Madre Dignità (Einaudi. Stile libero extra) (Italian Edition)
The presence in England of liminal figures such as John Florio, caught in their cultural self-identities between several linguistic worlds, made an additional and equally significant, if markedly diverse, contribution to the self-fashioning of the Elizabethan world. The turn toward translation is a marker of the simultaneous turn away from the advocacy of foreign cultures in their original linguistic dress in England, and the valorization of English as a legitimate bearer of cultural weight in its own 1 2 Julia Ebel, in her unpublished dissertation Studies in Elizabethan Translation Columbia University, , notes that between and there were a total of translations from Latin into English, from French, from Italian, 59 from Spanish, 43 from Dutch, 11 from German, and 2 from Portuguese.
It is in this light that we turn to the only translation Florio evidently ever made into Italian, of the Basilikon Doron, which James had written in Scotland, in Middle Scots, and then had translated into English for its initially limited circulation. This treatise on kingship dates from ; written for the instruction of his Prince Henry, who though only four at the time was next in line of succession to the Scottish throne, the king shows himself throughout his text concerned about the possibility of his own imminent death.
James had been crowned in at the age of only thirteen months, when his mother, Mary Queen of Scot,s fled to England. The Basilikon Doron was meant to be a primer in the practical matters of governance for a son the king wished to spare the difficult lessons he had necessarily learned through the four successive regents who governed Scotland in his stead until he reached his majority in Sixty-eight books in French had come to him through his mother, who had left them behind when she fled in haste in the wake of the scandals that had fatally compromised her sovereignty.
Yet it can be argued that this was not so much, as the English thought, because the king did not understand them. It was because they did not understand the king. Here I follow Mathew, pp. He also discusses, pp. It contained works in the most representative of the languages of the first century of print culture with the exception of German, which Percy did not read. Wormald, p. Neither is it obvious for whom the Italian translation of the Basilikon Doron was intended, a dedicatory epistle to the King notwithstanding there is no record of his having acknowledged it.
Michael Wyatt 76 modernity, but we must ask: does this translative gesture achieve its end? Obey in both; neither thinke it enough to abstaine from evill, and do no good; nor thinke not that if ye doe manie good things, it may serve you for a cloake to mixe evil turnes therewith. And as in these two points, the whole Scripture principallie consisteth: so in two degrees standeth the whole service of God by man: interiour, or upward; exteriour, or downward: the first, by prayer in faith towards God; the next, by workes flowing therefra before the world: which is nothing else, but the exercise of Religion towards God, and of equitie towards your neighbor [p.
In a passage that Florio must have been particularly pleased to translate, we read, Further on in the second book, James lists, in order of precedence, the 16 Given the totalizing significance that King James assigned to the Hebrew and Christian scriptures in both his understanding of the world and his place in it, it is not surprising that the most important cultural artifact of his patronage as King of England should have been the Bible that bears his name.
Though a detailed consideration of that enormously complex project, involving 49 translators over a period of six years, would be beyond the scope of this study, it is worth pondering the effect such a massive effort and, it must be admitted, splendid result had on the shift in elite cultural politics away from the foreign, and largely secular, paradigms of the Elizabethan period. First, of course, is the Bible, after which Henry is urged Florio had earlier correctly used the term republica [p.
Delight not also to bee in your owne person a player upon musicall instruments; especially on such as commonly men winne their living with: nor yet to be fine of any mechanic craft That James had had practically no exposure to such entertainments at the time of the writing of the Basilikon Doron little mitigates his retention of the passage in later editions of the text, revealing as it does the myopic sense of cultural politics that the Scots king brought with him to England.
All language bears an accumulation of associations, and the language that Florio had advocated during the course of his career in Elizabethan England was a vigorous and polyvalent one whose native practitioners had taken it in a great variety of directions. Were he to have adopted the contemporary linguistic politics then in force on the Italian 20 21 22 Sommerville, p. Pellegrini, p. Basilikon Doron, ed. Diplomatic Interventions Donatella Abbate Badin Lady Morgan, an Ambassador of Goodwill to Italian Exiles1 Starting from the s, London and, to a lesser extent, the other major cities of Great Britain was thronged with Italian refugees who had fled there in the aftermath of the risings in Naples and Piedmont and the general crackdown on would-be agitators that followed throughout Italy.
The status quo in Italy, resulting from the Congress of Vienna , was shaken in the years by a wave of constitutionalist uprisings taking the lead from Spain, where the Bourbon king had been obliged to return to a constitutional monarchy after a mutiny of army officers in The revolt spread to Bourbon-governed Naples, where the troops in revolt lead by former Napoleonic officers most prominent among them, Guglielmo Pepe obliged King Ferdinand I to promulgate the constitution.
In a matter of a few months, however, the troops of the Holy Alliance had intervened crushing the rebellion which had been animated by symapthisers of the former French regime and by the Carbonari. He did grant the constitution as requested, however, soon after he changed his mind, joined the legitimist regiments in and defeated the rebels led by Santorre di Santa Rosa. In the Lombardo-Veneto Kingdom, the Austrians, well-informed by their espionage system, forestalled insurrection by cracking down with a wave of arrests and trials on all Carbonari meeting places and other hotbeds of dissent.
