Sketches from a Celestial Sea - The 1141 to Penn Station

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She began to fulfill her artistic promise early; at the age of ten she completed an oil painting of her mother, then entered and won a national painting contest. She married Don Dubowski, another artist. She continued painting while raising a family of three boys and even mixed colors for her husband, who was working for Hallmark at the time. Since that time, Emily's work has come to greater attention. Although a very successful illustrator for many years, in , Dudash began to focus on creating and selling his oil paintings, along with doing commissioned portraiture.

Since that time, the artist has had several one-man shows and participated in several group shows. He has produced over 1, illustrations for books, magazines, art publishers, advertising agencies, design firms, film companies, and corporations. Throughout these years of his career, he won numerous awards and is listed in "Illustrators in America.

His original paintings hang in many prominent private and corporate collections. As an accomplished artist, he has written and published articles for several art industry publications, conducted oil painting and illustration workshops and has been a guest lecturer at several colleges, universities, and industry organizations.

With no canvases to be had at the time, the budding artist used cardboard. Her earliest inspiration came from visits with an aunt who painted. As a student of the late, great Western landscape painter, Bob Wygant, Dudley so admires his style and considers him to be the major influence in her love of painting the Western way of life. Duerrstein worked alongside many of the foremost animation artists of the 20th Century, including Ward Kimball, Marc Davis and incidentally, with Chuck Jones at Warner Bros.

For the next 22 years, Dick used his talent to develop his unique style. His artwork has adorned everything from record album covers and clothing to fine collectible items such as cel portfolios, art glass and furniture. Some of his published works include a series of three children's books and a fine art serigraph series of Mickey Mouse, Minnie Mouse and Donald Duck.

His caricatures and cartoon, as well as his detailed portraits, found their subjects in the sports, entertainment and political scenes. On television, he is remembered as "Doodles Dugan. He has been honored as one of the outstanding people of the 20th Century by the International Biographical Institute and also received a Twentieth Century Achievement Award from the American Biographical Institute, along with receiving numerous other awards for his artwork.

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He spent summers as a boy on his grandparents' ranch in Wyoming where his grandmother gave him his first set of oil paints. It was there that he grew to love the country, the open spaces, and the rural lifestyle. He studied at the University of Utah and worked as a commercial artist before his full-time dedication to the fine art of the American West.

Robert was elected into the Cowboy Artists of America at a young age and won two silver medals in their annual exhibition at the Phoenix Art Museum. His deep personal belief in Christianity is the driving force, which guides his life and work. In his paintings, Dyke captures not only the physical beauty of the great outdoors but also the spiritual sense of perfection he views as the handiwork of God's creation.

Dyke's career has been an unqualified success. His work has also hung in the Vatican. An idea for a painting comes when I see something that can be used to create strong composition. This is often the repetitive pattern of a plant or a man-made object like a quilt. It may be a pattern created simply by the soft interplay of sunlight and shadows.

The wildlife in my work is sometimes inconspicuous, but still an essential part of the composition. He received a bachelor's degree in design from the University of Cincinnati and a master's degree in design from Yale University. He began his professional career as a self-employed graphic designer and continues to operate that business today. He was recently inducted into the Society of Animal Artists. He also enjoys a successful career as a fine artist with one-man shows of his paintings in London, New York and San Francisco.

He sought to capture the drama and emotions of many different scenes. Today, his work is represented in both public and private collections worldwide. Born in Great Britain, Peter lived in California for many years. As a fine artist, his paintings and prints of powerful panoramic landscapes express both the magnitude and the delicacy of nature. He called his method of painting "impressionistic shorthand," referring to his use of broad brushstrokes to give the impression of detail. Peter died in She exclusively paints outdoor scenes and paints nothing she has not experienced.

She was also a professionally trained commercial artist and illustrator, working nine years as art director for a national advertising firm. Nita feels that she trained herself, however, to paint in watercolors - simply by doing, experimenting and often by breaking the rules. Her years of experimentation have led her to mixing her own distinctive blend of colors and to finding unusual but useful tools, such as water filled spray bottles.

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She is an award-winning, long-time member of the American Watercolor Society. Millions of people have seen her artwork on the covers of such well known magazines as Reader's Digest. Nita's limited edition prints have been published by Mill Pond Press since Art magazine. LOREN ENTZ The fate of a nation is decided by thousands of little decisions made daily by its people; a daughter helping a mother with her chores, a kindness extended by a neighbor, a man tilling the earth.

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  7. These, and more, are the subject matter for Loren Entz. The first hint that art would be Entz's life's work came with his attending Frederic Remington High School, situated on the ranch that famous artist once owned. There Entz was known as "the school artist. Her passion for painting, and a move to Florida in , stirred the desire to pursue art as a career.

    Finally, she realized a long held dream, and in , Mary began painting professionally. Preferring to work on location en plein air in the tradition of painters since the French Impressionists of the 's, Mary seeks new opportunities to capture moments in time and place on canvas. He initially pursued a career in commercial art and graphic design. Moving to Colorado, he was energized by the mountains and the changing seasons.

    With a natural understanding of anatomy and an instinct for color, Fanning can make a scene come alive.

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    All in the genres of fashion, beauty, and life style. His painterly, impressionistic style captures the essence of composition in every genre, including nudes, still life, landscapes and architecture. His ten photo art books have sold over half a million copies. He is a self-taught artist whose work is devoted to the celebration of personalities and events in the world of sports. His pastels have appeared in his native Ohio and throughout the country.

