Survey of Covenant History: A Historical Overview of the Old Testament

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The holiness of the Ark also made it dangerous to those who came in contact with it.


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When Nadav and Avihu, the sons of Aaron , brought a foreign flame to offer a sacrifice in the Tabernacle, they were devoured by a fire that emanated "from the Lord" Lev. During the saga of the capture of the Ark by the Philistines, numerous people, including some who merely looked at the Ark, were killed by its power.

Similarly, the Priests who served in the Tabernacle and Temple were told that viewing the Ark at an improper time would result in immediate death Num. The Ark accompanied the Jews throughout their time in the desert, traveling with them and accompanying them to their wars with Emor and Midian. When the Jews crossed into the land of Canaan, the waters of the Jordan River miraculously split and the Ark led them through Josh.

Throughout their conquest of the land, the Jews were accompanied by the Ark. The most dramatic demonstration of its power comes when the Jews breached the walls of Jericho merely by circling them, blowing horns and carrying the Ark Josh. After the conquest was completed, the Ark, and the entire Tabernacle, were set up in Shiloh Josh. There they remained until the battles of the Jews with the Philistines during the Priesthood of Eli. The Jews, after suffering a defeat at the Philistines' hands, took the Ark from Shiloh to Even-Ezer in hopes of winning the next battle.

But the Jews were routed, and the Ark was captured by the Philistines. The Philistines took the Ark back to Ashdod , their capital city in the south of Canaan, where they placed it in the temple of their god Dagon. The next day, however, they found the idol fallen on its face. After replacing the statue, they found it the next day decapitated, with only its trunk remaining, and soon afterward, the entire city of Ashdod was struck with a plague.

The Philistines moved the Ark to the city of Gath, and from there to Ekron, but whatever city the Ark was in, the inhabitants were struck with plague. After seven months, the Philistines decided to send the Ark back to the Israelites, and accompanied it with expensive gifts.

The Ark was taken back to Beit Shemesh, and, according to midrash, the oxen pulling the Ark burst into song as soon as it was once again in Israel's possession A.


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The actual text of the story, however, tells a much grimmer tale: The men of Beit Shemesh were punished for staring disrespectfully at the Ark, and many were killed with a plague. From there, King David transported it to Jerusalem.


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En route, however, the oxen pulling it stumbled, and when Uzzah reached out to steady the Ark, he died immediately. As a result of this tragedy, David decided to leave the Ark at the home of Obed-edom the Gittite. Three months later, he moved it to Jerusalem , the seat of his kingdom, where it remained until the construction of the First Temple by David 's son Solomon I Sam. When the Ark was finally placed in the Temple , the midrash reports that the golden tree decorations that adorned the walls blossomed with fruit that grew continuously until the Temple's destruction Yoma 39b. The Ark remained in the Temple until its destruction at the hand of the Babylonian empire, led by Nebuchadnezzar.

What happened to it afterward is unknown, and has been debated and pondered for centuries. It is unlikely that the Babylonians took it, as they did the other vessels of the Temple , because the detailed lists of what they took make no mention of the Ark. According to some sources, Josiah, one of the final kings to reign in the First Temple period, learned of the impending invasion of the Babylonians and hid the Ark. Another account says that Solomon foresaw the eventual destruction of the Temple, and set aside a cave near the Dead Sea , in which Josiah eventually hid the Ark Maimonides , Laws of the Temple , One of the most fascinating possibilities is advanced by Ethiopian Christians who claim that they have the Ark today.

In Axum, Ethiopia, it is widely believed that the Ark is currently being held in the Church of Saint Mary of Zion, guarded by a monk known as the "Keeper of the Ark," who claims to have it in his possesion. According to the Axum Christian community, they acquired the Ark during the reign of Solomon , when his son Menelik, whose mother was the Queen of Sheba, stole the Ark after a visit to Jerusalem. While in the not-so-distant past the "Ark" has been brought out for Christian holidays, its keeper has not done so for several years due to the tumultuous political situation in the country.

The claim has thus been impossible to verify, for no one but the monk is allowed into the tent. A more plausible claim is that of archaeologist Leen Ritmeyer, who has conducted research on the Temple Mount and inside the Dome of the Rock. He claims to have found the spot on the Mount where the Holy of Holies was located during the First Temple period. In the precise center of that spot is a section of bedrock cut out in dimensions that may match those of the Ark as reported in Exodus.

This section of the mount, incidentally, is the one from which the creation of the world began, according to midrash T. Kedoshim , Based on his findings, Ritmeyer has postulated that the Ark may be buried deep inside the Temple Mount. However, it is unlikely that any excavation will ever be allowed on the Mount by the Muslim or Israeli authorities. The Ark remains a topic of study even today, over years after it was last seen. A great deal of research has attempted to explain the wonders that are attributed to the Ark in the Bible.