Federico Confalonieri, Pietro Maroncelli, Silvio Pellico and other suspects were sent to the Moravian fortress of Spielberg, one of the harshest prisons of the Habsburg empire. Many others avoided the arrest by fleeing to Switzerland, France and, especially to England. While for both categories of people, return to the original country is impossible since they were driven out by the political powers of their original countries, exiles, however, are single and prominent individuals while refugees are fleeing the country in droves and under threat of death.
In the case of the Italians in London, both terms apply: most of them were prominent personalities but they also had to leave the country precipitously and arrived in Switzerland, France or England in large numbers and almost at the same time. The poet, novelist and patriot, Ugo Foscolo, born in the Ionian island of Zante Zakynthos , was a supporter of the French in Italy until Napoleon disappointed him by becoming a tyrant.
He served in the army that defended the kingdom of Italy. After the defeat of 88 Donatella Abbate Badin flee Italy after the disastrous outcome of the and insurrections. Generations of Italians would, from that moment on, be physically displaced and have to cross borders to experience a sense of otherness and the loss of familiar links, economic security and dignity. The typology of the political exile is closely linked to the rise of nationstates.
Since the idea of an Italian nation established itself with the arrival of the French, and a newly-hatched sense of an Italian identity gave rise to patriotic discourse and patriotic action, we can localize in that period the beginning of those waves of exiles which would lead thousands of people to adopt new ways of feeling, thinking, and living. His flamboyant temperament and his brilliant literary achievements Le ultime lettere di Jacopo Ortis, [The Last letters of Jacopo Ortis], Dei Sepolcri [On Sepulchres], the translation into Italian of A Sentimental Journey and a great number of odes, plays and essays made him the fulcrum of the exile community in London.
Many authorities have dwelt on the issue of exile as a quintessentially Italian condition. As Dino S. Generali, presidenti dimessi di repubbliche, presidenti di parlamenti sciolti a bajonetta in canna [ Generals, and demoted presidents of republics, presidents of parliaments dissolved by bayonets […] and flocks of journalists, poets and literary men. Some of the first-wave exiles to England returned, however, to Italy to participate in the events.
England thus became an in-between place where the refugees were on the one hand trying to integrate into local society and on the other continued to be involved in national politics. Many of them kept in touch with their native country, operating, when possible, in its behalf and plotting for their return as soon as an opening would present itself. Moreover, a number of the Italians were also involved in political action in favour of other countries engaged in nationalistic action. Greece, where the fight for independence from the Ottoman empire was raging at that time, attracted several of the London exiles, such as Porro and Santa Rosa; the latter actually lost his life there.enter
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Said, p. In London the exiles, teetering between assimilation and marginalization, found a sympathetic welcome within the Whig circles that met at Holland House or Lansdowne House. In those famous international and liberal salons, Italian exiles had the opportunity of meeting like-minded intellectuals they could sensitize to their ideals even while they made contacts in order to find suitable means of subsistence — mostly teaching Italian or writing, which were the only available opportunities for the proud men and women who in their former lives had, as a rule, belonged to the upper classes and even hosted some of their new patrons.
When the letters addressed to her by some prominent Italian exiles of the revolutions are made available in print,11 they will add a new piece to the complex mosaic of the history of that age and shed fresh light on the delicate relationship between the host country, its reluctant visitors and the network which was built among the refugees, as well as between them and their patrons. Meanwhile the portrait of that extraordinary woman will be enriched with a new facet. Manuscript material on Lady Morgan is also held at The National Library of Ireland, at Trinity College, Cambridge, and in several other archives, but the bulk of it does not regard Italy.
General Collection. Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library. Lady Morgan, an Ambassador of Goodwill to Italian Exiles 91 The Irish novelist, Lady Morgan ,12 was the mother of the national tale, a genre through which she made a plea for the cultural identity of her nation, Ireland.
In , in the wake of her success, she published the travelogue, Italy, the outcome of a Grand Tour which took her and her husband, Sir Charles, to the principal cities of Italy in the years and Allen, The secret society of the Carboneria, which started in the Kingdom of Naples and in the State of the Church and spread to the rest of Italy, flourished during the first decades of the nineteenth century inspired by the democratic ideology of the French Revolution.
It borrowed its name and its secret jargon from charcoal-burning and had many points in common with Freemasonry. Members of the aristocracy, the upper middle—classes and the intelligentsia were part of it, while the movement was out of touch with the common people. The purpose of the Carbonari was to bring about a constitutional monarchy or a republic, and to defend the rights of the people against all forms of absolutism.
The Carbonari were the inspiring force of the risings in Naples and in Piedmont. Federico Confalonieri was an Italian patriot and Milanese Liberal. He then joined the Carbonari movement and in Milan he devoted himself to promoting the economic and social progress of his country. On the outbreak of the Piedmontese revolt March-April , the Austrian authorities made several arrests and tried him and other revolutionists for conspiracy and high treason.
He was jailed in the fortress of Spielberg, pardoned in and he found refuge in America. A prominent member of Milanese aristocracy, Marquis Luigi Porro Lambertenghi , was a reformist and a modernizer, he brought gas-lighting to Lombardy having ordered machinery from England, and had a treatise on street- lighting translated by Silvio Pellico.