    He has done work for the Professional Bowlers Association. In Mario found new freedom in the United States of America and started to develop his successful career. Fernandez has published close to limited editions of his paintings, sculptures and collectible works of art. Although his best know work is in realistic images of nature, Mario's mastery continues to experiment with other subjects and techniques. The realistic, surrealistic, and nature art forms developed by Fernandez have achieved international prominence.

    For Keith Ferris, it was an allergic condition which kept him from becoming a pilot for the Air Force. But Keith didn't let that stop him from making his love of aviation his life. Instead, he channeled his energy and enthusiasm into becoming an aviation lecturer, historian, model-builder, inventor and artist known for scrupulous accuracy of aircraft and events. It also didn't keep him from flying all over the world in almost every type of jet aircraft possible.

    The son of an Air Force office, Keith grew up on military bases in the U. Since then, he has painted for almost every major defense contractor in America and completed a variety of commissions for the U. Government, both practical and creative. He holds the patents for five air combat camouflage paint schemes and painted two twenty-five by seventy-five-foot murals for the Smithsonian Institution's National Air and Space Museum in Washington, D. He is a life member of the Society of Illustrators and the Order of Daedalians, the national fraternity of military pilots.

    He began oil painting at nine. A handful of Sword and Sorcery magazine covers came his way and eventually turned into a full time job. After a decade as a fine artist, Fred now works days as a concept artist for a video game developer. When time permits, he rolls into the studio to paint. He is no stranger to struggles and adversity. At the tender age of two, he along with his family fled the communist ruled country of Cuba for a life of freedom and opportunity in the United States. Here Robert learned the value of hard work and discipline and realized his potential to pursue his passion for art.

    This passion, Finale explains, began very early in life. As a young boy of five, Robert Finale was seldom without a pencil and sketchpad in hand, sketching everything from movie scenes to family vacation destinations. Robert's love for brushing oil onto canvas came much later, when his early childhood sketch were brought to life in a special gift to his wife.

    From humble beginnings, today his paintings grace several Galleries all over the world. Considered one of today's leading inspirational artists, Fincher's paintings of children, landscapes, still lifes and more can be found in lithographs, books, calendars, sculpture lines, greeting cards, inspirational giftware, journals, music boxes and other products. She combines a discipline of classical art training with the freedom of impressionism to create a unique pastel painting style of "romantic realism. Although she majored in English at the University of Michigan, her passion for literature and raw love of art led her to develop a narrative painting style.

    Much of it has reflected coastal New England life with an emphasis on the marine. Now, in midlife, she is returning more to landscape out of love for the beauty of the world around her. Her paintings are included in collections around the world, from the Smithsonian to Tokyo. It was in high school that his art first earned him accolades. With the persistence of his high school art teacher, he enrolled at the Art Institute of Pittsburg.

    Less than a year later, he started working as a professional artist, drawing portraits, caricatures and illustrations. In , Stephen began expanding his artistic education by studying traditional drawing and painting under Jeff Watts at the Watts Atelier of the Arts in Southern California. Leyendecker, Stephen has created a style all his own. Second, Stephen is excited to become an official artist of Disney Fine Art, an honor that will allow him to paint Disney characters and bring his artwork to leagues of Disney fans around the world.

    Growing up in a small village in the heart of the English countryside, she soon developed a love and fascination for wildlife and nature. Encouraged by two artistically-talented parents, her passion to paint and study wildlife evolved into a lifelong career. Self-taught, she paints primarily with acrylic, gouache and oil. She works in a natural, detailed style, striving to portray not only realism, but to capture the mood and personality of her subjects. North American predatory animals play an important role in many of her paintings. She confesses to a preoccupation with the predators as she finds them quite intriguing, partly because they are so elusive.

    Her work shows not only the powerful and intense nature of these animals, but also the gentle, nurturing and softer sides of their personality. To obtain reference for her work, she has traveled to Europe, East Africa and throughout much of North America, including extended canoe trips into the wilderness, where she observes and photographs wildlife to study their natural habitats.

    Paintings from her canoe trips have been exhibited at the the Smithsonian Institution. Throughout the s and s, he fished the Adirondacks, New England, Long Island Sound, Chesapeake Bay, Virginia and the woodland lakes of Quebec, while pursuing two other loves: music as lead singer in a garage rock band and art. He took formal watercolor classes in the s; figure drawing and graphic design classes from to and then studied art at Evergreen State College in Washington State.

    He performed in the East Village with several bands, and wrote and sang lead in The Crazy Pages for almost twenty years. As he branched out to many of the brook trout places where he had previously fished in parts of the Adirondacks and Vermont, the effects of over twenty years of pollution, over-development and acid rain became painfully apparent. I just want to catch and paint these fish, and show how they appear to me in all their iridescent beauty.

    After landing a fish, he quickly gets a digital photo before the colors fade, carefully measures it in all dimensions, sketches details, counts scales, fin rays and finally traces it to get its actual outline. He has developed a technique of successive washes utilizing masking friskets and painstakingly detailed dry brush that make these fish truly come to life on paper. She earned best of show honors at both the Gateway to the Rockies Show and the St. Peter's Foundation at the Capitol. Over the years, she continued to deepen and perfect her technique.

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    As a mother of three and a farmer in dairy production with her husband, painting was once just an occasional pastime. But within the last 15 years, with her children grown, she can paint and garden daily. Her passion for flowers roses in particular cannot be separated from her art as one inspires the other, and she can constantly celebrate the beauty of nature. He began drawing at five and taught himself to paint when he was fifteen.

    His self-instructed talent earned him a scholarship to Philadelphia's Museum School of Art, where he graduated with honors. In , he began a professional career as a freelance illustrator in New York City. Eventually, he became one of the nation's most sought-after illustrators of wildlife.

