Die Welt der mittelalterlichen Klöster: Geschichte und Lebensformen (German Edition)
Collection, German, English, Italian, 2nd quarter Rom Ca. Der vorliegende Sammelband analysiert diese wechselseitigen Austauschprozesse, wobei er neben Verflechtungen zwischen Christen, Juden und Muslimen auch die Beziehungen zwischen Westeuropa, dem byzantinischen Reich, dem Nahen Osten und Indien in den Blick nimmt. Wasser ist Leben. Der individuelle Organismus, menschliche Sozialbildungen und Kulturleistungen sind auf das Wasser angewiesen. Wasser fordert zu kulturellen Reaktionen im Bereich seiner Bewirtschaftung, Bewertung und Symbolik heraus. Water is life.
The human organism, our social relations and cultural achievements all depend on water. Water can preserve or destroy life, unite or separate us, and act as a force for liberation or dissipation. Water calls forth various cultural reactions as an economic, social, and symbolic factor. In the 47 essays collected in this book, medieval scholars from various disciplines consider water in its diverse functions.
This collected volume analyzes these reciprocal exchange processes, taking into consideration connections between Christians, Jews, and Moslems as well as relationships between Western Europe, the Byzantine Empire, the Near East, and India. Entanglement; transcultural history; global history.
This book investigates the functions of Arabic textile inscriptions by means of a case study of royal garments from twelfth-century Sicily. Focusing on the function and reception of this transcultural ornament within various contextual frames, the study shows that Arabic ornamental inscriptions not only transgress but also fundamentally challenge conventional cultural boundaries. Textiles, Norman Sicily, Arabic, Mediterranean. Series Das Mittelalter. Beihefte 5 Approx. Migration; globalisation; transcultural medieval studies. Die Studie fragt danach, ob der in verschiedensten Quellen begegnende Begriff auf eine reale Einheit verwies oder bereits im Mittelalter ein Instrument politisch-ideologischer Programme war.
This essay questions whether this term used in diverse sources actually referred to any real entity or, if instead, it already served during the Middle Ages as an instrument for political and ideological agendas. Jewish cemeteries existed for centuries in the Holy Roman Empire. Unlike earlier research, this study shows that the gravesites of this religious minority were not the primary sites of conflict.
Instead, they provide evidence of a multi-religious society where, for the most part, Jewish and Christian spheres of life existed in quite natural proximity and in relation to one another. Sepulchral culture; ashkenaz; interfaith relations. Series Europa im Mittelalter 27 Ca. All societies have deeply struggled with the issue of death and have found material and spiritual answers in response to death. The medieval and early modern world had to cope with the same questions, but found its own characteristic answers, as the contributions to this volume illustrate in a myriad of approaches.
Languages belong to the fundamentals of human existence, and many more times than we might assume people actually speak two or more languages. Studying bi- and multilingualism in the Middle Ages and beyond sheds important light on basic sociolinguistic structures determining everyday life and culture in the premodern world. The question of linguistic competence addresses inter-cultural, intra-social, and also inter-gender issues Albrecht Classen, University of Arizona, Tucson, USA. Public culture; public opinion; sermons; propaganda.
Charles W. Monograph, English, 4th quarter Modern myths about medieval and early modern hygiene and health continue to dominate our understanding of the pre-modern world. People in the past might have used different approaches to hygiene and pursued well-being perhaps differently than we do today, but they were neither dirty nor sickly.
Their societies functioned well because they embraced their own hygiene and had a functioning medical system. Papsttum; Mittelalterliche Kirche. The struggle of the Antipopes multiplied the structures of the medieval church from the top down. This study focuses on this temporary blurring of the papal hierarchy and examines the mechanisms of duplication, assertions, and attributions of authority from historical, church historical, ecclesiastic, ceremonial, and historiographic perspectives.
Papacy, Medieval Church. In this volume, scholars of history, literature, art and theology re-evaluate the context and significance of polemical and ethnographic literature about Jews by Johannes Pfefferkorn and other converts. The volume presents new perspectives on the life and works of Pfefferkorn, the sixteenthcentury debate about Jewish books, the sources for anti-Jewish writing, and the interconnection between early modern ethnography and anti-Jewish polemics. Ethnography; conversion, Jewish books. Collection, English, 2nd quarter Rom, German, Italian, 2nd quarter This book represents a continuation and recapitulation of the previous work of Benedictow.
It consists of a collection of papers concerning the controversies over the microbiological and epidemiological fundamentals of the plague epidemics in the past inspired by the European discussion conducted over the last 30 years in the Scandinavian research community. This edition fills the earlier gaps in the Nunciature reports from to In addition to the Papal diplomatic correspondence from the particularly dramatic period at the end of the Wallenstein era and subsequent military events, it also offers an overall view about a period of tense relations.
The central question of the book is as follows: To what extent does the community present a challenge in the life of the individual? Well-known international Philosophers, historians, anthropologists, political scientists, theologians and sociologists attempted to find explications by intercultural comparison. Series Challenges of Life: Essays on philosophical and cultural anthropology 3 pp.
Musical publishing in the Middle Ages is replete with terms relating to gentes or nationes, thereby indicating the internal regional nature of medieval music. To the extent possible, this book attempts to uncover the meaning of such evidence from to and thus address the specific historical, musical, and political significance of the use of community labels. Nationalism; identity; music, Middle Ages. This work treats in one volume the most important fields in Islamic studies: Persian literature and philology; Islamic history and historiography; Arabic literature and philology; and Islamic philosophy and jurisprudence.
The essays are representative of the fields in which one of the most illustrious Arabists and Persianists in the world, Ahmad Mahdavi Damgani, has been an indispensible contributor for close to 65 years. Islam studies; Arabic studies; Persian studies. Mottahedeh and W. Regensburg Bishopric; Germania Sacra; church history; modern history. For the first time, the book examines the emergence of the Habsburgs as a leading ruling dynasty under Maximilian I from the perspective of its most important diplomats.
It analyzes their influence on European power politics, while also describing their career paths and their role as cultural communicators. This perspective from the field of communication history additionally offers insight into the process of diplomatic exchange during the era. Karl Hausberger depicts the life and work of the thirteen Regensburg bishops who served between and The narrow area of temporal territorial authority stands out in stark contrast with the breadth of their area of spiritual jurisdiction, which. This volume offers a range of case studies and reflections on aspects of death and burial in postmedieval Europe.
