Daisy Miller

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Its characters and themes were very much of the moment: In the s, post-Civil War America was in the middle of an industrial boom which bestowed sudden wealth on many previously ordinary families. This allowed them to travel abroad for the first time, in order to learn about the culture and history of Europe. But American manners were very different from European manners, and the "uneducated" Americans -- from a country where there had never been any aristocracy based on heredity or nobility -- did not know the social codes with which European "high society" conducted itself.

Somewhere in between these two groups lay a third group, the wealthy Europeanized Americans, to whom Winterbourne, his aunt, and the rest of the American "colonists" at Rome and Vevey belong. These people were sometimes less rigid than Europeans as Winterbourne sometimes is , but could also be more obsessed with social codes than the Europeans themselves examples of this are Mrs.

Costello and Mrs. In contrast with them, the innocent Daisy, fresh from the American "society" of Schenectady, New York, has no idea what rules she is violating with her carefree association with European "lowlifes. Daisy Miller is one of his first and most famous forays into this terrain -- as well as one of his most interesting studies of character and psychology, especially of the minds of women, which would also fascinate him for the rest of his career.

Sources: Henry James biographical information: www. Yet, "Daisy at any rate continued on this occasion to present herself as an inscrutable combination of audacity and innocence. After walking in this manner for about fifteen minutes, a carriage with Mrs. Walker inside pulls up near them. She summons Winterbourne and tells him that Daisy's behavior—walking alone with the two men—is scandalous. Walker claims. Winterbourne defends Daisy, declaring her "innocent. Walker will not let the subject drop, and also denounces Mrs. Miller for her lack of action. Walker wants Daisy to get into the carriage, drive around for a bit, and go home to save her reputation.

After introducing Giovanelli to Mrs. Walker and complimenting her carriage, Daisy refuses to get inside and resents being treated like a child. Winterbourne finds the scene uncomfortable and his discomfort only increases when Daisy asks him what he thinks. He tells her truthfully that she should get inside. Daisy responds, "I never heard anything so stiff! If this is improper, Mrs. Walker, then I'm all improper, and you had better give me right up.

Walker asks Winterbourne to get in the carriage. Though he wants to stay with Daisy, Mrs. Walker says she will never speak to him again unless he rides with her. After saying his goodbyes to Daisy and Giovanelli, he tells Mrs. Walker, "That was not clever of you. Walker informs him that Daisy has been acting this way for a month, flirting indiscriminately and scandalously. His hostess also wants him to have nothing more to do with Daisy.

Winterbourne refuses, and Mrs. Walker drops him off near where Daisy and Giovanelli are. After witnessing the pair from afar in a moment of friendly familiarity, he walks toward his aunt's home. For the next three days, Winterbourne tries to talk to Mrs. Miller, but she is never at home. Despite the tensions with Mrs.

Walker, he goes to her party, where he finds Mrs.

DAISY MILLER: Henry James - FULL AudioBook

Miller also in attendance and alone. Miller tells him that Daisy is dressed and ready to go to the party, but she is playing on the piano and singing with Giovanelli at the hotel. Walker vows not to speak to Daisy when she comes. Daisy arrives after eleven in the evening with Giovanelli, immediately approaches Mrs. Walker, and explains her tardiness.

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Walker is short with her. Giovanelli sings a handful of songs for the party. Daisy also talks familiarly with Winterbourne, referring to the incident several days earlier. She thinks it would have been "unkind" to leave Giovanelli as the walk they went on had been planned for some time. Winterbourne tries to point out the impropriety of the situation, but Daisy does not care. He also tells her he wishes to be the only one she flirts with; Daisy believes he is "too stiff.

She believes that she is only close friends with Giovanelli and blushes when Winterbourne suggests they are in love with each other. Giovanelli has completed his performance, and he asks Daisy to have tea with him in the other room. They stay there until they take their leave. When Daisy and Giovanelli do depart, Mrs. Walker turns her back on them. Miller does not understand the snub, but Daisy does.

Walker tells Winterbourne that Daisy will not be coming to her house again. Because of this tension, Winterbourne begins going to the Millers' hotel. On the rare occasions that they are home, Giovanelli is almost always there as well. Daisy's actions do not change when both men are present:. Winterbourne reflected that if she was seriously interested in the Italian it was odd she shouldn't take more trouble to preserve the sanctity of their interviews, and he liked her the better for her innocent-looking indifference and her inexhaustible gaiety.

Winterbourne realizes that there is little to be jealous about and she is nothing but lightness. Winterbourne also realizes that her primary interest is in Giovanelli. Some time later, Winterbourne is walking with his aunt at Saint Peter 's when he spies Daisy and Giovanelli together. Costello notes that Daisy and her paramour are the reason her nephew has been "preoccupied. In addition, Mrs. Costello believes that Eugenio arranged their meeting in the first place and will be paid off if Giovanelli marries her. Winterbourne discounts his aunt's theories, informing her he had Giovanelli checked out and that he is "a perfectly respectable little man.

Winterbourne does not believe Giovanelli has hope of such a relationship with Daisy. After a time, his aunt sits down outside of Saint Peter 's and other Americans talk to her. They all comment negatively on Daisy and her scandalous actions. Watching Daisy leave with Giovanelli, Winterbourne feels pity for her for how low she has sunk in the eyes of others. He even tries to communicate about the situation with Mrs.