    Perhaps the greatest honor of his career came in October , when he was recognized with a one-man exhibit of thirty-six of his paintings at the National Museum of Natural History of the Smithsonian Institution. These early forays into nature instilled a kinship with the wildlife and a passion for the outdoors. As a child he spent hours scribbling, sketching and sculpting wildlife.

    Every year, he travels through Alaska, Canada and the American West painting and photographing animals in their environment. His love of fly fishing and hunting is apparent in his work. Frazier's work has been included in the book Leading the West, which profiles of the best living painters and sculptors working today. He received the Founders Favorite Award at the Art for the Parks competition in and the Wildlife Art Award in , , and , and has been recognized on the National Parks stamp.

    If seen on his constant excursions into the wilds, many a collector would tell of an eccentric pirate come to life, only this swashbuckling, seemingly fearless explorer was more anxious to gain and share the treasure of knowledge rather than riches. Rod attended Willamette University with a major in art and a minor in biology.

    He knows the lakes and mountains as well as he knows the plains and deserts, not to mention almost all the creatures who live there, from the smallest bird to the largest elephant. And he will paint them on whatever size canvas suits them best. A graduate of Kendall College of Art and Design, Chaney Fritz worked for many years as a freelance illustrator, honing skills in drawing.

    With a number of interests and talents, her interest in aviation prevailed and led her to develop a genre of art, uniquely her own, depicting innovative transformations between winged creatures and aircraft. The resulting images led to Jody becoming one of the most collected artists in North America.

    Along the way, she has maintained her extraordinary fine art skills. An early starter, Michael Garmash began painting at age three. By six, he started his formal education at the Lugansk Youth Creative Center. Recognizing rare, natural talent, his teachers sent his works to a variety of exhibitions in the then Soviet Union. An award-winning artist from the onset, Michael received first prizes at several juried exhibitions, including the Lugansk Regional Juried Exhibition , the Czechoslovakian International Youth Competition and the Hungarian International Art Competition of Circus Related Art After graduating valedictorian from the Lugansk State Fine Art College in , he began teaching there.

    From to , he served in the army when he met his wife and partner, Inessa and in began studying at the St. Petersburg Academy of Art. Prior to graduating at the top of his prestigious school's class, he exhibited in several prestigious French galleries. He later took part in annual exhibitions in St. In addition to painting, he excelled in the creation of stained-glass windows and received an honorary medal for his work in the Suvorov Military Museum in St. Garmash, born Inessa Kitaichik in Lipetsk, Russia, had excelled in the arts since early childhood. Proving herself in ballet, gymnastics and music, she attended classes in all three disciplines and, after graduating from music and ballet school, entered the Lugansk Fine Art School at age fifteen.

    At seventeen she was accepted as that year's best undergraduate to the Lugansk State Fine Art School. After marriage to Michael, her interest in painting intensified and now Inessa and Michael are considered two of the finest Romantic Impressionists of our day. During his career he has worked for a wide variety of corporate, advertising and publishing clients.

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    Corbert considers himself very fortunate to be able to make a living doing what he loves. I hope we never lose an appreciation for hand-done drawing and painting. He took art classes in high school, along with being an All-State quarterback, and accepted a football scholarship to the University of Texas where he played wide receiver and majored in art.

    He credits his training as an athlete with teaching him to value courage, tenacity, and the importance of character in pursuit of life as well as an artistic career. After college, Gennusa worked as an artist for an Austin printing company, then as a staff artist for the Texas Parks and Wildlife Department. His talent was quickly recognized, and he was eventually promoted to art department supervisor. Although he enjoyed his job at the department, the day-to-day administrative work took its toll, and he left to paint exclusively for an Austin art gallery. This decision was a turning point in Gennusa's career.

    Gallery work allowed Gennusa to develop his art. During this time, he became involved with the Gulf Coast Conservation Association, Ducks Unlimited, and other similar groups. The artist now has a thriving career painting the great outdoors and its endless sporting images; his many commissions to paint animals or the Western landscape are sought by people throughout the United States. He is especially well known for his longhorn paintings, some of which have been special commissions for the University of Texas, and his horse images.

    Wild turkeys are also one of his favorite subjects. Born and raised in New Hampshire, she earned a degree in earth science before moving to Angoon to teach school. In this remote village, she met and married Gabriel George, a fish biologist and sport fishing guide. She was introduced into Tlingit culture through her marriage and subsequent life in Angoon, interpreting this knowledge through her artwork. Her original colored-ink drawings, paintings, collages, etchings and reproductions depict the richness of Tlingit life and legend, as well as views of southeast Alaska and its abundant wildlife.

    As a professional artist, JoAnn has received recognition and awards, including an award for excellence from the National Parks and Monuments Association for illustrations in "Carved History. She has completed numerous commissions for clients throughout North America and Europe. I believe that this simplicity and strength is the key to fine art.

    Light, color, value, composition and line are paramount in importance. Gilleon was born in and raised in Florida by his grandparents in the tiny outpost of Starke, near Jacksonville and the storied banks of the Suwannee River. His grandfather had immigrated to the United States from Scotland and became a renowned cabinetmaker. His grandmother was a full-blooded Cherokee. Gilleon earned a scholarship to play baseball at the University of Florida where he took courses in architecture.

    Eventually, he went solo as a freelance illustrator based in Orlando and was hired by The Walt Disney Corporation to deliver conceptual sketches and designs for its Disney World theme park. Trained at the School of Visual Arts in New York, he began his career at the age of 19 as a packaging and product illustrator for Avon and Kimberly-Clark. An avid fly-fisherman, he is inspired by the waters of Long Island Sound.