With Confalonieri, he set up several free Lancastrian schools and co-founded Il Conciliatore which he supported financially.
He arrived in England in after fleeing from Milan and spending some time in Switzerland and Paris. Both he and Santa Rosa became involved with the fight of Greece for independence from the Ottoman Empire and Porro stayed several years in Greece serving with the army and the government until, having almost lost his life because of typhus, he continued his life as an exile in Marseilles.
Born in Piedmont Saluzzo , in Milan he came in contact with the literary circles where he shone thanks to his dramatic production. His Francesca da Rimini was a great theatrical success and was much admired by Lady Morgan as was his editorship of Il Conciliatore.
On his return to Turin, he commemorated the experience in the moving memoir Le mie prigioni , a great literary success of the time. Ferdinando dal Pozzo was a Piedmontese lawyer and politician who held important offices both in the Napoleonic era and in the reign of Carlo Alberto. He was the author of several polemical writings which sent him into exile in England. Lady Morgan had expressed admiration for him in Italy but only met him when he came to England.
Guglielmo Pepe was one of the leaders of the revolutionary army of the Neapolitan Republic of When the rebellion was subdued, he was arrested and exiled to France. As a consequence, he spent several years of exile in England, France, and other countries, until he came back again to fight in the revolution and once again had to seek refuge abroad. The singularity of her position is brought into relief by the political indifference of many of her female contemporaries.
Several of his letters to her are extant. Reflections on the political climate preceding these events, and on the historical facts of which they were the consequence, permeate the travelogue which for many years was the best-known book about Italy, an object of admiration as well as of fierce criticism.
Italy is not simply a guidebook. Foreseeing criticism of her liberal minded text on the part of the conservative press in England and Ireland, in one of the last chapters of her monumental work, Lady Morgan wrote: It is in vain that reviewers calumniate! That Quarterlys and Quotidiennes fulminate bulls, and utter anathemas.
Their briefs of condemnation like other briefs are now but waste paper; while days and nights passed in the societies of Geneva, Milan, Florence, Bologna and Naples are entered in the records of the heart, and are at once the reward and stimulus of exertions, which, however inadequate, have never been made, but in the full conviction that they tended to forward the cause of truth and of virtue. Her profound awareness of exile as a feature of her own national 23 24 Letter from Carlo Pucci, April 9, Lady Morgan was a great enthusiast of the Lancastrian method and entertained a lively correspondence on the subject with its Italian promoters in Florence, Piedmont and Milan.
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Lady Morgan, an Ambassador of Goodwill to Italian Exiles 95 heritage and of the collective imaginary of Ireland25 predisposed her to sympathize with Italian refugees to whom she felt also close out of a shared ideology as well as from old friendship. Italy also makes a plea for those patriots who had exerted themselves or were in the process of exerting themselves to obtain a constitutional government and, in the days when Italy was going to press, were beginning to seek refuge in Great Britain following the failure of their revolutionary movements. It goes without saying that a favourable representation of Italians would induce her readers to consider the political 25 26 27 The Irish rhetoric of exile has been explored by several authorities.
Declan Kiberd, in his seminal book, Inventing Ireland, London: Vintage, , sees exile as a "nursery of nationality" p. The relegation of the language and the poetry to the West and to "the under-privileged and dispossessed" is equated by Kinsella to their going "into a kind of internal exile" p. To this removal, however, he attributes the development of a cultural identity which is specifically Irish, a fragmented identity, exiled from itself, yet enriched by its duality. Morgan, Italy, II, xxiv, p. It also contributed in the long run to explain and justify the presence of exiles in England.
At the root of the Italians fleeing into exile and of Lady Morgan taking their defence, there were similar concerns for freedom and a similar unease at home. See above. Morgan, Memoirs, II, pp. Letter from Giuseppe Pecchio, March 13, Lady Morgan, an Ambassador of Goodwill to Italian Exiles 97 Conciliatore, the journal that spread liberal ideas while launching Romanticism in Italy ,32 paints a very graphic picture of the anxious times that preceded the exile and, especially, of the life of an intellectual refugee in Great Britain or elsewhere some of the letters were addressed to her from Geneva or Paris.
It also gives us the measure of the dignity and pride of her correspondents who, rather than ask for favours and protection, write to inform her about the sufferings of their group and impress their point of view on her. Indeed, from the letters of Porro, Dal Pozzo or Pecchio we get the impression that they are briefing one who had been favourable to the cause in the past so that she might continue being their advocate, indeed their ambassador. Ferdinando Dal Pozzo, whose Opuscoli on the benefits of the revolutionary system Lady Morgan had praised in Italy,33 was one of the most explicit in recognizing her role.
She must also have been informed of the steps some of them were taking to extend to Lombardy the plans Piedmontese revolutionaries were hatching and which led to the rising.
When Carlo Alberto deserted the cause and the Constitutionalists were defeated at Novara, voluntary exile was, for the most fortunate, the only way to escape imprisonment or death. Porro, Pecchio, and Dal Pozzo, known for their anglophilia, sought asylum in England while Confalonieri and Pellico were arrested and jailed before they could leave.