One recent study suggests the possibility that the Ark represented man's first harnessing of electricity. The accounts given of peoples' sudden deaths from touching the Ark are consistent with death by a high voltage, lethal electrical charge. Such a charge could have resulted from the constant exposure of the box to static electricity, which builds up quickly in a hot, dry climate like the Middle East.

The materials that the Ark was made of further support this theory: gold is one of the most powerful electrical conductors, and wood is an excellent insulator. The only remnant of the Ark in Jewish life today is the Holy Ark in which Torah scrolls are kept in synagogues. These Arks often are decorated with copies of the Tablets, reminiscent of the contents of the actual Ark of ancient times.

The Ark itself plays no role in Jewish life today. Nonetheless, it remains a potent symbol of the Jewish peoples' past, and of the messianic era many believe is waiting in the future. Ironically, the Ark is most famous today as the subject of the film "Indiana Jones and the Raiders of the Lost Ark. While there is no evidence of Hitler ever having had an interest in the Ark, the movie does an admirable job of capturing the mystique of one of the worlds' most ancient unsolved mysteries.

Sources :Graham Hancock. Touchstone Books, ; Encyclopedia Judaica. Download our mobile app for on-the-go access to the Jewish Virtual Library. Jewish Links to the Holy Land. Pharisees, Sadducees, and Essenes. Academies in Babylonia and Erez Israel.

Abrahamic Covenant

Jews of the Middle East. The Administration of Judaea. After the Exile. Judges of Israel. Phoenicia, Phoenicians. The Age of the Patriarchs. Kedemites or Easterners. Akkadian Language. Pillar of Cloud and Pillar of Fire. Kings of Israel. Polish Literature. Kings of Judah. Portraits of Jews. Two Kingdoms. Practice and Procedure. Ancient Jewish Cities. The Land of the Hebrews.

Architecture and Architects. The Ark of the Covenant. Leather Industry and Trade. Sefer Raza Rabba. Laws Affecting Jews CE. Baal Worship. Barcelona, Disputation of. The course includes topics such as school governance and government relations. An introduction to the elements and development of curriculum at various levels from philosophical to practical units of study , and associated issues and tensions. Applying the theory, students prepare a critique of a curriculum unit.

A historical survey of the purpose and practice of education in its social and political context from the Greek and Roman to Western civilization in general, with a focus on developments in Canada and specifically in Ontario from about to today. Along with attention for the relevance of each era for today, special emphasis is placed on the role of the parents, the state, and the church. This course is a survey of mathematical topics within the Ontario Curriculum Grades Mathematics and taught in Christian elementary schools.

Problem solving and conceptual understanding will be an integral part of the course. Through practice, the course is intended to prepare teachers to teach elementary school mathematics with confidence. This course focuses on the legal and moral duties, rights, and responsibilities of teachers in the context of the Ontario College of Teachers document, The Standards of Practice for the Teaching Profession OCT, Legislation, government policies and regulations regarding education in Ontario are reviewed in relation to the applicability to Reformed Christian schools.

With the guidance of a faculty advisor, they will experience how to access, interpret, evaluate and use educational research literature. Using a collegial and collaborative approach, they will collect and use data responsibly in conjunction with other information and knowledge. Students will be expected to share their research with faculty and fellow-students in a formal presentation setting. The evaluation of the final project will include a second reader selected from the faculty.

After a brief introduction to educational psychology, behaviourist, cognitive, and constructivist theories of learning and their application to the classroom setting are examined and evaluated from the Biblical perspective that every child is a unique creature of God. The work of theorists such as Pavlov, Skinner, Piaget, Bruner, Vygotsky and others will be introduced. This course introduces students to assessment in education. It is based on the premise that the assessment for, as, and of learning is a vital component of the instructional process and that the primary purpose is the improvement of learning.

Topics include traditional and authentic assessment, use of rubrics, differentiated instruction and assessment, and portfolio assessment. The physical, cognitive, and psycho-social dimensions of child development are examined from the beginning of life at conception, and special attention is paid to the school-aged and adolescent youngster. Throughout the course explicit connections will be made to learning and to current issues that affect schooling. This course acquaints the students with a wide range of special needs children within a typical classroom setting in a Reformed Christian school.

Suggestions for early detection, referral, and initial modification of programs and materials are presented. In addition, specific teaching approaches e. Topics such as anxiety and depression will receive special emphasis. This course acquaints the student with a wide range of special needs children within a typical classroom setting in a Reformed Christian school. The first part of the course provides an overview of behaviourist, cognitive, and constructivist theories of learning.

Their relevance to the classroom setting are examined and evaluated from the Biblical perspective that every child is uniquely created by God. The second part of the course examines the role of assessment for, as, and of learning as a vital component of the instructional process. Topics include traditional testing, the use of rubrics and authentic, performance-based, portfolio assessment, and differentiated instruction and assessment. The student is expected to become familiar with each subject as a course of study, and be able to place it in the context of a Christian worldview.