    Gladish was born in and lives in Indiana. She attended the Art Institute of Chicago. Portraits have always been one of her favorites and she works from photographs to do commissions for Gallery One clients. Her prints are published and distributed world-wide by Somerset House. Take one part animated olives. Gently swirl with a jigger of sudsy strawberries. Garnish with tipsy grapes. Add a liberal splash of humor. The waiting list for his original paintings is long and growing. Godard has dedicated himself to philanthropic causes, working closely with St. The world is small - you can truly make an impact on everyone you meet.

    A graduate of Ithaca College, he received a biology degree. Chapters were successively formed in different parts of the Province, each acting under the authority of a Master's Warrant. One of the most important of these was Washington Chapter in the City of New York, which, as it will hereafter appear, granted Warrants for the establishment of other Chapters. Andrew's Lodge number Moore, 3 "the degree was conferred in Boston in a "Royal Arch 1 Of the nine lodges engaged in in the organization of the Provincial Grand Lodge of New York, six were military lodges, attached to different regiments in the British Army.

    Lodge," which he "thinks" was attached to St. Andrew's Lodge Subsequent researches have removed all uncertainty on that point. There is no positive information as to the original source whence the ritual of the degree as it was practiced by the St. Andrew's Chapter was derived. Its introduction has been attributed to Moses Michael Hayes, who is said to have introduced it from France, under the authority of a patent dated December 6, This statement Bro.

    Moore declares to be not true, 1 and his close official connection for a long series of years with the Masonry of Massachusetts, certainly makes him a competent judge. But besides Hayes was one of the Inspectors appointed by Stephen Morin for the propagation of the Rite of Perfection which subsequently became the Ancient and Accepted Rite, and if the degree had been instituted by him, it would have assumed, which it did not, the form of Ramsay's Royal Arch, or the thirteenth degree of that Rite, as it did in Virginia, where Royal Arch Masonry was introduced by Myers, who was one of the collaborators of Hayes.

    But according to Moore, the degrees conferred by the St. Andrew's Chapter corresponded in number and name with the degrees which were then conferred in Scotland, and hence he asserts with great plausibility that the system was brought over from Scotland, perhaps at the same time that the Warrant for St. Andrew's Lodge was issued. The degree had no rapid growth in Massachusetts.

    In there were but two Chapters in the State. Andrew's at Boston, and King Cyrus's at Newburyport. The history of the introduction of Royal Arch Masonry into Rhode Island presents some interesting facts in reference to the degrees which were at that time conferred preparatory to the Royal Arch.

    John's Lodge number 1, in the city of Providence, met to consult upon the proper 1 "Freemasons' Monthly Magazine," vol. Though called in the official records a Dispensation, the words of the instrument show that it was really a Warrant of Constitution. Its date is September 3, The brethren proceeded under this Warrant to organize Providence Chapter number 2.

    This was done on November 23, , with the assistance of certain Royal Arch Masons who had been invited from Newport, and who were members of a Chapter. As we learn from the records of this Chapter, the essential officers were, a High Priest, King, Scribe, Royal Arch Captain, and Zerubbabel, the latter officer evidently being the one now known as Principal Sojourner. The fact that an inferior office was attributed to Zerubbabel instead of the more exalted station of King, as is now the case, shows that the ritual used in New York and in Rhode Island was different from the present one.

    Such a position for the "Prince of the Captivity" is more conformable to the ritual of the Sixteenth degree or Prince of Jerusalem, in the Rite of Perfection which afterward became the Scottish Rite, but altogether incompatible with the functions ascribed to him in the Royal Arch of the present day. This circumstance would indicate that there is some foundation for the hypothesis that in its early introduction into the American Colonies, Royal Arch Masonry was to a considerable extent affected by the rituals of the Hautes Grades or High Degrees, which were brought over from France in by Stephen Morin as the Agent of the "Deputies General of the Royal Art," for the purpose of "multiplying the sublime degrees of High Perfection.

    The Select degree was one of the honorary degrees conferred by the Inspectors - we have seen that Myers, one of Morin's Inspectors, organized the Royal Arch Masonry of Virginia according to the ritual of the Thirteenth degree - Moses Michael Hayes, who was also an Inspector of the new Rite, was at one time Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts, and as he was a very zealous Mason and a very energetic officer, it can scarcely be doubted that he exercised an influential connection with St.

    Andrew's Chapter, the first Chapter established in that State - and finally we have a significant fact stated in the records of the organization of the chapter at Providence, which shows the intimate relation which existed at that time between the Royal Arch Masons who founded the Chapter and certain possessors of the High Degrees imported into this country by the deputies and agents of Stephen Morin. When the Dispensation or Warrant had been issued by Washington Chapter for the holding of a Chapter at Providence, the brethren to whom it had been granted, feeling perhaps incompetents from their want of skill and experience to undertake unaided the task of organization, invited the assistance of the Royal Arch Masons who resided at Newport to give their assistance in the ceremony.

    The invitation having been accepted, the lodge met on Tuesday evening, October 29th. But "unavoidable necessity having prevented the attendance of the brethren from Newport, the brethren who had met, agreed to postpone any further meeting until they should arrive.

    The evidence of the connection of these Newport brethren with the "High Degrees" is to be found in the following extract from the record of the proceedings: "Our worthy and respectable Brethren from Newport, viz. John's Lodge number 1, in Newport, the W. Thomas W. Washington Chapter of R A. Masons of New York, etc. It should be " The number is 43, and the last, or 43d, is Sovereign Grand Inspector-General.

