doch auch wieder seiner Maxime treu, fur Popularisirung seiner erkannten Ideen zu sorgen.

Doch am interessantesten waren seine Auseinandersetzungen mit Karl Heinzen im Pionier iiber Sozialismus iind Kommunismus. Es ist behauptet Avorden, die Sozialdemokratie sei ein Produkt der grossen Stadte und Fabriksdistrikte, wo die Arbeiter durch Noth zu Reformen gedrangt worden seien. Hier kam nun ein Professor der Philosophic auf seiner Farm im Hinterwalde auf ahnliche Gedanken, welche er dann in seiner Schrift : Das Wesen dcs Universums wissenschaftlich ordnete und sie in verschie- denen Aufsatzen vertrat, wodurch er mit dem radikalen Heinzen in einen Federkrieg verwickelt wurde.

Heinzen, der Verfasser der radikalen Plattform, war ein Verfechter des Individualismus, seine stramme Personlichkeit hatte sich nie unter die Herrschaft des Kommunismus gebeugt, denn in seinen Augen war Sozial- demokratie und Kommunismus eins. Bayrhoffer, mehr mild ge- stimmt, dabei doch fest in seinen Ansichten, versuchte auf den Kern der Sache einzugehen.

Man miisse auch in sozialen Fragen eine Idee vor Augen haben. Bayrhoffers Vorschlag bestand darin, dass Wirthschaftskommunen sich ausbreiten miissten iiber Stadt und Land, um die Produktion zu iibernehmen, dass der Arbeiter dem Kapitalisten und Eigenthiimer der Fabrik gegenuber, nicht mehr im Riickstande stehe und ihm sein gerechter Lohn zutheil werde.

Dem absoluten Kommunismus war auch Bayrhoffer nicht zuge- than. Doch Heinzen bestand auf seiner Ansicht, er verlangte Bayrhoffer sollte ihm an einem Beispiel klar machen, z. Heinzen war iibrigens in dieser Kontroverse nicht so diktatorisch, wie sonst wohl, er wusste, dass er einen ebenburtigen Gegner hatte und einen Mann, der es sonst gut meinte. Was unsere neue Heimat von unserer alten so wesentlich un- terscheidet, ist der in Deutschland auf einen hohen Grad ent- wickelte Individualismiis g-egeniiber der amerikanischen Einfor- migkeit und Eintonigkeit. Nicht mir jeder deutsche Staat ist von dem anderen verschieden, sondern jede Stadt, jede Landschaft, jeder Flecken und jedes Dorfchen hat ein eigenes Gesicht, das dem geiibten Physiognom eine lange Geschichte von der Ent- wicklung eines Charakters erzahlt.

Jeder hat seinen eigenen Charakter und lasst ihn bewusst oder unbe- wusst zur freien Geltung nach aussen kommen, z. Eine der Gegenden Deutschlands, wo die individuelle Eigen- tiimhchkeit der Bewohner vornehmlich ausgepragt ist, liegt in Hessen-Cassel und ist das liebliche Schwalmtal. Dort finden wir noch die alten malerischen Trachten, dort singt man noch die alten Volkslieder, und dort sind die Dorfbilder noch nicht durch rote Backsteinhauser nach dem in der Grunderzeit so beliebt ge- Mresenen und noch nicht ganz tiberwundenen Schema mit dem Motto ,,billig und schlecht" verschandet worden.

Dort konnen wir auch sehen, wie die scharf ausgepragte Eigenart der Ge- meinden Hand in Hand mit der scharf ausgepragten Eigenart der Einzelnen geht, oder eigentlich von dieser bedingt ist. Das zeigt sich dem Besucher z. Schwaelmer Haussprueche 27 Von der Schwalmer Bauart iind ihren Eigentumlichkeiten kann ich nun leider keine Vorstellung geben, da ich zu wenig mit Bautechnik vertraut bin. Doch habe ich mir bei meinen wie- derholten Besuchen in dieser Gegend einige Haiisspriiche notirt, die meine Behaiiptung von der Eigenart erharten sollen.

Die Haiisspriiche sind im deiitschen Dorfe etwas Selbstver- standHches, doch sind es gewohnlich fromme Spriiche, die der Bibel oder dem Kirchenlied entlehnt sind und so nur wenig von dem Charakter des Hausbesitzers verraten. In der Schwalm jedoch finden wir diese immerwiederkehrenden Spriiche und Reime nur ganz vereinzelt. An ihre Stelle ist das eigene Wort des Erbauers oder jeweiHgen Besitzers getreten — sicherlich ein vollgiiltiger, ja wiinschenswerter Ersatz.