Letter from Ferdinando Dal Pozzo, May 30, This is what you have done, my worthy and immortal Lady, this is what your luminous genius will keep achieving successfully. It was written by a young and loyal man, who writes being in a position of knowing it all: he is Count de S. Rosa, who under the aforesaid government held the Ministry of War. You could get from him a correct opinion of that catastrophe. There is more than expedient opportunism in the words of praise about her travelogue contained in the letters received between and ; her correspondents, indeed, recognize the role her book was playing in spreading news about the injustices suffered and the hopes entertained by Italians, and express gratitude and the subtle satisfaction at seeing how unpopular her book was with the hated governments ruling the country.
This unpopularity, too, was, in their eyes, a proof of its power. Porro Lambertenghi, in whose Milanese palace the editors of the Concilatore used to meet,37 praises her work and its effects warmly: Non le parlai della bellissima sua opera sopra la nostra Italia. Non ha idea quanto piaccia, ma nel tempo medesimo quanto al governo austriaco abbia doluto. Letter from Ferdinando Dal Pozzo, January 7, You cannot imagine how it is liked and at the same time how it has aggrieved the Austrian government.
This warmth should also dissipate the accusations in the English press that held her responsible for the arrest of her friends. La lessi questo agosto sul lago di Como [ Il governo perseguita l' opera e perseguiterebbe d' ogni potere la sua autrice. L' una e l' altra ne sono ben degne. How different is, alas, your Italy from the present one. I read it last August on the shores of Lake Como […]. I cannot tell you what a sweet balm that reading was for my heart, it was like the memory of his green years for a hoary old man […]. All our friends shared similar impressions; and what judgment is there which would be more eloquent and final than that dictated by sensations?
The government persecutes the book as, with all its might, it would persecute the author. They are both worthy of it. Not only critics but also people who were sympathetic to her shared this opinion. Federico Confalonieri, Carteggio, ed. It is a topic I have studied extensively, the most brilliant, rich and varied picture of our history. But I have not enough books at my disposal and perhaps I would not have enough imagination and erudition about Italy to paint at the same time a tragic character, his times and his contemporaries.
This is why I let you have it. Some day the readers will be grateful to me for this transaction. In later years, Antonio Gallenga, an exile of the revolution who had been a professor of Italian at University College, wrote to Lady Morgan from Turin where he had returned at the outbreak of the revolution. As he foresaw that the changed tide would soon force him to go back to England, he looked forward to a common writing project they had been discussing: You must not doubt but that I shall be most happy to accept any charge or trust you may destine to me.
As soon as we are in London together, we will go to work and accomplish what we have so long meditated. Look over your papers and sound the depth of your memory. The world has yet a great deal to hear from you. Letter from Antonio Gallenga, February 10, Butt about copyright questions confirms that Lady Morgan was serious about the project and that the continuous insistence of her correspondents that her book should continue to be circulated was about to bear fruit now, at the eve of the dreamt-for unification which would make it obsolete.
Confalonieri, taking advantage of the fact that his letters were not travelling by regular mail but were entrusted to friends like Count Salazar or Gen. Cockburn, reported without restraint on censorship48, police violence,49 and the government, using freely insulting epithets towards the 45 46 47 48 49 Italy that the so-called St. Not even at the end, could she accept that the Church should take advantage of the credulity of the people.
Letter from Lady Morgan, March 10, Letters from Gallenga, February 10, and January 18, Porro, too, acts as a relayer of information about their group with the hope that Lady Morgan would spread it further among sympathisers. Rather than summarizing it, Pecchio had preferred to let her have the original, knowing that her concern for her Italian friends was equal to his and that she would take it upon herself to circulate the news. Thus, through correspondence with the more intimate friends, she was continuously informed of the fate of the larger group.
In the collection of manuscripts of the Beinecke Library there are, as was usual in those days, a great number of letters of introduction of travellers some of them quite famous to Dublin or London or, given the times, also many requests for her social and even pecuniary aid. Letter from Giovanni Berchet, April 30, Rien alors ne lui manquerait.
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And if you would protect him? In which case he would be wanting in nothing. You must be so for all Italians and for all those who entertain liberal thoughts. The Morgans were behind several public subscriptions e. Although some of these letters of introduction or direct requests concern artists, musicians Lady Morgan was an opera buff and tried to bring the Italian opera to Dublin or just ordinary people, most of the recommendations or requests for help regarded people who had been her equals, aristocrats or intellectuals fallen on hard times and who were now in search for a dignified 52 53 54 55 Letter from Dal Pozzo, May 30, Piozzi, with Remarks.
By a Friend London: Edward Moxon, The desire for the certainty of a fixed income was a potent consideration which induced many refugees to seek a professorship of Italian in the too few universities of the British Islands. Many, however, ended up giving private language lessons, which was considered a humiliating job. Giuseppe Pecchio, a former friend and well-known economist, was one of those who approached the Morgans for help. He had established Lancastrian schools and held views inspired by sociology regarding the arts, and literature in particular, which, both believed, could prosper only where individual liberties were assured by economic progress supported by government action.