This two-volume publication undertakes the first comprehensive examination of all illustrated astronomical and astrological manuscripts originated from — It thus offers a fundamentally new basis for understanding secular image culture, the reception of classical antiquity, as well as the astronomical science of the Middle Ages and Renaissance.
Historical portrayals of the cosmos reveal diverse interrelationships between visual depictions and knowledge generation, the traditions of visual culture and the imaginative impulse, and between astronomical reality and classical mythology. The second volume of Medieval and Renaissance Constellations concludes a research project that for the first time collected and edited all of the illustrated astronomical and astrological manuscripts from — It has created a remarkable new foundation for our understanding of vernacular pictorial culture, the reception of antiquity, and the astronomical and astrological sciences in the Middle Ages and Renaissance.
This work is the first systematic and comparative examination of political paintings in Italian local government and judicial chambers in the 13th and 14th centuries. Drawing on the perspectives of art history, the author analyzes four examples of newly researched cycles of frescos in the context of broader historical, political, and legal developments, offering new insights into the function of images in the late Middle Ages. Imke Wartenberg, Kunsthistorikerin und Juristin, Berlin. Series Ars et Scientia 11 S. Jahrhunderts entlang der italienischen Wege nach Rom.
An den brisantesten Kulminationspunkten des Konflikts zwischen Krone und Kurie wurde im Das Buch wirft neues Licht auf die ikonologische Bedeutung der exemplarischsten Bauten. The highways leading to Rome in the High Middle Ages, including the famous Via francigena, served as multifunctional lines of transfer for religious, political, and artistic communication. At the most explosive peaks of the conflict between crown and curia in the 12th century, artists experimented with a great variety of architectonic designs.
The book casts new light on the iconological meaning of selected structures. Reinhart Rupert Metzner, Kunsthistoriker, Berlin. Series Ars et Scientia 17 S. Ihr zeitlicher Rahmen reicht vom This CVMA publication concludes a comprehensive presentation of all extant medieval stained glass works in Thuringia. The stained-glass reveals the scope and diversity of this art genre, by now largely destroyed. It extends in time from the 12th century to the Protestant Reformation era. For the first time, this exceptional collection of classic titles, publishing milestones, rarities and significant studies in the history of this subject is available as an eBook package.
It includes titles from through to the present day, including the renowned Miscellanea Mediaevalia book series with more than 25, pages. This unique collection is important for researchers in philosophy, religious studies, history, medieval studies, cultural studies, Islamic studies and ancient studies.
Sozialgeschichte; Philosophie des Mittelalters; Wissenschaftsgeschichte. Practices and techniques of imparting competency and knowledge are always essential for any mediation- or transfer process. Based on the distinctive master-disciple relationship, this volume examines individual ways of life, social contexts and institutional requirements as well as discursive practices and epistemological implications of this key relationship bequeathing culturally conveyed proficiencies and culturally encoded knowledge.
Michael Psellos; Philosophie; Byzanz; Theologie. In subtle confrontations with the ideas of ancient and late ancient theology, ontology, and ethics, the great Byzantine intellectual Michael Psellos formulated an independent Christian philosophy. The first comprehensive monograph on the subject, this work takes a systematic approach while also considering previously uninterpreted texts, thus providing an important foundation for further research on Byzantine philosophy. Series Miscellanea Mediaevalia 39 S.
Philosophie der Antike; Neuplatonismus; Humanismus. Metaphysics and possibility are fundamental concepts in philosophical thought. How are they related? Ancient philosophy; neoplatonism; humanism. What makes a sand grain a single grain? Can it be anything distinct from the grain? This book analyses the argument exchange on such issues within the scholastic debates on individuation, and its implications for metaphysics. It shows that the prima facie sound answer that everything is single by itself is untenable, and then discusses the two major strategies of rejecting it embraced by the Scotists and the Thomists, arguing for the latter one.
Scholars have long desired an introductory work that documents the diversity of Biblical hermeneutic interpretation, beginning with Origen and extending to the present. For the first time, the Handbook brings together the texts from all of these epochs and makes them accessible through academic analyses. Series De Gruyter Handbook S.
The significance of the Bible for the Reformation is undisputed. Employing various perspectives, this volume reflects on biblical interpretation and hermeneutics during the time of the Reformation. It discusses the Wittenberg Reformers Luther and Melanchthon and the Reformed including Bullinger, Calvin, and Bucer , along with their cross-connections to Erasmus, the Baptists, and the Christian reception of Jewish biblical interpretation.
Reformation theology; exegesis; Martin Luther; Philipp Melanchthon. Series Historia Hermeneutica. Series Studia 14 S. Open Access Geb. This work is an account of the Lutheran preaching of the Epistle of James in the 16th and 17th centuries. It challenges the common assumption that, because Luther criticized the epistle in light of the letters of St. Martin Luther; exegesis. Jason D. Series Studia 16 Approx. This book is the result of collaboration between scholars of medieval philosophy, science, literature and art. Despite their diverse disciplinary backgrounds, the contributors are committed to the hypothesis that medieval European, Jewish and Islamic textual culture can best be understood as a product of the dynamic processes of transmitting, translating and transforming the legacy of the ancient civilizations of Greece, Rome and the Near East.
Medieval; Textuality; Classics; Transmission. In his Western reception, Athanasius — was declared to be a witness to the insertion of the Filioque in the Nicene-Constantinopolitan Creed. While the text was accepted by contemporaries as authentic, today we know it was incorrectly ascribed to the Alexandrian patriarch. Filioque; Council of Florence; Athanasius of Alex-.
Series Hans-Lietzmann-Vorlesungen 13 45 S. Ausgewertet werden u. The analyses are complemented by a critical edition with commentary of the martyrdom accounts. Der Dominikanerorden kann als mittelalterlicher Leitorden in Bezug auf Verfassung, Studium und Seelsorge verstanden werden. Dominikanerorden; Geschichte; Mittelalter; Religionswissenschaften. The Dominican Order is considered the preeminent monastic order. This volume presents current rechsearch from various disciplinary perspectives on questions of innovation and tradition in the medieval context and considers both friars and nuns on questions of knowledge as power and on knowledge of self and the other.
Senner OP, Istituto S. Tommaso, Rom. This study reveals how Hildegard von Bingen presents the conceptual structure of a theology of life through language and metaphor. Close textual interpretation of selected visions leads to a dense, resonant theological conception of life in Hildegard. Hildegard von Bingen; theology of life; prophecy;. Die Rezeption der aristotelischen Gerechtigkeitstheorie im Mittelalter und das Problem des ethischen Universalismus.