Sie kann erzahlen, was es kostet, Wie sehr die Hausfrau ist geplagt, Die Wiirste sind nicht gerostet, Es hat auch manchen schonen Taler gekostet; Wenn ihr's nicht glaubt, geht hin und seht. An einem Haiise hatte sich ein Leinefelder Dorfkiinstler mit einigen Blumenstocken in schonen irdenen Topfen verewigt. In Schonborn fand ich mit der Jahreszahl Leide, meide, schweig', vertrage, Jedem deine Not nicht klage.

An dem Hochsten nicht verzage. Und aus dem Jahre Denen soil die Sonne scheinen. Leider hatte ich zit wenig Zeit, um meine Sammlung noch zu vergrossern. Doch hoffe ich auch mit diesem Wenigen eine Vorstellung von der Eigenart der Schwalmer wenigstens unge- fahr gegeben zu haben. Sollte mein kleiner Aufsatz gar in einem der Leser die Lust erwecken, selbst nach den Eigentiimlichkeiten des primitiven Landvolkes zu forschen, so wiirde meine geringe Mtihe reich belohnt sein, G. School of Philosophy, Columbia University.

The plan of an American Ethnographical Survey has been evolving for a decade and a half. In the year the present writer published a comparative study of the dialect of the Ger- mans of Pennsylvania, basing his results upon data collected in the Rhenish Palatinate in their relation to the German dialect spoken in Pennsylvania. At that time it became clear that even in the German population of the State more or less sharply defined dialect territories, or speech islands, still existed. Some ten years later a definite plan was formulated for special investi- gation not only into the language, but also into the other cul- tural survivals of the Germans in this country.

Circulars were accordingly issued from time to time in the quarterly Americana Germanica, asking for answers to specific inquiries touching these subjects. Meanwhile much progress had been made by other countries in this and related fields. The growing activity of the various Ethnological and Ethnographical Societies of Europe, England and America had made continuous advance in many directions. The epochal work of Wencker, conducted under the patronage of the German Government and with the co-operation of some thirty thousand German schoolmasters and published, in part, in Wencker's Sprachatlass, marking the present boundaries of the German dialects of the lower and mid- del Rhine the commission appointed to establish the boundary line of German and French speech as spoken along the Franco-Ger- man border and the dialect studies in Switzerland represented in the Schweizerisches Idiotikon and the more recent collections of Swiss German texts found in Sutermeister's M un dart-Lit era- tuTj as well as related studies in the dialects of other German 30 An American Ethnographical Survey 31 provinces, all placed the Germans in the forefront of such philo- logical and glottographical studies.

Then followed meanwhile the mammoth plan of the English Dialect Dictionary under the editorship of Professor Wright, successor to the chair so long held by Professor Max Miiller. This Survey contemplated the examination of some three hundred and fifty selected centres throughout the United Kingdom and issued circulars soliciting information concerning the following general subjects : 1.

Current Traditions and Beliefs. Peculiarities of Dialect. Monuments and Other Remains of Ancient Culture. Historical Evidences as to Continuity of Race. Closely related to the researches in the English dialects, a number of Americans organized the American Dialect Society for the purpose of studying American English. One of the officers of this Society, Professor George Hempl, set about the study of the territorial distribution of English dialects in the United States.

This bill, not appear- ing to have a commercial value, was stifled in the committee. Open software and open document formats should become the basis for every public administration! Julkisten verovaroilla toimivien laitosten, koulujen ym. Every good developer tries to avoid repetitive code. So why not to try to minimize it worldwide?!? Propriety software is built on obscurity. Why should public money be used to reinforce this and line rich companies pockets?

Con el dinero de todo software de todos y para todos. We have gotten used to the idea that the government pays private organizations, and they profit also from the results. I don't like that. Don't let organizations spy on anyone, especially not governments.

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  • In een wereld die talloze tekenen van regressie vertoont is er maar een mogelijk tegenantwoord: zelf wel het juiste blijven doen! There is no excuse to not use free software in Administration these days, they are both powerful and user-friendly. Be successful! Public code is necessary for any functioning state. Add standards for documentation as well! Not only do we need non-proprietary software, but also non-proprietary hardware to ensure full respect for fundamental freedoms.