The controversy will not be finished so soon; my rightful heirs have to contend with a rock, a man of stone. I must therefore seek shelter for two or three years. Having heard that Trinity College, Dublin, had an opening for a chair in Italian and Spanish, Count Pecchio approached the Morgans through several letters full of qualms asking for their advice and help about whether he should apply or not without exposing himself to the risk of a refusal or having to compete in examinations or by presenting letters of recommendation.
The letters are a pathetic example of the predicament in which these former lions of Milanese society found themselves now, torn between need and pride. It is a position that would perfectly suit one of our friends whom I cannot name right now who gathers in himself moral standards etc. Thus I would not want to compete too closely with anyone; indeed I would not want to have to come myself to Dublin to pay my courtship to the Fellows because this would expose me to open attacks or to gossip on the part of the other contestants, as has already happened in the Dublin papers between two competitors.
Only in the case of a very probable success, of an easy victory, veni vidi vici, would I come to Dublin one week before the appointment. Pecchio was one of the finest intellectuals of the age, the author of Storia della economia pubblica in Italia, the first history of Italian economic thought, which is still considered a classic of its genre and had made him famous. Please be so kind as to compensate for my modesty. In short, you understand from the way I look after my self-esteem that I would like them to assign me the chair without my having to beg for it with visits and bows. Finally on the basis of reassurance that the conditions were right, Pecchio applied for the job, providing letters of recommendation from Lord Holland, Lady Kinnaird and many others.
After so much ado, Pecchio, however, found himself in a quandary: his friend Evasio Radice, who had been in Spain with him and had been condemned to death by Carlo Felice, had also applied for the same post. He therefore asked the Morgans to withdraw their support from him and concentrate all their efforts to help Radice: 60 61 Ibid.
Women and Italy
Letter from Radice, September 29, Letter from Ravina, September Letter from Pecchio, September 30, Andrea Calbo, the Greek-Italian poet who had initially accompanied Foscolo in his British exile as his secretary, distinguishes himself from the rest because he approaches her from Geneva where he had taken refuge after leaving Foscolo and London not about a work of his own but about his plan to translate her Italy into Italian.
His gesture is a homage to her work and an 66 67 68 69 Letter from Dal Pozzo, May 10, Anonymous letter signed Alfieri, September 25, Letter from Anna Babington, March 29, Lady Morgan, an Ambassador of Goodwill to Italian Exiles act of faith in its possibilities, especially that of awakening the conscience of the oppressed. Che bisogna indicargli a uno a uno i pugnali che lo lacerano continuamente, infamemente?
Is it not true, milady, that that people has many deep wounds? That the only medicine that would be appropriate in the present circumstances is one that can cure it from superstition, gossip, hindering dissent, sloth and ignorance? Is it not true that it must be reminded of its ancient glory? That it must be shown singularly all the daggers that rip it apart continuously, disgracefully?
Il lavoro dello stile, non mi affaticherebbe tanto quanto quello delle Idee. The exercise of style would not tire me so much as the search for ideas. In spite of his enthusiasm and of the 70 71 72 Letter from Andrea Calbo, February 9, Il Governo non esigerebbe che il nome dello stampatore e quello del traduttore. Here in Geneva the press is free. The government would only need the name of the printer and the translator.
As for circulation in Italy, I shall not conceal that there may be obstacles, but booksellers know better than we do what means to employ in such circumstances. The actual system of proscription has already foreclosed all possibilities of entrance for me. In the middle of the apparently idyllic relationship between Lady Morgan and the Italian refugees, there occurred however, a little drama. The Dublin Star of February , published a very harsh piece of criticism of her Life and Times of Salvator Rosa, accompanied by an approving letter whose author was alleged to be Ugo Foscolo.
Many of her Italian friends wrote trying to appease her. The article continued also on the 23rd and 25th of February. My dear Milady Morgan, how could you even conceive of such an idea. Only allow me to reproach you for having doubted me. You have written such strong and politically true things in Salvator not only about foreign despotism but even about internal despotism, regarding your Ireland, that I am not surprised if they try to harass you. But you are a front-line soldier and you must suffer. Foscolo also wrote to her rather dryly declaring this was a despicable imposture intended to harm him rather than her.
Letter from Porro, May 24, Letter from Pecchio, March 4, It was only when it was revealed that one of the experts had been dead ten years, and another insisted on having a disclaimer published in the paper that the affair was revealed to be an elaborate hoax. In consequence of all the journalistic frauds committed in the Star and other papers, the Secretary of State brought an Act making similar offences a misdemeanor punishable by fine or imprisonment. This stupid controversy well illustrates the difficult position of exiles, torn on the one hand by internal strife, and on the other turned into pawns in the hands of their hosts.
The presence of a highly qualified and politicized group of people in the country, plotting against allied countries and in favour of suspect causes, was considered a threat, then as in our times, to the stability of the government and every opportunity to diminish their prestige was pounced upon.
As for Lady Morgan, she played her part to the hilt enjoying the compliments she received and the power she could yield, the intrigues and the scandals, but also caring sincerely for the fate of those who had been her friends or those who shared her ideals.