    The number is made up by adding to the thirty-three degrees of the Scottish Rite ten others, embracing the degrees of the American Rite and several Orders of Knighthood. In this enumeration the Knight of the Sun is made the 38th, and therefore I suppose that the number "28" prefixed to that degree in the extract above quoted is also an error. This enumeration of 43 degrees was never accepted nor used by the legitimate bodies of the Scottish Rite, but only by some spurious associations which then existed.

    Newport was the locality of one of these associations, and Moses Seixas was its chief. This does not, however, affect the truth of the statement that the possessors of the "High Degrees," whether legally or illegally obtained, sought, in the infancy of Royal Arch Masonry in this country, to take a part in its institution and in giving complexion to its ritual.

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    There is another record in these minutes of the proceedings of Providence Chapter which is of far greater importance, as it shows, officially, the number, names, and sequence of the degrees which in the year and for some time before were considered asessentially preliminary to the reception of the Royal Arch.

    Degree it would be necessary that the Brethren who were Candidates for the same should previously be initiated in Three Degrees which were between that of Master Mason and the R A. The Royal Arch degree he of course obtained at a still later date, and it is certain that in October, , he could not have been competent by skill or experience to invent a ritual, nor could he have had influence enough to establish it.

    All that can justly be ascribed to him is that in , and in the subsequent years in which he was engaged in teaching a ritual, he modified the degrees of the Chapter, as well as those of the lodge, so as to give them that permanent form which they have ever since retained. But though it appears very satisfactorily from this record that about the year the system of degrees given in a Royal Arch Chapter was well settled in the Northern States, at least in New York and in New England, yet in other parts of the United States and in Canada there remained for a long time, even to the early years of the 19th century, a great diversity in the names and number of the preparatory degrees.

    In Philadelphia, where Royal Arch Masonry made its first appearance, having been derived from England through a military lodge, warranted by the Ancient Masons, the system pursued by the Atholl Grand Lodge appears to have adopted, and the Royal Arch immediately followed the Master's degree. Such was the case in Royal Arch Lodge number 3, whose minutes, as far back as , have been preserved. In its minutes, so far as they have been published, we shall find no allusion to any preparatory steps. Indeed, the only reference to the degree in the earlier minutes is on December 3, , when the important admission is made that the initiation into the symbolic degrees of a candidate who had been Entered, Passed, and Raised by three Royal Arch Masons acting without a Warrant was lawful.

    It was, however, from the earliest period made the qualification of the Royal Arch degree that the candidate should have passed the chair either by election or by a dispensation from the Grand Master. We learn from the minutes of Jerusalem Chapter number 3 that in the Royal Arch as given in Pennsylvania differed so much from that conferred in Scotland that Bro. George Read, coming from the latter country, where he had been made a Royal Arch Mason, "not being able to make himself known in some of the most interesting points, he was in consequence of his certificate granted the privilege of a second initiation.

    Charles E. Meyer, when quoting this extract from the Minutes, in his History of Royal Arch Masonry and of Jerusalem Chapter number 3, as a proof that the rituals of Scotland and Pennsylvania were not alike, says: "It would be interesting to know what these points were that Bro. Read did not possess. I think it very probable that there was a difference in the rituals of the two countries at that time, as there is at the present day.

    But the proof of it from this record is not positive, since the question may very naturally arise, whether the difficulty in this case arose from the difference of ritual or from the ignorance or forgetfulness of the candidate, who had possibly not retained in full the lesson which he had been taught. In May, , we have the first record of the adoption of the Mark as a preparatory degree, though Bro.

    Myers thinks it was doubtless previously conferred as a side degree. The first record of the Most Excellent Master's degree in the minutes of Jerusalem Chapters is on November 5, , and from that time the three preparatory degrees have been conferred in Pennsylvania as they are in the other States. In Virginia, the Royal Arch was introduced as we have already seen by Myers, and was not the degree practiced either by the Ancient Masons of England or by the Chapters of this country.

    Dislocated from its proper place in the original Rite to which it belonged, it was made to follow the Third degree, without the interpolation of any preparatory step. Subsequently the Virginia Chapters introduced preliminary degrees, derived from other sources. In it conformed to the system which has been established by the General Grand Chapter. We have already seen that the names and ranks of the officers of Chapters in the 18th century differed from those now used.

    For instance, Zerubbabel, who now occupies one of the prominent places in our modern ritual, was formerly placed at the bottom of the list. See Wheeler's "Early Records. Chapters were, however, not organized as independent bodies, but the degree was, until some time after the beginning of the 19th century, conferred both in South Carolina and Georgia, and, I think, also in North Carolina, 1 in Chapters dependent on and deriving their authority from Master's Warrants.

    Many years ago, while investigating the history of Royal Arch Masonry in South Carolina, I was led to make the following statements, the correctness of which I have since had no reason to doubt. The long period which had elapsed since their withdrawal from the active pursuits of Freemasonry, and the imperfection of memory attendant on their extreme age, prevented them from furnishing me with all the particular information in reference to the ritual which I desired, but I learned enough from my frequent conversations with these Patriarchs of the Order all of whom must long since have succeeded to their heritage in the Celestial Lodge to enable me to state, positively, that in the upper counties of the State, at as late a period as the year , the Royal Arch degree was conferred in Master's lodges.

    The same condition of things existed in the neighboring State of Georgia. The manuscript Minutes of Royal Arch Chapter number 1, under the sanction of Forsyth's Lodge number 14," are now, or were, some years ago, on the Archives of the Grand Chapter of Georgia. For an examination of these interesting records I was indebted to the kindness of the Grand Secretary, Comp.