Die vorliegende Studie untersucht diese Frage anhand der mittelalterlichen Aristotelesrezeption, insbesondere bei Thomas von Aquin. Sie zeigt, dass die Verbindung des tugendethischen Ansatzes mit einem ethischen Universalismus eine vielversprechende philosophische Option in systematischer und methodischer Hinsicht darstellt. Neben der Jurisprudenz war die Theologie der bevorzugte Ort, an dem die antike Topik ihre Bedeutung als Epistemologie, d. Die vorliegende Studie untersucht diese Diskussionen bis zum konfessionellen Zeitalter.
Topikforschung; Theologie als Wissenschaft; Dogmatik. What sort of human behavior might be deemed not only proper but justified within the framework of Aristotelian virtue ethics? This study takes up this question on the basis of medieval Aristotle reception, in the work of Thomas Aquinas in particular. How can we understand theology as a science, given that its objects are not determined by reason but rather by revelation?
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Along with jurisprudence, theology was the preferred realm for ancient topoi to formulate meaning as epistemology, that is, as a scientific theology. The Yalkut Shimoni compiles rabbinical interpretations of the entire Hebrew bible. We do not know the criteria for selecting the interpretations, nor whether the book was conceived as a comprehensive exegetical reference work to be linked to biblical interpretations in the Talmud and Midrash or for reforming the rabbinical interpretive tradition.
The translation of this work is a first step toward answering these questions. Bibelauslegung; Midrasch; Talmud; Kompilationsliteratur. We do not know by which criteria the interpretations were selected or if the book was conceived as a comprehensive exegetical reference work to be linked to biblical interpretations in the Talmud and Midrash or to reform the rabbinical interpretive tradition. Exegesis; Midrash; Talmud; compilation literature.
Source text, German, 1st quarter It is thus the oldest journal of English Studies in existence. Anglia publishes essays on the English language and linguistic history, on English literature of the Middle Ages and the modern period, on American literature, on new literatures in English, as well as on general and comparative literary studies. Since German Studies has become considerably differentiated over the past years, academic reviews and this journal of reviews on German Literature Studies will become more significant as a focal point within the discipline.
It publishes essays on diachronic linguistics and the history of German Literature from the beginnings to about , as well as reviews of monographs and collected works in these fields. Das Mittelalter. Each issue covers a different topic from many different viewpoints. The journal presents recent results, discussions, and new books for the various disciplines and explorers their importance to medievalists as a whole. Founded by Carl Heinrich Becker in , the Journal Der Islam provides a forum for the study of the history and culture of the Middle East before the age of modernisation in the 19th century, from the Iberian Peninsula to Central Asia.
Articles present the latest research in the humanities and social sciences based on literary traditions, and archival, material, and archaeological evidence. In einer Bibliographie werden die Publikationen zu Dante verzeichnet, die im vorangehenden Jahr im deutschsprachigen Raum erschienen sind. It also publishes reviews of the latest German and foreign literature on Dante. Each volume is concluded by a bibliography listing the most recent publications to have appeared in the German-speaking world.
The journal adresses scholars of literature and linguistics as well as scholars of comparative literature interested in this field. It is intended to help overcome the academic division of a diverse tradition, bearing witness to the same inseparable contexts expressed in manifold ways, into the specialist research fields of a conventional subject classification. Andreas Fahrmeir, Hartmut Leppin Hrsg.
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Die Germanistik ist das zentrale internationale Berichtsorgan der Wissenschaft von deutscher Sprache und Literatur. Pro Jahrgang werden rund 7. Der Aufsatzteil behandelt Aspekte aus allen Teilbereichen der Geschichtswissenschaft; eine regionale oder epochale Begrenzung gibt es nicht. Germanistik is the central international journal covering the study of German language and literature. Each volume contains some 7, published titles in its bibliography. More than 1, titles are critically reviewed. More than scholars, both German and international, co-operate with the editorial staff.
The Journal of Transcultural Medieval Studies provides a forum for scholarship of pre-modern times. It publishes comparative studies, which systematically reflect the entanglement and the interconnection of European, African, Asian and American cultures. The Journal pursues an interdisciplinary approach. It also intends to foster methodological reflections on transculturality in the broad sense. The article section encompasses aspects of all historical sub-disciplines — there is no regional or epochal restriction.
An extensive section of book reviews, review articles on current trends and debates, and a list of works submitted for review keep the reader fully up to date on the latest state of German and international historical research. The Journal of the International Arthurian Society JIAS publishes articles on any aspect of Arthurian literature written in any language and in any period of time, medieval and post-medieval, including adaptations in modern media, as long as these draw on literary texts. Die Artikel und Miszellen mit Inhaltszusammenfassungen auf Deutsch bzw. It lists the bibliographical data for monographs, collected volumes, articles, and reviews published in the field of Romance Studies both Literary Studies and Linguistics with the exception of French Literary Studies.
It is available both in print and online. Anfangs lag der Schwerpunkt auf keltischer v. Es erscheinen vier Hefte im Jahr. It is thus the oldest significant journal of Celtic studies still in existence. Later, these areas were extended to include new Celtic languages and typological questions.
The journal publishes four issues annually. Especially welcome are papers that focus on the intercultural and interdisciplinary relations of literature. Comprising some 4, articles, the Encyclopedia of the Folk Tale presents the results of almost two centuries of research in the field of folk narrative tradition. Offering a comprehensive survey of all written and oral genres, the encyclopedia discusses types, materials, and themes; explores theories, methods, and stylistic issues; and presents various regions, countries, authors, collectors, and researchers.
Germanische Altertumskunde Online GAO provides a unique research platform representing the current state of knowledge of Germanic and Northern European cultural history subject areas history, archeology, art history, legal history, ethnology, and religious studies. It contains the Reallexikon der Germanischen Altertumskunde, new and revised articles, the RGA-E series currently, more than 90 volumes , journal articles, and single books. Sie wird fortlaufend um den aktuellen Jahrgang mit ca. Germanistik, the leading international publication covering German Language and Literary Studies, is now available as online database.
More than 50 years of German philology are searchable electronically. The history of the discipline is accessible online in more than 60, abstracts and summaries. The database will be continually expanded to include the current volume containing about 8, new entries and over 1, short papers. The online version of Romanische Bibliographie, the only comprehensive specialist bibliography for Romance Studies, provides electronic access to the approximate , entries of the volumes —, categorized according to the tried-andtested structure tree system key.