    I fully support: Public money for public administration has to be used for public code exclusively! Openness and transparency in information promotes innovation, equality and empowerment, inturn creating a more fair society. Iets waar ik voor betaal wat met het publiek gedeeld kan worden is iets waar ik achter kan staan! I'm here, because Professor Doctor Heller has told me, this is necessary for passing my exam.

    It is not just common sense, but even ethically correct to open the source for software paid by all of us! We don't need to reinvent the wheel. We need to progress as a society. Free and Open Source Software is one of many ways to achieve this. I support the people responsible for this letter, those that sign it, and the sentiment within it.

    Our taxes pay the developers and the government institution that tenders IT activity. Code generated by employees belong to employers. Many countries have already started work to open government data, this is an important and logical next step. The software that I pay for with my tax money should be made free and open. Please make it happen. Free and Open Source Software is one of the many keys.

    I would go even further and say that code development funded by public money should be made free software, regardless if it is to be used by. Sabiendo el dinero que malgastan anualmente en licencias necesarias para el funcionamiento de las instituciones publicas, necesitamos medios.

    Code financed with public money has to be public. As well as science financed with public money should be also be free and public. Es esencial q todo lo q se financia de manera publica. Es decir con el esfuerzo de TODA la sociedad. Sea accesible para TOD s para siempre. Public monney - Public software in Czech e-governemet!!!! I rely on the new Czech government to make it happen.

    If people pay taxes with wich public administrations make software that software has to guarantee users freedoms and privacy. Logical, not real! Would be a huge step towards transparency and e quality of our states - for more Open Source instead of closed Doors! Btw: Vertrauen wir Microsoft wirklich unsere sensitiven Daten an? If we spend our the publics money we need to get whole result back.

    Should also be the same for public funded research. Please Implement legislation requiring that publicly financed software developed for the public sector be made publicly available. I always wondered whether processing of my data with closed source software is legal under German data protection law anyway. If so, why? Se una nazione o un popolo si considera liberi,devomo esserlo in tutto compreso il software delle istituzioni. Basta volerlo fare. It's ok, you can still keep the data hidden about what's being stolen daily.

    We just want good tech. Il est important de donner le choix dans notre utilisation d'internet et de ses outils. Public code builds trust in administration, improves transparency, independence and wealth. Make it happen. This should have been implemented in law on all levels a long time ago. I expect that my tax money is used in the most efficient way. Software paid with public money should be developed according best coding standards and be released as Free and Open Source Software. This makes so much sense. Open source code adds value to communities and strengthens the code as well.

    Currently administrations are obstructing themselves accepting solutions with proprietary lock-in. Me pay, me help improve code. Le service public est un bien commun,utilisation des outils libres pour construire les nouvelles cultures est du bon sens. Would be great, responsible, trustworthy hey, you install a lot of critical unknown code on critital systems and could save money! Ich werde vom Finanzamt gezwungen, Elster Software zu installieren und zu nutzen, es ist aber nicht klar, was diese Software genau macht.

    We also need to introduce more open source technologies into the curriculum to better futureproof the labour market of tomorrow. I fully agree with the sentiments in this letter, please implement the use of free and open source code written with public money. Proprietary software is only good for increasing the bottom line of companies at the expense of everyone else. It's time to stop that.

    It is necessary to make our voices heard, the voices of those who still care about freedom and transparency. It's not too late There is no reason for tax-payer funded software development to produce anything but open-source. It's a quite simple argument. Please respect what is developed by the people, for the people, as belonging to the people. Le code mais aussi le reste ex. Open source software would also contribute to the transparency we all seek in publicly funded ventures.

    What sense does it have that two or more administrations pay for the same software, when if it is free the cost could be shared? The open-source communiy has already given us evidence of improvement of the IT tech and the obvious cost reducement. I'm an IT professional and imho the return of public money must be open source software, open data, and transparency. We all should benefit of the code paid with public money. It's safer, it's better, it's logical It is not just the right thing, it would help the reliability of the tools and progress of society.

    We can't have privative software controlling our lives. Free software for national software sovereignity. I'd love to see public money spent in a public way, and not seeing how it goes to private hands. Public bodies are financed through taxes. They must make sure they spend funds in the most efficient way possible. If it is public money, it. I totally agree with this campaign. I should get some return from my tax money in the form of freely available source code.