    The Chapter met in the City of Augusta, and the Minutes, to which I shall have occasion again to refer, are restricted to the year These records state that the chapter at Savannah, having announced its intention to apply to the Grand Lodge of Georgia for 1 The first warrant for an independent chapter in North Carolina was granted in by the Grand Chapter of Virginia to "sundry Royal Arch Masons" in Bertie County. The Royal Arch Masons who signed the petition had, it is to be supposed, previously received the degree in these Lodges.

    Dove, "Royal Arch Text Book," p. We conceive that the Warrant given to Forsyth's Lodge was sufficient for the members thereof to confer any degree in Masonry agreeable to the ancient usages and customs. The Grand Chapter of the former State was formed in ; that of the latter in But reverting to the subject of the early ritual of Royal Arch Masonry and to the differences which prevailed toward the end of the 18th century in the names and character of the degrees, we shall meet with some interesting information in these Minutes of the Royal Arch Chapter at Augusta.

    The business of electing candidates for the Royal Arch having been accomplished in an informal meeting of Royal Arch Masons. Minutes of Forsyth's Royal Arch Chapter. Butler, J. The lodge was closed. Butler, K. They were then in rotation raised to the super-excellent degree of Royal Arch Masons, and returned thanks for the same. But what were the preparatory degrees? That question is answered by the Minutes of November 29, these degrees are for the first time given.

    The record is as follows: "At an extra meeting of Forsyth's Lodge, convened by the order of the W. Wilkinson, when they, attending, received the same and returned thanks to the lodge; which was then closed. A Past Master's lodge was then opened. Wilkinson, when, they attending, were regularly passed the chair and obtained the degree of Past Master, and gave thanks for the same. The lodge was then closed in ancient form.

    The Royal Arch Chapter was then opened. The M. Wilkinson, who were then attending. Trotti was then duly prepared and received the preparatory degree of R. They were then raised to the super-excellent degree of Royal Arch Mason, and returned thanks. The Chapter was then closed by order of the M. The Chapter degrees were then, as has been already shown from other sources, conferred under the sanction of the Warrant of a Master's lodge, but the body in which the Royal Arch degree was given was called a Chapter.

    Nine Royal Arch Masons were not then deemed necessary to the opening of a Chapter or the conferring of the degree. The officer called "Zerubbabel" in the Northern Chapters, is not mentioned in the Southern. In the latter it is probable that the same officer was called the "Royal Arch. The absence of an officer called "Zerubbabel" in the Southern Chapters, while it is found in all Northern ones, would evidently indicate some difference in the rituals of the two sections of the country. It is also significant on this point, that in the records of the Chapters at Augusta, no mention is made of the three Grand Masters of the Vails.

    They are included in the list of officers of all the Chapters in Connecticut which derived their Warrants and, we may suppose, their rituals from the Washington Chapter in New York. It was always deemed an indispensable qualification for the reception of the Royal Arch degree that the candidate should be a Past Master. This practice, established in England at the origin of the degree, was followed by all the Chapters in America. As the restriction of the degree to those only who had presided for twelve months over a Symbolic lodge and thus become "Actual Past Masters" would have circumscribed the number of candidates within a very narrow and inconvenient limit, the ceremony of passing the chair was invented, by which the candidate became a "Virtual Past Master.

    The same usage was observed at several subsequent meetings, but on December 26, , for the first time it is recorded that the Master's lodge was closed and a Past Master's was opened for the purpose of conferring what had then become, not a mere qualification, but a preparatory degree.

    Other preparatory degrees are mentioned in the earliest Minutes, but their names are not given until a later period. From the later minutes we learn what these degrees were. These last two degrees are never recorded otherwise than by their initials, but we have every reason to believe, from other authorities, that they were Royal Master and Royal Ark, or Royal Ark Master.

    Samuel Cole, writing in , says of these two degrees that "they are considered as merely preparatory and are usually conferred immediately before the solemn ceremony of exaltation. They were not known to or practiced in the chapters of the Northern States. It will be noticed also, as a further evidence of the want of uniformity in the rituals of the 18th century, that the Minutes of the Chapter at Augusta make no reference to the Most Excellent Master's degree, which from an early period was always conferred as a preparatory step to the Royal Arch in the Northern States.

    Passing over from the United States to Canada, we shall find the Royal Arch ritual at the close of the 18th century in another but still confused condition. In the year the members of Ancient Frontenac Chapter, attached to the St. John's Lodge number , English Register, situated at Kingston in Canada, published a history of the Chapter from its organization.

    From this little but interesting work may be gleaned a very satisfactory statement of the character and condition of Royal Arch Masonry at the end of the 18th and the beginning of the 19th century. Ancient Frontenac Chapter, which is or was the old Chapter in Canada West, was established at Freemasons' Tavern, in the town of Kingston, on June 7, , under the sanction of a Warrant which had been granted to Lodge number 6 on November 20, , by R.

    Master's lodges in Canada, as in the neighboring United States, assumed the right to hold Chapters for conferring the Royal Arch degree. It was a right always sanctioned by the usages of the "Ancients" and tolerated by the "Moderns," nor ever denied until after the organization of the General Grand Chapter at Hartford. As late as February, , at a convocation held in Kingston a charge was preferred against a member of Frontenac Chapter of "unmasonic conduct in striving to separate the Holy Royal Arch Chapter from the body of number 6. The earliest records of the Chapter do not show any recognition of preparatory degrees.

    These degrees were not, however, even then obligatory, but appear to have been taken or not, at the action of the candidate; and as there was an attendant expense, few of the brethren availed themselves of the opportunity of receiving them. The Past Master's was, however, a prerequisite qualification toward exaltation, and, as elsewhere, it was always conferred in the Master's lodge to which the Chapter was attached.