Approximately 10, new entries will be added on a continuous basis every year. Over 20, lexicon articles on authors of German literature are cross-linked in the database. It can be asserted that different types of narrative patterns to recount deviance occur intermingled in the cases discussed. The Gerresheim Book of the Gospels is one of the most celebrated, stylistically original manuscripts created during the 10th—11th century period of Ottonian book illumination in Cologne.
The volume presents new research findings on the late Ottonian manuscript, its painting technique and writings, offering a broad examination of its entries and history. Wie sah die Einrichtung eines einfachen Hauses aus? How did the Byzantines live over 1, years ago? What did they eat and drink? What kinds of crafts did they practice? Where did the population spend their free time? How did an ordinary house look? By answering these and similar questions, Byzantine scholar Johannes Koder presents an informative and lively picture of the everyday life and culture of the people of the Byzantine Empire.
The study offers a paleographic analysis of late medieval Habsburg court documents, linking them to several other largely disparate strands of ongoing research. This innovative approach reveals for the first time the existence of a humanist network at the Court of Friedrich III that extended across the entire period of his reign. Books: Americas Walter de Gruyter, Inc. Journals: Americas Walter de Gruyter, Inc.
S, Multan Road, Lahore. Klingner degruyter. Early modern period; literature; dictionary W. Ott Hrsg. Three categories of books are absent from the catalogues and have now been 5 degruyter. Schiewer Hrsg. Neue Folge Hermaea. Neue Folge S. Sermon; collection Regina D. Neue Folge Monograph, German, 2nd quarter Hermaea. Neue Folge Ca. Series Ca. Neue Folge Geb. Dominican nuns, monastic reform, textualization Claudia Engler, Bern, Schweiz.
Eva Rothenberger, Lydia Wegener Hrsg. Literatur — Theorie — Geschichte 12 Geb. ISBN Geb. Cora Dietl, Christoph Schanze Hrsg. Series Trends in Medieval Philology 26 3 Teilbde. ISBN 13 degruyter. Veerle Fraeters, Frank Willaert Hrsg. Martin Przybilski, Stefan Greil Hrsg. Hermann Reichert Hrsg. Monograph, German, 2nd quarter Geb. Series S. BIS Syntax; language history; language change Corpus linguistics; Construction Grammar; Mor- Based on a comprehensive corpus that spans five centuries, this study presents the major developmental lines of adjectival suffix derivation.
Nathanael Busch Ed. Pons-Sanz Eds. Overall, the regulation of the Benedictine Rule was a significant step. This is sometimes seen as the real beginning of the Benedictine order. All orders founded in the following centuries were organised in accordance with the principles of this rule. The rules of the mendicant orders founded in the thirteenth century were the first to diverge from this basis. Another important aspect was to define monks and canons in relation to one another and to end the mixing of the two lifestyles which had begun in the eighth century.
There had been attempts at this for some time already - the rule of Chrodegang of Metz issued around had closely anticipated this standardisation - but there had been only limited success. In Aachen, Louis the Pious demanded that the rules for the communal life of canons should be collected from the old books. Some bishops were not convinced of the necessity of this, but such a collection was nevertheless created, which was agreed to by the council.
This consisted of a rule for canons Institutio canonicorum and one for canonesses Institutio sanctimonitalium. The canons were required to celebrate general services and the liturgy of the hours and to maintain a communal life in an enclosed area, which was required to include a common dormitory and a common dining hall.
Unlike monks and nuns, canons were permitted to keep personal possessions, though personal poverty was to be the ideal for them too. They would not be allowed to lay aside any lifelong vows. Provosts would oversee canonical communities. In many respects, the lives of canonesses was similarly regulated, but their communities were to be led by Abbesses. The first Stift communities were established in and In the following two centuries it was often unclear in practice whether a particular Stift was an order of canonesses of a nunnery. On account of the numerous areas of the monastic life to be regulated, the discussions were not simple and they lasted for a long time, before the participants could summarise their decisions in thirty six canons and submit them to Louis for confirmation.
These canons were published and made binding for the empire in a capitulary of 23 August Various participants had already publicised partial results before this. The enforcement, or rather the monitoring of implementation was carried out over the following years by missi dominici and ecclesiastical representatives. The archbishops of the realm were especially involved. The synod of built on the decisions of the previous year. On 10 July it adopted a capitulare monasticum Monastic capitulary , containing the rulings of the previous year.
From the end of to the beginning of , a further synod was held in Aachen. It produced the Notitia de servitio monasteriorum , a list of reformed monasteries and the services they owed the crown. This brought the monastic reforms to an end. A Hoftag was held in parallel with this synod. Among other things, the relationship between the ruler and the church was clarified.
The messenger must already come from the message. But he must also already have gone toward it. Heidegger , , my translation RC. It is the opposite of the kind of messengers we call ambassadors Botschafter. There is an original unity and difference between Being and Dasein beyond or prior to any ontic separation of sender, message, messenger and receiver. I think that today this double-bind casting of Being is done from a perspective of the digital. Loneliness and anxiety are moods through which, as Heidegger taught us, we discover the truth, that is to say, the finitude of being-in-the-world-with-others.
We receive and pass on — and sometimes try to bypass — the message of Being because we are originally the Here of its disclosure. Although we mostly live immersed in the given openness of everyday existence, exchanging messages and maintaining communication through the phatic function, we have the potentiality to grasp a given historical disclosure of Being as a possible one, that is to say, to change its truth.
An example of this at the level of an ontic region is the so-called paradigm change in science where the pre-ontological messages facts that are supposed to prove or falsify a theory are re-interpreted when the theory, with all its biases, pre-conceptions and pre-suppositions, its instruments, institutions, traditions, etc. This opens the debate as to which are the ethical criteria for making a distinction between a messenger of Being and its opposite a charlatan , with all degrees in between. One important criterion for this difficult ethical task that is always endangered by manipulation and self-deception is whether the messenger maintains critically the openness of Being or proclaims an absolute truth.
Another criterion is whether other messengers also remain critical with regard to the alternative casting of Being as passed on to them, or whether they develop from there, say, a political ideology, a mere worldview or a theoretical dogma I thank Michael Eldred for an enlightening e-mail exchange on this issue. I've struggled with the problem why a lot of people are influenced by fiction or the imaginative representation of the mass media, even though they know the difference between the reality facts and the fictions copies of reality.