Although most of her correspondents were privileged people, we get glimpses through their letters of how precarious the life of an exile always is. Lady Morgan, as mentioned earlier, also felt somehow estranged from the Ascendancy prevailing in Ireland and had a quarrel at least from her youth to the s with the actions of British authority at home and abroad. Branca, Vittor, ed. Morgan, Italy, I, p. Confalonieri, Federico, Carteggio, ed. Garosci, Aldo, Antonio Gallenga: vita avventurosa di un emigrato dell' Ottocento Torino: Centro studi piemontesi, Torino: Einaudi, Hearder, Harry and D.
Morgan, Lady [Sydney Owenson] Italy, 2 vols. London: Colburn, Letter to Cardinal Wiseman London: Westerton, Memoirs: Autobiography, Diaries and Correspondence, 2 vols, ed. Suleiman, Susan Rubin, ed. Browning wrote to Mrs. Jameson from Bagni di Lucca. This I regretted for of course the conversation became more general and less interesting to me than if I had been alone with Mr and Mrs Browning. Lewis, and E. The Letters of Elizabeth Barrett Browning, ed. Kenyon, I, p. Lewis, I, p.
Letters of Charles Eliot Norton, ed. Left as an orphan when he was a child, he grew up under the tender guardianship of Sir James Montgomery, 2nd Baronet of Stanhope, whose name he had borne since his birth. After taking his degree in Germany, he spent two years in France studying foreign literatures at university. His poor health, however, compelled him to swell the ranks of those pilgrims who went to Italy in the hope that the sun, the warm breezes and the blue skies would heal their constitutions.
Archivio storico Vieusseux, Libro dei soci 3. Maria Gherardini Castelnuovo Val di Cecina, ? Mary Cunliffe, Notes by the way, p. She died of diphtheria in the epidemic that affected the Stuarts while they were staying at Mandoleto, in the countryside near Perugia. In a few days James Montgomery Stuart lost the eldest of his daughters, his son-in-law and his little grandchild. Rose Euphemia Stuart Florence, — Leghorn, She died unmarried. James Montgomery Stuart: A Scotsman in Florence a Presbyterian, Stuart let all his children be baptized into the Catholic Church, thus perhaps causing a breach with his family in Scotland.
The upper stories were devoted to […] all the staff of an extensive publishing business. Trinita, is excellent, but the subscription of about 10s. The collection of journals and newspapers of every country is very extensive and well chosen. Swept by a liberal wind, it was the forum where Italian intellectuals were engaged in that political cultural debate that made the Risorgimento possible. The book of members records both their subscriptions. Archivio storico Vieusseux, Libro dei soci 4.
He returned there in , in a private capacity. He died in I suppose one rarely meets with such an occasion of inclining a curious eye upon these darknesses. Hallam, if you will please to commend it to him. Deo Gratias. I have been bored to death about them. New Letters of Robert Browning, ed. Knockerbocker New Haven, CT, , pp. The Journal of Thomas B. Macaulay, 8, Saturday, 8 April The son of the powerful banker Emanuele Fenzi, Sebastiano was the black sheep of the family.
A rebel, a dreamer, he spent his life conceiving grand plans which constantly collapsed leaving him heavily in debt.
QFIAB 85 (2005)
He came back with an English wife and a new plan: the Rivista britannica. And that was all. The publication of the poem was triumphantly announced in the 25 26 27 28 29 Montgomery Stuart, p. On 29 December he had been unofficially employed by Peter Campbell Scarlett, the British Minister at the court of the Grand Duke, in the Legation as a translator, clerk and secretary. Sebastiano Fenzi next day that I could no longer carry on the Rivista britannica, which I in consequence abandoned making, I may be allowed to say, a very considerable pecuniary sacrifice, and relinquishing an employment, most congenial to my tastes.
Stuart explained his financial troubles were due to unsound investments in the first Tuscan railway, the Leopolda, connecting Florence to Leghorn: In I was sucked in with thousands of others into the Railway Maelstrom, and though in all the changes of fortune thus occasioned I have not lost a single friend. I certainly gained a good many creditors.
At the beginning of last year, I had Francesconi of debts in Florence which, by making immense sacrifices, I have now reduced to That too will be paid off, as surely as the rest, with time; but I am not in the condition to do so tomorrow, or this day week, or indeed, before the necessary arrangements are completed, and the requisite time accorded. James Montgomery Stuart: A Scotsman in Florence January offered Montgomery Stuart the opportunity to earn a commission mediating once again between the British Museum and an Italian nobleman eager to convert old mouldy papers into ready money.
Stuart in April and another 50 in May. Tired of his promises, at the end of May, Jean Pierre Vieusseux wrote to the Scotsman offering him a job for the Archivio storico, his monthly historical journal, to pay part of his debt: 36 37 38 39 40 41 The British Library Archives, Correspondence of Sir A. Panizzi, Brit. Montgomery Stuart, p. Ella promette e ripromette, e poi mi volta le spalle!! Domando a Lei come io debbo qualificare il di Lei contegno?