Practical applications to the classroom setting are central to all curriculum methods courses. This course acquaints students with the language of art, explores art in its variety of forms, and investigates a wide variety of materials and equipment. Student achievement upon entrance to either course will determine whether a student takes a course at a general or advanced level. Both courses also promote student growth and development in becoming responsible, competent, and creative French language teachers for elementary schools.

Through a variety of activities, students will practise listening, speaking, reading, and writing French in the context of French culture studies.

Notes From Lecture Of Old Testament Survey

Assignments and activities are designed to provide students with ideas and activities for their future classrooms. This course is an introduction to the teaching of language arts in the elementary school. Although the emphasis is on the reading component, students will be equipped to prepare a well-balanced language arts program for their future classrooms. Theoretical issues as well as practical classroom applications e. This course is an introduction to the teaching of the language arts in the elementary school.

Theoretical issues as well as practical applications e. Introduction to the content and teaching methodology of mathematics in Christian elementary schools. Historical and theoretical underpinnings of mathematics education e. Students will become acquainted with The Ontario Curriculum, Grades Mathematics, through a thorough introduction to the five strands of the mathematics curriculum. Students will also consider the place of various mathematics programs e. Music theory and music history are reviewed, and teaching strategies based on the Kodaly and Orff methods are introduced.

Practice in leading singing and in playing the recorder is provided. This course is an introduction to the teaching of physical education in the context of a biblical orientation to the subject content, theory, and practice. Instructional effectiveness, lesson planning and delivery, long-term organization and evaluation, and structuring student participation are also included. Introduction to the content and teaching methodology of science in Christian elementary schools.

Historical and theoretical underpinnings of science education e. Special attention will be given to writing a position paper about a current topic and to developing a unit based on a historical novel. Through a variety of activities, students will practice listening, speaking, reading, and writing French in the context of French culture studies.

Assignments and activities are designed to provide students with ideas and activities for future classroom applications. With an emphasis on writing, the course examines connections among the six language arts: reading, writing, speaking, listening, representing, and viewing. Theoretical underpinnings of science education e. The second module acquaints students with the language of art, explores art in its variety of forms, and investigates a wide variety of materials and equipment. Some attention will be paid to the writing of academic essays.

‎Old Testament History - Audio Lectures on Apple Podcasts

An examination of seminal works over the period, including a major work by Shakespeare, with some emphasis on historical and cultural contexts as a means to better understanding individual texts and the development of English literature overall. Students will develop their academic writing and research skills. This course explores the connections between philosophy and theories of reading in the classical, medieval, modern and post-modern eras. We will illustrate the perspectives offered by the philosophies in the theoretical writings with representative selections of literature, art and music.

Special attention will be paid to First Nations writings, and award-winning books e. The use of trade books to structure and support a classroom language arts program will be emphasized throughout the course. Using a historical and chronological approach, the course presents a survey of main philosophical themes arising out of the history of Western thought. Cognizant of their chosen vocation as future teachers, students will articulate a Christian worldview that will assist them in defending their faith in the context of society.

The courses in this series are arranged in distinct modules, each featuring a specific element within the teaching-learning process. In addition, each Teaching Studies course contains a practicum preparation component to prepare the teacher-candidate for the field placement experiences in the schools. The focus of this course is on lesson planning, essential presentation skills, introduction to curriculum, and preparation for practicum placement. Students are given the opportunity to develop skills in narration particularly as it applies to the teaching of Bible.

Students will examine the place of information and communication technology in teaching and learning. This includes the theoretical elements e. The emphasis will be both on teaching and on learning with technology. Students will be expected to apply their learning by developing an e-professional portfolio. The major focus of this course is on developing student understanding. The last module in the course will provide an introduction to classroom management and discipline.

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Students will craft a classroom management plan that will be included in their professional portfolio. This course consists of three major topics, namely, teacher-centered classrooms, student-centered classrooms, and theory and practice of narration as a teaching strategy, with applications across the curriculum. Included in this course is an in-depth review of the application of differentiated instruction as an effective means of reaching all learners in a Reformed Christian school.

In this culminating course, students will examine the professional qualities and characteristics necessary to become a successful teacher. Topics include reporting student progress and parent-teacher conferences, a review of the application and appointment process, contracts and salary schedules, handbooks and policies, short- and long-term planning, and preparing to enter the teaching profession in a Reformed Christian school.

This course focuses on lesson planning, essential presentation skills, classroom management, and preparation for practicum placement. Students are given opportunity to develop skills in narration particularly as it applies to the teaching of Bible. Included in this course is an in-depth review of the application of Differentiated Instruction as an effective means of reaching all learners in a Reformed Christian school.

Associate teachers, teachercandidates, school administration, and College supervisors follow the procedures and policies in the Practicum Guidelines.