This problem can't be solved if we think that facts or messages of some facts are the first original and the mediated portrayal news, dramas are the copies of the first-hand realities. And now I know that we have to think about the presupposition that the message of Being is first and the human messenger is second. This is my personal understanding. Now, I feel that we are close to the core questions of mediated and aesthetic expressions as well as of communication itself. I wonder how we as messengers can send this kind of discussion to a broader range of possible receivers.
I wonder also how we can relate this kind of discussion to the problems of information ethics and robo-ethics in an academic or theoretical as well as in a practical way in order to address difficult matters such as youth's wrong-doings as an expression of the loss of identity, or the loss of sense of fundamental relations between human beings, the poverty of meaning in our minds and so on. I am also thinking about comparing the phatic function in different cultures.
Some of my graduate students come from various countries. Hideo Kobayashi says that if we try to make good use of active wisdom, we have to get rid of selfishness. This means that the interpretation of some poems or novels can't be separated from the imaginative relations between authors and readers. I remember having heard a story about nodding robots.
Even nodding robots enable people to communicate more easily, for example, when speaking on the telephone, even if the nodding robots are just showing fake agreement. It is strange that some autistic patients can communicate with robots more easily than with human beings in some cases, according to studies on human-robot-interaction Feil-Seifer and Mataric In my view, we can explain these phenomena in such a way.
Human communication consists of different levels and in many cases patients with, for example, agnosia, autism or schizophrenia,have difficulty dealing with or understanding information or meanings at the meta-level of communication. I gained this insight from Bin Kimura Kimura and Masakazu Yamazaki Yamazaki ; fake communication with robots might enable patients to deal with the meanings at the meta-level more easily because this sort of communication has a simple structure.
So in this sense, the distinction between fake and real is not so important. Hideo Kobayashi did not study Heidegger or Gadamer but he knew that these questions regarding the relations between texts and readers are important. From this perspective, Socrates is not a sender but a messenger of ideas that come to him from beyond. In the middle of the tale we read about Princess Asagao, daughter of Prince Momozono, brother of the Emperor, who has been courted in vain by Prince Genji, her cousin, from his seventeenth year onward.
Genji is now thirty-three years old. In Chapter 20 Murasaki Shikibu tells the story of the problematic relationship between Genji and Asagao. At the beginning of Chapter 21 she writes:. Lady Asagao expressed great displeasure at this lavishness and, if the presents had been accompanied by letters or poems of at all a familiar or impertinent kind, she would at once have put a stop to these attentions. But for a year past there had been nothing in his conduct to complain of. From time to time he came to the house and enquired after her, but always quite openly. His letters were frequent and affectionate, but he took no liberties, and what nowadays troubled her chiefly was the difficulty of inventing anything to say in reply.
Murasaki Shikibu , Princess Asagao is in trouble. Should she answer or not? Should she continue a formal and, at least for her, meaningless phatic communication? But, of course, it is Murasaki Shikibu herself who gives such an answer by writing this story. This connection between ethics and aesthetics seems to be characteristic of Japanese culture to the present day.
The irresistible amorist is a pessimist at heart, weighed down by a sense of misfortune, by the weight of an unhappy karma. At the age of thirty we find him haunted by the impermanence of worldly things, and on the point of embracing a monastic life. Throughout the story, even in its saddest episodes, there runs a thread of delight in beauty.
All the love talk is interspersed with enjoyment of colour, shape, and perfume, and a continual exchange of poetic messages. Sansom , In this sense, we can say that the Here of Being or the structure of a culture is at best understood if it is conceived and lived as a place where messages pass through instead of being blocked. This is one of the lessons of Chinese Taoism. One is the level of fixed moral rules and the other one is chaos, where such rules are invisible and can be violated Yamaguchi In his pursuit of love affairs, he violates, on the one hand, fixed mores and, on the other, through the connection between ethics and aesthetics, his life reproduces the cultural norms.
We are very close to the core of problems from which our mutual understanding and some misunderstanding arose. I think that our dialogue itself is a realization of an angeletic relationship and shows the importance of intercultural angeletics. Die Darstellungsfunktion der Sprache. Frankfurt am Main Orig. Das System an der Geschichte aufgezeigt. An Outline. Grundlegungsfragen der Internetethik.
Munich , pp. Frankfurt am Main Goffman, Ervin: Frame Analysis. Cambridge MA In ibid. Pfullingen , pp. Tokyo In Thomas A. Sebeok Ed. Cambridge MA , pp. Paris German translation by E. Weinmayr: Zwischen Mensch und Mensch. Darmstadt Kuhn, Thomas S. Lacan, Jacques: Le transfert. Livre VIII. Livre VII, Paris Luhmann, Niklas: Soziale Systeme.
In Maria Botis Ed. Computer Ethics: Philosophical Enquiry. Athens , pp. Sudweeks, H. Hrachovec, and C. Ess Eds. Stanford Shannon, Claude E. It is often also translated as "humanity towards others", but is often used in a more philosophical sense to mean "the belief in a universal bond of sharing that connects all humanity". However, this view is challenged and contextualized by Christian B. The society is still active at the beginning of the 21st century, however, now it plays only a ceremonial role. Members of the Ekpe society are said to act as messengers of the ancestors ikan.
The economics of the society is based on paying tribute to the village ancestors. Only males can join, boys being initiated about the age of puberty. Members are bound by oath of secrecy, and fees on entrance are payable. The Ekpe-men are ranked in seven or nine grades, for promotion to each of which fresh initiation ceremonies, fees and oaths are necessary. The society combines a kind of freemasonry with political and lawenforcing aims.
For instance any member wronged in an Ekpe district, that is one dominated by the society, has only to address an Ekpe-man or beat the Ekpe drum in the Ekpe-house, or blow Ekpe as it is called, i. Ekpe members always wear masks when performing their police duties, and although individuals may nonetheless be recognized, fear of retribution from the ikan stops people from accusing those members who may overstep their limits. Formerly the society earned a bad reputation due to what the British viewed as the barbarous customs that were intermingled with its rites.
At least in the past, very large sums, sometimes more than a thousand pounds, were paid to attain these upper levels. The trade-off is that the Amama often control the majority of the community wealth. The Amama often appropriate hundreds of acres of palm trees for their own use and, with the profits they earn, ensure that their sons achieve comparable rank, which has the effect of limiting access to economic gain for other members of the community.