To be very restrained, I shall call it hardly polite. I am not badgering you in order to be paid the lire you still owe my Reading Rooms- far from it; I am offering to settle part of that debt by doing a simple bibliographical index for my Archivio, which would be very easy for you. You say you will again and again, and then you give me the cold shoulder. SB] Feeling besieged, on June 1,43 the Stuarts moved to London perhaps to seek shelter under the wing of Algernon Borthwick, the editor of The Morning Post, the paper James contributed to as their Italian correspondent.
The family, however, was large and the need for money great. Once again the Brownings took the Stuarts to their hearts and Robert recommended James to his publisher, Edward Chapman: Will you do me and my wife a great favour? An old friend of ours, Mr. James Montgomery Stuart has just gone to London. He is very able, very learned, — and variously learned too, — with as many ready accomplishments as if he were not learned.
I should think him fit for any amount of popular magazine-work, reviews, etc. Now for your concern in all this: surely you will get him any work you can, will not you? Help him to any Review or Magazine? He has letters to Editors sundry but I know nothing of Editors, and trust rather in you. Archivio di Stato Firenze, Segreteria e Ministero degli esteri, Registri dei passaporti vidimati, De Vane and Knickerbocker, p.
Delivering his first lecture on 6 July , he stated that English literature had been subject to three foreign influences- the Italian, the French and the German, ingeniously remarking that the influence of the Italians had been both imaginative and practical, that of the French practical but not imaginative, that of the Germans imaginative but not practical.
Macaulay and, in his lecture, he suggested that the British national collection would have benefited by acquiring an extensive series of copies. Enclosed in the letter there was the pamphlet Austria e Toscana by Marquis Cosimo Ridolfi and other Florentine liberals, whose publication had made a stir in Tuscany and had caused the reintroduction of preventive censorship on political writings. British Library, Manuscripts Catalogue, 25,, Archivio di Stato Firenze, Mediceo del Principato, Biblioteca nazionale Firenze, Vieuss.
A pleasant addition he must be to a Florentine tea-party! Projects were often financed with British money, and Montgomery Stuart had benefited thanks to his renewed partnership with Sebastiano Fenzi. Setting his literary ambitions aside, Sebastiano had resigned himself to becoming a business man. Florence Land and Public Works Limited bought out from the Creswell Society the rights to build houses on the right bank of the Arno and, thanks to the favours granted by Ubaldino Peruzzi, the chairman of the Florentine Province, and by the Mayor, Luigi Guglielmo De Cambray Digny, it managed to win several municipal contracts.
The 52 53 54 55 Ibid. The Morning Post, Monday, April 4, Dearest Isa. Andrea Giuntini, Soltanto per denaro Firenze: Polistampa, , p. James Montgomery Stuart: A Scotsman in Florence company went bankrupt in owing to some poor business done in Rome. An Italian reporter remembers him, as a correspondent of The Morning Post and The Manchester Guardian, sitting in the press gallery in the Salone dei Cinquecento in Palazzo Vecchio where the parliamentary sessions took place.
He needed the assistance of his son Robert60, and the two of them often worked together on the same project. It would not, I trust, be too great a presumption, if, in the event of your having one disposable, I asked it for my son. Ugo Pesci, Firenze capitale Firenze: Bemporad, , p. Cunliffe, p. Robert Pietro Stuart Florence, — Perugia, , journalist, novelist and translator. Among his novels were Il marchese del cigno and La marchesa di Santa Pia He translated Lothair by Benjamin Disraeli into Italian.
A staunch conservative, he often wrote about political matters. He contributed to the Gazzetta del popolo in autumn and, from December to October , he edited Il Conservatore, both being daily newspapers printed in Rome. He died unmarried on 29 February after a long illness. But it would be throwing away a ticket to give one to me, who am three quarter blind if your kindness could far more profitably secure it for my son, who has eyes keen enough to see every thing, and could and would turn his observations to account for both the English and the Italian press.
If you could do this you would confer on me a very great favour, and on my son an obligation which I am sure he would never forget. Very truly yours J.
A fervent liberal and a staunch supporter of laissez-faire, Montgomery Stuart had found fertile soil for his views in Florence. He was on friendly terms with all the moderates who, when struggling to obtain unity, had looked to England as a model for constitutional rights and, when promoting the economic growth of the new kingdom, considered her as an example for putting aside the restrictions of protectionism.
Probyn wrote in his short preface. The Scotsman, 28 January , p. They had two children: Adriano ? There he died on 21 January ending his Italian life as he had started it — with a lecture. Tired, ill and almost blind, his last act was a lecture on the career of Mr. First, because he was an important mediator between the English and the Italian cultural scene.
If in Italy he lectured on the Shakespearean drama, in London he delivered papers on the diplomatic correspondence of the Tuscan Envoys. But his greatest significance, however, was to interpret the Risorgimento to the British public: in his editorials, he commented with passion, knowledge and power about the Italian struggle for independence.
His role was to be a supporting player behind the scenes, but never to take centre stage himself. The Scotsman, p. The Scotsman, 29 January , p. De Vane, William C. Knockerbocker, eds. Fenzi, Sebastiano, and J. Montgomery Stuart, eds. Italiana, Giuntini, Andrea, Soltanto per denaro Firenze: Polistampa, Kelley, Philip, and others, eds. Kenyon, Frederic G. Lewis, Scott, ed. McAleer, Edward C. Norton, Sarah, and M. DeWolfe Howe, eds.