    Up to the end of the last century, many candidates were exalted when only seven Royal Arch Masons were present, the mystical number nine not being then required to constitute a quorum for conferring the degree. Capitular Masonry seems to have been separated in Canada from Lodge Masonry in , for on January 18th in that year a decision was received from the Provincial Grand Master for holding a Chapter at Kingston, which, says the pamphlet from which I have been quoting, was "the first step towards this Chapter working under a warrant separate from that of the Craft lodge. The extracts given in the preceding pages, from the records of Chapters working at the close of the last and the beginning of the present century, have been sufficient to show that there prevailed at that time, in the different parts of the American Continent, a very confusing variety in the ritual of the Royal Arch and in the number of preparatory degrees, which clearly demonstrates that the conflicting systems must have been derived from different sources.

    What these sources were it is impossible to precisely say, at least in every instance, in consequence of the unavoidable scantiness of the records. The general drift of history leads us to believe that among these sources were the Grand Lodge of Ancients, in England, and at a later period the Grand Lodge of Moderns, both of whom disseminated the degree through their military lodges, the Grand Lodge of Scotland, or rather the Royal Arch Masons of that kingdom, who practiced the degree without the recognition of their Grand Lodge, and as in Virginia and the Southern States the possessors of the "Sublime degrees," as they were called, which had been introduced into this country from France by Stephen Morin and his emissaries or deputies.

    The result of borrowing rituals from so many different sources inevitably led to a deplorable diversity in the ceremonies, which led the Royal Arch Masons in some of the Northern States to attempt the laying of a firm foundation on which a uniform system might be established, and the constitution of a superintending authority which should maintain that uniformity, and give to Capitular Masonry a symmetry and shapeliness which should secure to it a permanence and success such as had been previously given to Craft Masonry by the ritualistic labors of Desaguliers and his associates in the second and third decades of the 18th century.

    This work of reformation and of purification, in which the dross was rejected and the pure ore only retained, was finally accomplished by the institution of the General Grand Chapter of the United States, which was one of the most important events in the Masonic history of the United States. To this event we must therefore next direct our attention.

    But the extent and interest of the subject demand a separate chapter for its consideration. I shall therefore precede the history of the origin of the General Grand Chapter by a brief sketch of the Masonic services of that distinguished ritualist. Having received an elementary education in the public schools, he was bound as an apprentice to the art of printing, or perhaps of book-binding. There is some uncertainty about this question, but the testimony preponderates in favor of the former.

    It is, however, not material as, in after life, he did not pursue either calling. Having soon after removed to Keene, in New Hampshire, he there married, and about the year was initiated in the primary degrees of Freemasonry. Subsequently he removed to Albany in New York. It is probable that he there received the higher degrees, as we find him, while residing there, engaged in the establishment of a Chapter of Royal Arch Masons and a Commandery of Templars. We may also suppose 1 In "Mackey's Encyclopedia of Freemasonry" will be found a copious memoir of Webb, from which, as the creation of my own pen, I have not hesitated to borrow the materials and indeed much of the language of the present sketch.

    It was about this time that Webb commenced his career as a Masonic ritualist and teacher. In he published the first edition of his Freemasons' Monitor, or Illustrations of Masonry. But he states in his Preface that he has made an arrangement of the lectures which differs from that of Preston, because the latter's distribution of the sections is not "agreeable to the present mode of working. About he removed to Providence, R.

    But he did not abandon his labors in the field of Speculative Masonry. By invitation he became a member of St. John's Lodge number 2, of Providence. He passed through the various grades of office and was elected in Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of Rhode Island.

    His labors in the constitution of a Grand, and afterward a General Grand Chapter, will be hereafter referred to. While continuing his interest in the manufacture in which he was engaged he did not neglect his Masonic labors, but in visited the Western part of the United States and appeared to have been actively employed in the organization of Chapters and Encampments. He died at Cleveland, O. The body was subsequently disinterred and carried to Providence, where it was reinterred by the Grand Lodge of Rhode Island. The title-page, in a copy now lying before me, is as follows: "The Freemasons Monitor; or Illustrations of Masonry: in two Parts.

    By a Royal Arch Mason, K. Printed at Albany, for Spencer and Webb, Market street, ," p. Preston's distribution of the first lecture into six, the second into four, and the third into twelve sections, not being agreeable to the present mode of working, they are arranged in this work according to the general practice First edition.

    As to Webb's Masonic character and services, I see no reason to say otherwise than what I have already said on a former occasion. His influence over the Freemasons of this country is to be ascribed almost wholly to his personal communication with them and to his oral teachings. He has made no mark in Masonic literature of any importance.

    His labors and his reputation as an author are confined to a single work, and that one of but little pretension. It is, indeed, only a meager syllabus of his Lectures. He seems, though the author of a Masonic system now universally practiced in the United States, to have been but very inadequately imbued with the true philosophical spirit of symbolism. He was an able workman of the ritual which he had invented, and an effective teachers and to this he owed his popularity.

    The deficiencies of his system are to be regretted, but Webb undoubtedly deserves commendation for his devotion and perseverance in the establishment or a system of ritualism which has been productive of such abundant fruit. The Freemasons of America have generally attributed to him the invention of the preliminary degrees of the Chapter.