The Ekpe society requires that its initiates sponsor feasts for the town, which foster the appearance of the redistribution of wealth by providing the poor with food and drink. The Ekpe-house, an oblong building like the nave of a church, usually stands in the middle of the villages. The walls are of clay elaborately painted inside and ornamented with clay figures in relief.
Inside are wooden images to which reverence is paid. At Ekpe festivals masked dancers perform. Some of the older masks show horns and filed teeth. Non initiates and women are not allowed to come in contact with the masked dancers. As the religion has spread around the world, the name of this Orisha has varied in different locations, but the beliefs remain similar. Eshu is known as the "Father who gave birth to Ogboni", and is also thought to be agile and always willing to rise to a challenge. Exu is known by various forms and names in Afro-Brazilian religions. It is, in general, made of rough clay or a simple mound of red clay.
They are similar to those found in Nigeria. Ritual foods offered to Exu include palm oil; beans; corn, either in the form of cornmeal or popcorn; farofa, a manioc flour. Four-legged male birds and other animals are offered as sacrifice to Exu. He appears as a bawdy trickster to foil the colonialist Prospero in Act 3, Scene 3.
Names and worship of Esu. Roots and Rooted. Retrieved 1 August Pelton University of California Press. Lopes, Nei Translated by Richard Miller. He is the messenger of Olofi. He differs somewhat from Exu, who in this case is seen as his brother, by having dangerous and less aggressive characteristics.
In Afro-Brazilian religion Elegbara is one of the titles of Exu. Adeoye, C. Ibadan: Evans Bros. Nigeria Publishers. Not much has been published on the role that African philosophy can play in thinking about the challenges arising from the impact of ICT on African societies and cultures. Most research on ICT from an ethical perspective takes its departure from Western philosophy. Let us review very briefly some recent works on African philosophy that are relevant in a negative or positive sense to the subject of this conference.
The terms '"information" and "communication" are absent, not even listed in the index. I explicitly acknowledge modern reason without assuming that its manifestations are inviolable, particularly when they serve the purposes of colonialization. I locate ethical discourse between the particular and the universal. My aim, following the Kantian tradition, is universality, but I am aware, with Aristotle, that moral and political utterances are contingent, subject to different interpretations and applications based on economic interests and power structures.
We are all equal, and we are all different. It consists of the principles of sharing and caring for one another. What is the relation between community and privacy in African information society? What kind of questions do African people ask about the effects of information and communication technology in their everyday lives? Olinger, Johannes Britz and M. They write:. The South African government will attempt to draft a Data Privacy Bill and strike an appropriate balance within the context of African values and an African worldview. The task of such an analysis would be to recognize the uniqueness of African perspectives as well as commonalities with other cultures and their theoretical expressions.
This analysis could lead to an interpretation of ICT within an African horizon and correspondingly to possible vistas for information policy makers, responsible community leaders and, of course, for African institutions. Both Britz and Peter John Lor, former Chief executive of the National Library of South Africa, think that the present north-south flow of information should be complemented by a south-north flow in order to enhance mutual understanding.
Although Africa is still far from a true knowledge society, there is hope of success on certain fronts, such as investment in human capital, stemming the flight of intellectual expertise, and the effective development and maintenance of IT infrastructure Britz et al. This should include leadership, followers, agree-upon principles and values as well as effective interaction among all these elements. A value-based reorientation implies personal awareness, an understanding of information, effective interactions between leaders and their communities without limitations of time and space, and mutual confidence in representative leadership.
There is no such thing as a morally neutral technology. This is not to say just that technologies can be used and misused, but to express the deeper insight that all technologies create new ways of being. They influence our relation with one another, they shape, in a more or less radical way, our institutions, our economies, and our moral values.
This is why we should focus on information technology primarily from an ethical perspective. It is up to the African people and their leaders to question how to transform their lives by these technologies. African educational and research institutions should also reflect critically on these issues. The space of knowledge as a space of freedom is not, as Jollife rightly remarks, an abstract ideal.
It has a history that limits its possibilities. It is a space of rules and traditions of specific societies, in dialogue with their foundational myths and utopian aspirations. We are morally responsible not only for our deeds but for our dreams. Information ethics offers an open space to retrieve and debate these information and communication myths and utopias. The main moral responsibility of African academics is to enrich African identities by retrieving and re-creating African information and communication traditions.
Cultural memory must be re-shaped again and again to build the core of a humane society. This means no more and no less than basing morality on memory and communication, thereby establishing information ethics at its core. It is related to our myths and to our dreams. But not for your dreams! The Egyptian god Thot is a symbol of cultural memory as a social task. He is the god of wisdom and writing as well as messenger of the gods, particularly of the sun god Re, and is associated with the goddess Maat, the personification of justice. I think that retrieving the African cultural memory with regard to information and communication norms and traditions is the main information challenge for African information ethics.
It should recognize the different strategies of social inclusion and exclusion in the history of African societies, including traumatic experiences such as slavery and apartheid. Since the emergence of the Internet, this challenge is discussed under the heading of the digital divide.
But African information ethics implies much more than just the access and use of this medium. The problem is not a technical one, but one of social exclusion, manipulation, exploitation and annihilation of human beings. It is vital that thought about African information ethics be conducted from this broader perspective. As readers will discover, this book has a long history. I began writing it clandestinely in during my imprisonment on Robben Island. Without the tireless labor of my old comrades Walter Sisulu and Ahmed Kathrada for reviving my memories, it is doubtful the manuscript would have been completed.
The copy of the manuscript which I kept with me was discovered by the authorities and confiscated. However, in addition to their unique calligraphic skills, my co-prisoners Mac Maharaj and Isu Chiba had ensured that the original manuscript safely reached its destination. I resumed work on it after my release from prison in Since my release, my schedule has been crowded with numerous duties and responsibilities, which have left me little free time for writing.
Fortunately, I have had the assistance of dedicated colleagues, friends, and professionals who have helped me complete my work at last, and to whom I would like to express my appreciation. I am deeply grateful to Richard Stengel who collaborated with me in the creation of this book, providing invaluable assistance in editing and revising the first parts and in the writing of the latter parts. I recall with fondness our early morning walks in the Transkei and the many hours of interviews at Shell House in Johannesburg and my home in Houghton.