Pesci, Ugo, Firenze capitale Firenze: Bemporad, He eventually sought the help of some British sailors and his rescue was in the manner of high opera for which he could possibly have written a libretto. Lady Dora Moore, who had come into contact with Rossetti, was quite taken with his poems and his noble aspect at the time when he was curator of the Naples Museum, persuaded her husband Admiral Graham Moore, commander of His Majesty ship the Rochfort, to rescue this cultured poet from probable death by hanging. The Maltese professional classes, who at the time spoke Italian and who were au courant with Arcadian Italian literature, were 1 G.
Rossetti, Carteggi, ed. Caprio, P. Horn, S. Minichini, and J. Woodhouse, 5 vols Naples: Loffredo , II , pp.
See also J. Apart from his brief chequered diplomatic career Frere was a Cambridge classical scholar Fellow of Caius College. He was a main contributor to the Tory magazine The Anti-Jacobin, on which he collaborated closely with his Etonian friend George Canning. It was Canning as Foreign Secretary who had later recommended his friend to the post of Ambassador plenipotentiary in Madrid.
The Monks and the Giants, as is known, influenced Byron in his new satirical ottava rima style in Beppo and the first two cantos of Don Juan. Bianchi and P. Serracino Inglott, eds. John Hookham Frere, Gabriele Rossetti, and Anglo-Italian Cooperation in Exile decided to retire to the island of Malta — which was a British Colony and which was known to have a warm climate and which, conveniently, used sterling as its currency.
Frere and his wife arrived in Malta in as voluntary exiles a few months before Rossetti. They lived for a while in Casa Correa, a spacious house in Bakery Street, Valletta, before moving to a splendid villa with a large garden in Pieta overlooking the quarantine harbour of Marsamuxetto. Frere himself was a high ranking member of the Freemasons lodge and felt obliged to help freemasons who sought his aid. Bianca Fiorentini, in her account of the Italian exiles in Malta, argues that many of the Italian exiles sought the help of British freemasons in their attempt to seek safety in England.
Members of the audience were invited to write down a theme on a paper which was deposited in an urn and passed round. The host picked a paper from the urn and read out the theme on which Gabriele instantly declaimed extempore verses with the art of an accomplished improvisatore. Press, , p. Paolo che naufraga in Malta e se ne dichiara il protettore. Canto estemporaneo.
Frere encouraged Rossetti in this literary study because he felt it would enable him later on to find employment as a translator of Italian poetry or indeed prose in London. Through his friends Frere found modest lodgings for Rossetti in Valletta. Frere also wrote to an acquaintance of his at the British Embassy in Naples, a certain Mr Hamilton, asking him to intercede for Rossetti with the Court of Naples in order to include his name on the list of those who were about to be granted an amnesty.
Festing, p. Lines resonating with revolutionary sentiments and which distinctly refer to two political assassinations — that of the Russian emissary Kotzebue by Sandt and the murder of the Duc de Berri who was designated as future king of France by the fanatic Louvel. But then, as Frere reflects ruefully, poets never made fine diplomats.
It would have been more tactful if he had chosen to mention revolutionaries of old, republicans like Brutus or Scaevola as Alfieri had done in his plays. In another paragraph he reminds Rossetti that Kotzebue was a poet like himself, who had to make a living out of politics and jokingly surmises that another Sandt who knows? One particular informer, a certain Girardi, was assiduous in entreating the Maltese authorities to send Rossetti back to Naples. Rossetti was also aware of the fact that Ferdinand sent couriers over to the Governor of the island to remind him of former British Collaboration with the Bourbons in Naples.
During the earlier Neapolitan revolt Nelson had in fact helped evacuate King Ferdinand and his entourage by offering them a safe passage to Palermo on the Vanguard. He had dealt very harshly with Admiral Caracciolo, who had joined the rebels. Other letters were addressed to the publisher John Murray, who might help with the publishing of the Commentario on the Divina Commedia; to Henry Francis Cary, renowned translator of Dante; to S.
Coleridge and to Lord Holland, who was known to be kindly disposed towards Italian political refugees. Admiral Moore himself introduced Rossetti to the poet Campbell a fellow Scotsman. In London Rossetti continued his work on the treatise Sullo spirito antipapale, which he eventually published, copies of which he sent to Frere for distribution in Malta. Frere, however, realizing the strong anti-Catholic sentiments expressed there, prudently declined to pass the copies on to his friends saying that he was on his honour not to involve himself in religious matters on the island which was fervently Catholic.
The Works of the Rt Hon. R Vincent in Gabriele Rossetti in England, p. In his retrospective La Vita Mia he refers to him affectionately: Giovanni Huccam Frere , uomo dotto e saggio Privato consiglier della Corona Cortesia generosa e senza boria Dottrina immensa e pur maggior modestia 16 Tr. Bibliography Bianchi, P. I did not think that this would work, my best friend showed me this website, and it does! I get my most wanted eBook. My friends are so mad that they do not know how I have all the high quality ebook which they do not! Just select your click then download button, and complete an offer to start downloading the ebook.
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