    I've been working for gov as developer. My work was done for the people, so it belongs to the people. Software should be accountable and transparente to those paying for it, especially with public money. Un estado y sus ciudadanos no pueden ser cautivos del desarrollador de un programa por sencillo que este sea. Software is making such a great impact to society, please give a wider audience chance to evolve with the public achievements. Works produced by public money should go back to the public.

    It should not be that private companies unfairly profit from this. There can be very little reason for publicly financed software developed for the public sector cannot be issued under a free and Open Source. Making it open software! There are plenty of reasons to do so. An open system is less vulnerable and evolves easily and more transparently. Better use of economic and human resources, more collaboration among all. More technological independence and suppliers. More local work. Software in any public instituting financed with tax has to be close free, especially in education.

    Das ist ein Nobrainer Government agencies should use open-source. Benefits: cost savings from licenses, and independence from private company commercial interests. It is very important to keep open the source code of public-founded software to be a fair public administration. Deshalb fordere ich als Teil der Jugend auch eine zukunftsorientierte Politik!

    Eine Investition, von der alle profitie. This step would be an important step for the community to make it improve the resources and get stronger together.

    1. The Truth About the Shroud of Turin: Solving the Mystery.
    2. Small Guide to Marketing For Motivated Sellers in Real Estate.
    3. Stalking Willow (Amazing Grace Book 1).
    4. Alle openbare handtekeningen - Public Money, Public Code.
    5. Der Ruf nach Freiheit und Einheit?
    6. WORK|OUT Edition 32.
    7. Brave New Europe.

    With closed source, if a company dies, the code dies with it. Insist on open source to protect taxpayer spending on software. Transparency in the public sector promotes competition. Open source is key to ensure effective procurement processes. This is such a no-brainer. Open source saves money, protects privacy, fosters innovation, and makes best practices easy to share. It is everyones money, everyone should be able to study the code, use it, improve it and finally redistribute everything.

    Don't let my tax money go to something which gives me no benefit. Taxes are for public good, not private gain. Ja fa molt de temps, i de de l'inici que s'hauria d'implementar. Fonamentalment en l'estructura educativa, operativa i adminstrativa. So kann unter anderem auch sichergestellt werden, dass Barrierefreiheit einfach implementiert werden kann. Knowledge should always be open and freely accessible to everyone. Specially when it's people who fund it. Several security breaches in the public sector over the last years showed how important public code review is for security reasons!

    Our tax dollars pay for the software so we should all collectively own that software. You also do not have a good track record for secure so. More transparency through OpenSource means better Software. No hiding of bad code, costing the taxpayer more and more. Software made with public money needs to be open source.

    Open source software enables better auditing and more cost effective maintenance. A perfect opportunity for the greek left-wing government to prove that it's indeed left-wing. In all educational enviroments, should also, be used free libre sofware. Stop with the propietary code in our public administrations. Public money, then, public code.

    Wikipedia:Auskunft/Archiv/2013/Woche 39

    Always FOSS. This is super important. Open Source is the key to digital freedom and security. Governments should absolutely use Open Source code. Why is public money spent on vendor-locked, unmaintainable, closed software when it used to be different? Open code will encourage collaboration across public institutions and nations to save money and improve software quality. The aspect of security will be a lot higher with public code as more people can and will check it.

    Open source is the future and the money spent on proprietary software could be sent on improving people's lives. EU can continue spending money in software development, or start investing in Open Source Software Development. It only makes sense for software, funded with taxpayer money to be released as free software for the benefit of the people that paid for it. The government should release the code for software made using taxpayers money as it belongs to us. Free and Open software can be inspected by anyone, reducing bugs and protecting our information. Releasing government-funded code costs nothing and is an obvious opportunity to give something in return.

    The government should release the codes used for the development of software used in the government as part of the freedom of information. Public, open, auditable software will be fundamental to national security and data protection in the XXI century. As a participating member of an organization based on open source software, I completely agree that this needs to be the way forward!

    I'm a public servant physicist developping a lot of code for Canada's government, I would love to see a real policy on that matter. I want us to pay for companies who write us code. I do not want them to get paid for the privilege of getting a monopoly. A world with only FOSS software is an utopia, but it isn't acceptable to use public money to make propietary code.

    Moving towards this objective represents a statement that Human rights are the highest priority. It's best for institutions long-term. Free software has already been great for the private and public sectors, and more can only be beneficial to all economies of the world. If we pay, we want to be able to see the source code. To be transparent for everyone, it should be available for everyone to check. FOSS is the only way to guarantee that our data is safe and only where it needs to be.