A special tribute is owed to Mary Pfaff who assisted Richard in his work. I want to thank especially my comrade Ahmed Kathrada for the long hours spent revising, correcting, and giving accuracy to the story. Many thanks to my ANC office staff, who patiently dealt with the logistics of the making of this book, but in particular to Barbara Masekela for her efficient coordination. Likewise, Iqbal Meer has devoted many hours to watching over the business aspects of the book.
I am grateful to my editor, William Phillips of Little, Brown, who has guided this project from early on, and edited the text, and to his colleagues Jordan Pavlin, Steve Schneider, Mike Mattil, and Donna Peterson. I would also like to thank Professor Gail Gerhart for her factual review of the manuscript. The only rivalry between different clans or tribes in our small world at Qunu was that between the Xhosas and the amaMfengu, a small number of whom lived in our village. AmaMfengu, who were not originally Xhosa-speakers, were refugees from the iMfecane and were forced to do jobs that no other African would do.
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They worked on white farms and in white businesses, something that was looked down upon by the more established Xhosa tribes. When I was a boy, amaMfengu were the most advanced section of the community and furnished our clergymen, policemen, teachers, clerks, and interpreters.
They were also amongst the first to become Christians, to build better houses, and to use scientific methods of agriculture, and they were wealthier than their Xhosa compatriots. There still existed some hostility toward amaMfengu, but in retrospect, I would attribute this more to jealousy than tribal animosity. This local form of tribalism that I observed as a boy was relatively harmless.
At that stage, I did not witness nor even suspect the violent tribal rivalries that would subsequently be promoted by the white rulers of South Africa. My father did not subscribe to local prejudice toward amaMfengu and befriended two amaMfengu brothers, George and Ben Mbekela. The brothers were an exception in Qunu: they were educated and Christian. George, the older of the two, was a retired teacher and Ben was a police sergeant.
Despite the proselytizing of the Mbekela brothers, my father remained aloof from Christianity and instead reserved his own faith for the great spirit of the Xhosas, Qamata, the God of his fathers. My father was an unofficial priest and presided over ritual slaughtering of goats and calves and officiated at local traditional rites concerning planting, harvest, birth, marriage, initiation ceremonies, and funerals. He did not need to be ordained, for the traditional religion of the Xhosas is characterized by a cosmic wholeness, so that there is little distinction between the sacred and the secular, between the natural and the supernatural.
While the faith of the Mbekela brothers did not rub off on my father, it did inspire my mother, who became a Christian. In fact, Fanny was literally her Christian name, for she had been given it in church. It was due to the influence of the Mbekela brothers that I myself was baptized into the Methodist, or Wesleyan Church as it was then known, and sent to school. The brothers would often see me playing or minding sheep and come over to talk to me.
One day, George Mbekela paid a visit to my mother. But she did relay it to my father, who despite — or perhaps because of — his own lack of education immediately decided that his youngest son should go to school. The schoolhouse consisted of a single room, with a Western-style roof, on the other side of the hill from Qunu. I was seven years old, and on the day before I was to begin, my father took me aside and told me that I must be dressed properly for school.
Until that time, I, like all the other boys in Qunu, had worn only a blanket, which was wrapped around one shoulder and pinned at the waist. My father took a pair of his trousers and cut them at the knee. He told me to put them on, which I did, and they were roughly the correct length, although the waist was far too large. My father then took a piece of string and cinched the trousers at the waist.
On the first day of school, my teacher, Miss Mdingane, gave each of us an English name and said that from thenceforth that was the name we would answer to in school. This was the custom among Africans in those days and was undoubtedly due to the British bias of our education. The education I received was a British education, in which British ideas, British culture, British institutions, were automatically assumed to be superior.
There was no such thing as African culture. Africans of my generation — and even today — generally have both an English and an African name. Whites were either unable or unwilling to pronounce an African name, and considered it uncivilized to have one. That day, Miss Mdingane told me that my new name was Nelson. Why she bestowed this particular name upon me I have no idea. Perhaps it had something to do with the great British sea captain Lord Nelson, but that would be only a guess. My later notions of leadership were profoundly influenced by observing the regent and his court. I watched and learned from the tribal meetings that were regularly held at the Great Place.
These were not scheduled, but were called as needed, and were held to discuss national matters such as a drought, the culling of cattle, policies ordered by the magistrate, or new laws decreed by the government. All Thembus were free to come — and a great many did, on horseback or by foot. They were wise men who retained the knowledge of tribal history and custom in their heads and whose opinions carried great weight.
Letters advising these chiefs and headmen of a meeting were dispatched from the regent, and soon the Great Place became alive with important visitors and travelers from all over Thembuland. From that point on, he would not utter another word until the meeting was nearing its end. Everyone who wanted to speak did so. It was democracy in its purest form. There may have been a hierarchy of importance among the speakers, but everyone was heard, chief and subject, warrior and medicine man, shopkeeper and farmer, landowner and laborer.
People spoke without interruption and the meetings lasted for many hours. The foundation of self-government was that all men were free to voice their opinions and equal in their value as citizens. Women, I am afraid, were deemed second-class citizens. A great banquet was served during the day, and I often gave myself a bellyache by eating too much while listening to speaker after speaker. I noticed how some speakers rambled and never seemed to get to the point.
I grasped how others came to the matter at hand directly, and who made a set of arguments succinctly and cogently. I observed how some speakers used emotion and dramatic language, and tried to move the audience with such techniques, while other speakers were sober and even, and shunned emotion. At first, I was astonished by the vehemence — and candor — with which people criticized the regent.
He was not above criticism — in fact, he was often the principal target of it. But no matter how flagrant the charge, the regent simply listened, not defending himself, showing no emotion at all. The meetings would continue until some kind of consensus was reached. They ended in unanimity or not at all.
Unanimity, however, might be an agreement to disagree, to wait for a more propitious time to propose a solution. Democracy meant all men were to be heard, and a decision was taken together as a people. Majority rule was a foreign notion. A minority was not to be crushed by a majority. Only at the end of the meeting, as the sun was setting, would the regent speak.
His purpose was to sum up what had been said and form some consensus among the diverse opinions. But no conclusion was forced on people who disagreed. If no agreement could be reached, another meeting would be held. At the very end of the council, a praise-singer or poet would deliver a panegyric to the ancient kings, and a mixture of compliments to and satire on the present chiefs, and the audience, led by the regent, would roar with laughter. As a leader, I have always followed the principles I first saw demonstrated by the regent at the Great Place. I have always endeavored to listen to what each and every person in a discussion had to say before venturing my own opinion.
