Problems to Increase Insured People

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The U. Rather than operating a national health service, a single-payer national health insurance system, or a multi-payer universal health insurance fund, the U.

Key Facts about the Uninsured Population

In , 48 percent of U. The federal government accounted for 28 percent of spending while state and local governments accounted for 17 percent. In , Among the insured, In , nearly This fact sheet will compare the U. It will then outline some common methods used in other countries to lower health care costs, examine the German health care system as a model for non-centralized universal care, and put the quality of U.

Of the member states, the U.

Key Facts about the Uninsured Population | The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation

This seeming anomaly is attributable, in part, to the high cost of health care in the U. Indeed, the U. On a per capita basis, the U. Health Expenditure per capita, or nearest year.

Abigail R. Barker, PhD

Prohibitively high cost is the primary reason Americans give for problems accessing health care. Americans with below-average incomes are much more likely than their counterparts in other countries to report not: visiting a physician when sick; getting a recommended test, treatment, or follow-up care; filling a prescription; and seeing a dentist. While there is no agreement as to the single cause of rising U.

The first is the cost of new technologies and prescription drugs. Another explanation for increased costs is the rise of chronic diseases, including obesity. Nationally, health care costs for chronic diseases contribute huge proportions to health care costs, particularly during end of life care. Their findings suggest that this holds true even when controlling for socio-economic disparity. Finally, high administrative costs are a contributing factor to the inflated costs of U.

Further, the government outsources some of its administrative needs to private firms. The aim is to improve administrative efficiency by allowing doctors and hospitals to bundle billing for an episode of care rather than the current ad hoc method. While the majority of U. Average annual premiums for family coverage increased 11 percent between and , but have since leveled off to increase five percent per year between and Between and , single coverage deductibles have risen 67 percent.

The lack of health insurance coverage has a profound impact on the U. The Center for American Progress estimated in that the lack of health insurance in the U. While the low end of the estimate represents just the cost of the shorter lifespans of those without insurance, the high end represents both the cost of shortened lifespans and the loss of productivity due to the reduced health of the uninsured.

Health insurance coverage is uneven and often minorities and the poor are underserved.


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Forty million workers, nearly two out of every five, do not have access to paid sick leave. Experts suggest that the economic pressure to go to work even when sick can prolong pandemics, reduce productivity, and drive up health care costs. Health insurance premiums in the U. From to , average annual health insurance premiums for family coverage increased 61 percent, while worker contributions to those plans increased 83 percent in the same period. Across states, there are significant disparities in both the availability and the cost of health care coverage.

Universal coverage, in countries like the United Kingdom, Switzerland, Japan, and Germany makes the number of bankruptcies related to medical expenses negligible. It has been suggested, based on the experience of Massachusetts, where medical-related bankruptcies declined sharply after the state enacted its health reform law in , that the ACA may help reduce such bankruptcies in the future. Provisions included in the ACA are intended to expand access to healthcare coverage, increase consumer protections, emphasizes prevention and wellness, and promote evidence- based treatment and administrative efficiency in an attempt to curb rising healthcare costs.

By taking an international perspective and looking to other advanced industrialized countries with nearly full coverage, much can be learned. While methods range widely, other OECD countries generally have more effective and equitable health care systems that control health care costs and protect vulnerable segments of the population from falling through the cracks. Among the OECD countries and other advanced industrialized countries, there are three main types of health insurance programs:. A universal mandate for health care coverage defines these systems.

Health Insurance

What is Public Health? Health Reform. Why is the ACA so important? Millions still need insurance: Though the ACA has helped about 20 million get health insurance, about 29 million people still lack coverage.

Take Action Now! For example, a person with insurance against automobile theft may be less cautious about locking their car because the negative consequences of vehicle theft are now partially the responsibility of the insurance company. A party makes a decision about how much risk to take, while another party bears the costs if things go badly, and the party insulated from risk behaves differently from how it would if it were fully exposed to the risk.

According to contract theory , moral hazard results from a situation in which a hidden action occurs. It has long been recognized that a problem of moral hazard may arise when individuals engage in risk sharing under conditions such that their privately taken actions affect the probability distribution of the outcome.

Moral hazard can be divided into two types when it involves asymmetric information or lack of verifiability of the outcome of a random event. An ex-ante moral hazard is a change in behavior prior to the outcome of the random event, whereas ex-post involves behavior after the outcome. The individual taking greater risks during the period would be ex-ante moral hazard whereas lying about a fictitious health problem to defraud the insurance company would be ex-post moral hazard.

A second example is the case of a bank making a loan to an entrepreneur for a risky business venture. The entrepreneur becoming overly risky would be ex-ante moral hazard, but willful default wrongly claiming the venture failed when it was profitable is ex-post moral hazard. In the latter case, after the contract has been signed there is a random draw by nature that determines the agent's type e.

In the literature, two reasons have been discussed why moral hazard may imply that the first-best solution i. First, the agent may be risk-averse, so there is a trade-off between providing the agent with incentives and insuring the agent. Second, the agent may be risk-neutral but wealth-constrained, so the agent cannot make a payment to the principal and there is a trade-off between providing incentives and minimizing the agent's limited-liability rent.

In the meantime, the moral hazard model has been extended to the cases of multiple periods and multiple tasks, both with risk-averse and risk-neutral agents. In such a setup, Hoppe and Schmitz have corroborated central insights of moral hazard theory.

Explore: Health Insurance

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Increases in the exposure to risk when insured, or when another bears the cost. For the novel, see Moral Hazard novel. This section includes a list of references , but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. Please help to improve this section by introducing more precise citations.

December Learn how and when to remove this template message. Conflict of interest Externality Feedback Free rider problem Game theory Information economics Offset hypothesis Perverse incentive Risk compensation Samaritan's dilemma Systemic risk Unintended consequences. The American Economic Review. American Economic Association. New York Times.


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The New Republic. Financial Times. Moral Hazard". The Return of Depression Economics and the Crisis of Norton Company Limited. Retrieved January 15, Retrieved November 30, Financial Shock.


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FT Press. Retrieved December 9, Retrieved March 17, The Washington Post. American Academy of Political and Social Science. Aspects of the Theory of Risk Bearing. Essays in the Theory of Risk-Bearing. Chicago: Markham. Texas Law Review. September 1, Environment and Planning C: Government and Policy. Mas-Colell , M. Whinston, and J. Green , Microeconomic Theory. Chapter 14, 'The Principal-Agent Problem', p.