    We demand open code for every public software. There is no reason that software developed with public funds should not be free and available to the public. If the money that is used for software is delivered by the public, then the code should also be signed over to the public. Free software makes sense for governmental use, the only barriers are social and those can be overcome. We are standing on the shoulders of giants, therefore we should not presume to exploit all possible rights for works we do based on theirs.

    I totally agree with it Our whole software is based on open sources projects There is thousands developers around the world which could help. Not only code, but also process models, studies e. I pay my tax. So I want to the government spent my money in proper place instead of motivating criminal things. The foundation of a democracy needs to be the public and commons. Let's avoid a Corporatocracy. If software is financed by the money of tax payers, then those should be able to use and modify it without rebuying.

    Codes built with public money should be public, every one have the rights to analyze, opine and contribute to this code. On cover: Bibliotechina illustrara Bemporad. Per la gioventu per I soldati,,, v. Ottawa, British Discipline. La formola della pace. Die Behandlund der Extremitaetenfrakturen bei Kriegsverletzten. Stuttgart: Ferdinand Enke, England's Arch-Enemy: The Kaiser! London: Drane's. A call to the American People. Addresses of Newton D. Baker … Raymond B. Fosdick … John N. To the American People. Sketches made on the Western Front … verse by Pvt.

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    At head of title: Studier of documenter angaaende krigen. Padova: Drucker, Voelkerrecht und krieg , von dr. Ludwig Beer… Leipzig: K. Koehler, Englisch-deutsche Gegensaetze - Krieg und Internationale. Zur erinnerung and seinen todestag [31 Juli ]. Berlin-Karlshorst: Verlag der "Internationalen Korrespondenz", Politik und Krieg - Grundzuege der englischen Politik. Die Schuld am Kriege. Insterbueg: Ostdeutsche Volkszeitung, Beihefte zur "Zeitschrift fuer Kinderforschung".


    Belgian Labour Party. See Parti Ouvrier Belge. La Belgique. Etude d'histoire contemporaine. Par Anacharsis le jeune. Amtliche und g;aubwuerdige Berichte. Leipzig: Otto Gustav Zehrfeld, o. Memorandum of the Belgian government on the deportation and forced labour of the Belgian civil population ordered by the German government. London: The Furnival Press, Bureau documentaire. L'oeuvre du government Belge pendant la guerre.

    Des ouvrages documentaries, At head of title: Le livre rouge belge. Extraits da la letter pastorale de S. At head of title: Commission officielle du gov't belge. Paris: Hachette et cie, At head of title: Royaume de Belgique. Diplomatic documents Mittler and Sons, Le livre rouge belge… See Belgium. The Second Belgian Grey Book. Part one and part two, section ten. Office Central d'Information, Nos. Brussels Belgium. Office Central d'Information. Belgium Office Central d'Information, no. Brussels: Office Central d'Information, Texts and documents.

    Preceded by a foreword by Henri Davignon. Les cartes ethnogrphiques et historiques…extr. Parlis, Ligue des Universitaires de Serbie, From an official report… London: The Avenue Press, Paris: Plon, Second Year of the War. Proiettili e Cannoni; problemi tecnici dell'Armamento. Le Socialisme autrichien et la guerre. La Bulgarie et ses voisins… Sofia: Pascalew et Cie, Des Questions Balkaniques, La conqusta di Gorizia… Firenze: R. Czechoslovak Republic. La Boemia contro l'Austria-Ungheria. La liberta degli Zceco-Slovacchi e l'Italia con prefazione dell'on.

    Economic strength of the Czechoslovak lands. Second edition. Chicago: Bohemian National Alliance of America, The British Empire and the War. London: T. The Greatest Mother in the World. Deceiving the Whole World… n. L"Energie feminine pendant la guerre. Paris: Editions Nilsson.


    Deutschland ueber Allah. Staedtische siedlungspolitik nach dem kriege. Galizien und der Krieg. Wien: Max Poeck, Polen unter Habsburgs Fahnen. Berghaus, Erwin. Grundbegriffe der Auswaertigen Politik… Berlin: Reichsverlag, Indusrtie- und Handerskammer. Moratorien und andere Sonderregelungen des Zahlungsverkehrs im Auslande. Zusammengestellt von der Handelskammer zu Berlin nach dem bis zum November ermittelten Stande. Dritte vervollstaendigte Auflage.

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    Arndt Peltner berichtet aus den USA

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