Oftentimes, my own opinion will simply represent a consensus of what I heard in the discussion. He stays behind the flock, letting the most nimble go out ahead, whereupon the others follow, not realizing that all along they are being directed from behind. It was at Mqhekezweni that I developed my interest in African history. I learned of these men from the chiefs and headmen who came to the Great Place to settle disputes and try cases. Though not lawyers, these men presented cases and then adjudicated them.
Some days, they would finish early and sit around telling stories. I hovered silently and listened. Their speech was formal and lofty, their manner slow and unhurried, and the traditional clicks of our language were long and dramatic. At first, they shooed me away and told me I was too young to listen.
Later they would beckon me to fetch fire or water for them, or to tell the women they wanted tea, and in those early months I was too busy running errands to follow their conversation. But, eventually, they permitted me to stay, and I discovered the great African patriots who fought against Western domination. My imagination was fired by the glory of these African warriors. The most ancient of the chiefs who regaled the gathered elders with ancient tales was Zwelibhangile Joyi, a son from the Great House of King Ngubengcuka. Chief Joyi was so old that his wrinkled skin hung on him like a loose-fitting coat.
His stories unfolded slowly and were often punctuated by a great wheezing cough, which would force him to stop for minutes at a time. Chief Joyi was the great authority on the history of the Thembus in large part because he had lived through so much of it. But as grizzled as Chief Joyi often seemed, the decades fell off him when he spoke of the young impis, or warriors, in the army of King Ngangelizwe fighting the British. In pantomime, Chief Joyi would fling his spear and creep along the veld as he narrated the victories and defeats. When he first spoke of non-Xhosa warriors, I wondered why.
I was like a boy who worships a local soccer hero and is not interested in a national soccer star with whom he has no connection. Only later was I moved by the broad sweep of African history, and the deeds of all African heroes regardless of tribe. Chief Joyi railed against the white man, who he believed had deliberately sundered the Xhosa tribe, dividing brother from brother.
The white man had told the Thembus that their true chief was the great white queen across the ocean and that they were her subjects. But the white queen brought nothing but misery and perfidy to the black people, and if she was a chief she was an evil chief. Chief Joyi said that the African people lived in relative peace until the coming of the abelungu, the white people, who arrived from across the sea with fire-breathing weapons.
Once, he said, the Thembu, the Mpondo, the Xhosa, and the Zulu were all children of one father, and lived as brothers. The white man shattered the abantu, the fellowship, of the various tribes. The white man was hungry and greedy for land, and the black man shared the land with him as they shared the air and water; land was not for man to possess.
I did not yet know that the real history of our country was not to be found in standard British textbooks, which claimed South Africa began with the landing of Jan Van Riebeeck at the Cape of Good Hope in It was from Chief Joyi that I began to discover that the history of the Bantuspeaking peoples began far to the north, in a country of lakes and green plains and valleys, and that slowly over the millennia we made our way down to the very tip of this great continent.
I was assisted by Mr. Festile, the induna at the Chamber of Mines, who was once again playing a fateful role in my life. On his own initiative he had decided to offer me free accommodation in the mining compound. Few spoke English, and the lingua franca was an amalgam of many tongues known as Fanagalo. There, I saw not only flare-ups of ethnic animosity, but the comity that was also possible among men of different backgrounds. Yet I was a fish out of water there. Instead of spending my days underground, I was studying or working in a law office where the only physical activity was running errands or putting files in a cabinet.
Because the WNLA was a way station for visiting chiefs, I had the privilege of meeting tribal leaders from all over southern Africa. I recall on one occasion meeting the queen regent of Basutoland, or what is now Lesotho , Mantsebo Moshweshwe. I asked them about Jongilizwe, and for an hour I seemed to be back in Thembuland as they told colorful tales about his early years.
The queen took special notice of me and at one point addressed me directly, but she spoke in Sesotho, a language in which I knew few words. Sesotho is the language of the Sotho people as well as the Tswana, a large number of whom live in the Transvaal and the Orange Free State. The question embarrassed and sobered me; it made me realize my parochialism and just how unprepared I was for the task of serving my people.
I had unconsciously succumbed to the ethnic divisions fostered by the white government and I did not know how to speak to my own kith and kin. Without language, one cannot talk to people and understand them; one cannot share their hopes and aspirations, grasp their history, appreciate their poetry, or savor their songs. I again realized that we were not different people with separate languages; we were one people, with different tongues.
Education is the great engine of personal development. It is through education that the daughter of a peasant can become a doctor, that the son of a mineworker can become the head of the mine, that a child of farmworkers can become the president of a great nation.
It is what we make out of what we have, not what we are given, that separates one person from another. Since the turn of the century, Africans owed their educational opportunites primarily to the foreign churches and missions that created and sponsored schools. Under the United Party, the syllabus for African secondary schools and white secondary schools was essentially the same. The mission schools provided Africans with Western-style English-language education, which I myself received.
We were limited by lesser facilities but not by what we could read or think or dream. Yet, even before the Nationalists came to power, the disparities in funding tell a story of racist education. The government spent about six times as much per white student as per African student.
Education was not compulsory for Africans and was free only in the primary grades. Less than half of all African children of school age attended any school at all, and only a tiny number of Africans were graduated from high school. Even this amount of education proved distasteful to the Nationalists. The Afrikaner has always been unenthusiastic about education for Africans. To him it was simply a waste, for the African was inherently ignorant and lazy and no amount of education could remedy that.
The Afrikaner was traditionally hostile to Africans learning English, for English was a foreign tongue to the Afrikaner and the language of emancipation to us. One morning, several days after my meeting with Bram and Joel, we were taken to the head office. The head office was only about a quarter of a mile away and was a simple stone structure that resembled our own section.
Once there, we were lined up to have our fingerprints taken, which was routine prison service business. But while waiting, I noticed a warder with a camera. After our fingerprints had been taken, the chief warder ordered us to line up for photographs. The warder was taken aback by my request and was unable to offer any explanation or produce anything in writing from the commissioner of prisons.
He threatened to charge us if we did not consent to have our photographs taken, but I said that if there was no authorization, there would be no pictures, and that is where the matter remained. As a rule, we objected to having our pictures taken in prison on the grounds that it is generally demeaning to be seen as a prisoner. But there was one photograph I did consent to, the only one I ever agreed to while on Robben Island.