    But of this fact we have no satisfactory evidence, while there is much to the contrary. It has been seen in a preceding chapter that the Mark and Past degrees, as well as the Most Excellent, though probably under a different name, had been conferred in Chapters before Webb had been exalted in Albany to the Royal Arch. But what Webb really did, was to change the rituals of these degrees and to give to them the form which is now universally adopted in the Chapters of this country. For instance, the Mark Master's and the Most Excellent Master's songs, which now constitute essential parts of the working of those degrees, and are indispensably connected with their most important ceremonies, were composed by him and first published in his FreeMason's Monitor.

    They could therefore have been introduced into the work only after his composition of them. In short, Webb can be deemed the founder of what is now called the "American Rite" only in so far that he modified the degrees which had previously existed, and gave to them not only a new and improved form, but established them in a legitimate sequence which has ever since been recognized by the constituted authorities. Previous to his teaching, there was no regularity in the management of the preliminary degrees. In some Chapters they were conferred as preparatory to the Royal Arch; in others they were omitted, and the Royal Arch immediately followed the Third degree.

    For the permanent regularity now existing, we are certainly indebted to Thomas Smith Webb. With this brief sketch of the Masonic life of this popular ritualist, we are now prepared to direct our attention to that portion of his labors which were especially given to the establishment of Royal Arch Masonry on a plan peculiar to this country. The supplement of the Master's degree, which had been introduced by the Seceders into the English system, about the middle of the last century, was not long after imported into this country.

    This importation has been generally attributed to the military lodges which worked under the regime of the Atholl Grand Lodge, and which had received, at the time of their constitution, the instructions and the privileges of the Royal Arch. It has been seen that the first American Chapter was instituted at Philadelphia in , and that the degree had been received from an English military lodge, at that time stationed in that city. At a somewhat later period in the century the Royal Arch degree was conferred in many lodges in the United States, under a Master's Warrant.

    This custom continued for several years to be observed in the Southern States, where distinct Chapters were unknown until the 19th century. But in the Northern States, the control of the Royal Arch was assumed by independent Chapters at an earlier period. From the records of the General Grand Chapter it appears that St. At this convention delegates from three Chapters were present: 1 "Compendium of Proceedings of the General Grand Chapter from to ," p. This convention, probably in consequence of the small number of Chapters represented, did no more than issue a circular addressed to the various Chapters in the Northern States, recommending a future meeting to be held at Hartford.

    In this circular the delegates at Boston enunciated the principle which has since been universally accepted as the law of Royal Arch Masonry in the United States; namely, that "no Grand Lodge of Master Masons can claim or exercise authority over any convention or Chapter of Royal Arch Masons, nor can any Chapter, although of standing immemorial, exercise the authority of a Grand Chapter. At this convention the following Chapters were represented: St. These nine Chapters then proceeded to the organization of a Grand Chapter.

    On January 26, , a constitution was adopted and immediately afterward the officers were elected. The Grand Chapter was to meet biennially and the Deputy Grand Chapters annually, and the first meeting of the former body was to be held at Middletown, Conn. In this Constitution the nomenclature and precedency of the Capitular degrees, which had hitherto been somewhat unsettled, was finally determined, so that the names and order of sequence should remain forever thereafter as they were then established. This arrangement has ever since remained unchanged and makes the Mark Master, Past Master, and Most Excellent Master essentially preliminary degrees, to be followed by the Royal Arch degree as the consummation of the system.

    This constitution gave to the Grand Chapter an exclusive power to hear and determine all controversies between Chapters within its jurisdiction, and an appellate jurisdiction over all the proceedings of the Deputy Grand Chapters. As far as regards the States of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, and New York, which States were represented in the convention, the Constitution was definitely adopted. But the Chapters in Vermont and New Hampshire, not having sent delegates, a committee was appointed to solicit their concurrence in the organization.

    The convention then proceeded to the first election on the newly adopted constitution, which resulted in the following choice of officers: Ephraim Kirby, of Connecticut, Grand High-Priest; Benjamin Hurd, Jr. It will be seen that the meeting here described was only that of a convention to take the preliminary steps for the organization of a Grand Chapter. The first meeting of the "Grand Chapter of the Northern States," after that organization, was holden on October 19, , at the city of Middletown in Connecticut.

    The object of the meeting, as expressed in the Proceedings, was "for the choice of officers. It was therefore legalized by the subsequent action on October 1, , which was in fact the first meeting of the Grand Chapter. At this Convocation some important changes in the regulations were made, and the constitution was revised. The title of the Grand Chapter was altered to that of the "General Grand Chapter of Royal Arch Masons for the six Northern States of America," and its meetings were changed from a biennial to a septennial period.

    The section giving it appellate jurisdiction over the State Grand Chapters was omitted from the new Constitution, and has never again been re-asserted. Its powers were confined to a control of the ritual and to the establishment of Chapters in States where there were no Grand Chapters. It continued, however, to maintain the prerogative of defining the powers and functions of State Grand Chapters. This prerogative has never been denied, and the law of Royal Arch Masonry, as it now exists and has ever since the close of the last century existed in this country, is dependent on the Constitution of the General Grand Chapter.

    Thus, the internal regulations of the State Grand Chapters and their subordinates are all directed by this Constitution. It prescribed the method of granting charters, the number of petitioners, the fee to be paid, the titles of the officers, the time of election, the price of the degrees, and the rule for receiving candidates, with several other points, all of which have always been implicitly obeyed. In a word, the Constitution of the General Grand Chapter has been received as, in some sort, the common law of Royal Arch Masonry in this country.

    This law, derived from and formulated by that body, has universally been accepted, and it is admitted that it cannot be repealed or rescinded in any of its parts by any inferior body. Please contact your library. Login Login. Join Not a member yet? Password Recovery Forgot your login details? Zoom In.

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