Miller on an occasion when he knows she is alone. Miller believes Daisy and Giovanelli are essentially engaged; Giovanelli promised to tell her if that happens. Winterbourne does not see Daisy socially any more as the people they know in common have shut her out. He is torn inside between admiring her defiance and thinking of her as ignorant and shallow.

Winterbourne knows he has no chance to help her because she focuses totally on Giovanelli. Several days later, Winterbourne happens upon them at the Palace of the Caesars. Daisy remarks on what she perceives as Winterbourne's loneliness. She also states that Winterbourne believes she spends too much time with Giovanelli. Winterbourne emphasizes to her that everyone thinks this way and if she goes to see most people, they will treat her as Mrs.

Walker did. Daisy does not like this cruelty. She teases him about their alleged engagement, and tells him first that she and Giovanelli are, then that they are not. A week later, Winterbourne comes upon them again at eleven o'clock at night inside the Colosseum. He does not see them at first as he focuses on quoting Lord Byron's "Manfred," but when he does, he hesitates to approach. Winterbourne is finished with her: "She was a young lady about the shades of whose perversity a foolish puzzled gentleman need no longer trouble his head or his heart.

Just as Winterbourne is about to leave, Daisy sees him, and he walks over to her and Giovanelli. When Winterbourne learns that she has been there for some time, he tells her that she is putting herself at extreme risk for catching the "Roman fever. Giovanelli agrees with Winterbourne that she should be taken home and should take preventative pills. Daisy does not believe she will be sick, but she goes along. Though Winterbourne does not mention finding Daisy and Giovanelli at the Colosseum, other Americans soon learn of her latest scandalous episode. Daisy soon becomes quite ill with the sickness.

Winterbourne calls on the family repeatedly during her ill-health, but Giovanelli disappears. Miller informs Winterbourne that in a lucid moment, Daisy told her to tell him that she was never engaged to Giovanelli. Within a week, Daisy dies of the illness, perniciosa, and she is buried in a Protestant cemetery in Rome. Giovanelli is among the mourners. He is quite saddened by the loss. He tells Winterbourne, "She was the most beautiful young lady I ever saw, and the most amiable.

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After the burial, Winterbourne leaves Rome. He reunites with his aunt the following summer in Vevey, where the Millers are still a topic of conversation. Winterbourne tells Mrs. Costello that he finally understands her deathbed message now as a call for "esteem. One of the primary themes explored in Daisy Miler is that of freedom. Daisy's American dream is her unflagging belief that she should be free to act however she pleases without regard to what anyone else thinks, Americans or otherwise, nor any social norms, American or European.

Her unabashed embracing of her personal freedom leads to condemnation from other Americans in Switzerland and Italy, including Winterbourne's aunt Mrs. Costello and Mrs. From the moment Daisy is introduced in the garden of the hotel in Vevey, she acts as she pleases. The narrator notes that Winterbourne "had begun to perceive that she was really not in the least embarrassed.

She almost immediately suggests they go to a nearby castle alone. Later, in part 2, Daisy even wants to take a rowboat there that night. Though Daisy will not go once her mother is free to join them, Winterbourne and Daisy make it there several days later on a steamer. Daisy continues to exercise her freedom in Rome. Much to Winterbourne's consternation, Daisy spends her time with an Italian man named Mr. Though other Americans, including Winterbourne, think of him as their social lesser, Daisy chooses to be alone with him at various sites in Rome, both during the day and at night.

Even though this action puts her on the social outs with people like Mrs. Walker and even Winterbourne at times, Daisy does not doubt that she can act any way she wants. She does not care about consequences; she only cares about being herself. When Winterbourne and Giovanelli become concerned that she might catch Roman fever malaria by being at the Colosseum late at night, Daisy agrees to leave but dismisses their concerns. She tells Winterbourne as her carriage pulls off, "I don't care whether I have Roman fever or not!

Daisy's mother, the only parental figure traveling with her, does not attempt to squelch her daughter's freedom or question her choices. Miller allows her daughter to act as she pleases and does not try to meet the men Daisy spends time with in Switzerland or Rome. Even Eugenio, their trip coordinator, does not have a chance of modifying Daisy's actions and attitudes.

Daisy Miller, by Henry James,

However, there are consequences to Daisy's freewheeling actions, whether she likes it or not. There are social snubs from women like Mrs. Walker and Mrs. Daisy is judged and looked down upon by other Americans abroad as well as the workers from the hotels. More importantly, Daisy dies because of her defiance. Though the others try to convince her not to go out for danger of catching a dread disease, she does go out, contracts the illness—malaria—and dies a week later.

While Daisy acts as freely as she wishes while alive, it ends up costing her life. Though Daisy lives as freely as she can, she still embraces some sense of social status. Another part of the American dream is defining one's self from everyone else while fitting into a social stratum by embracing its norms and mores. When Daisy first meets Winterbourne in Vevey, she tells him that she is disappointed by the lack of "society" in Europe. Daisy states, "I'm very fond of society and I've always had plenty of it.

The society that Daisy could not see early in Daisy Miller condemns her and her mother for the way Daisy chooses to live her life. Though some of their fellow Americans recognize that the Millers have some social standing because of their money and background, Daisy's actions, her mother's inactions, and even Randolph's often out-of-control behavior lead to negative social judgments.

Others Americans, such as Mrs. Costello, dismiss them outright. Add Article. Daisy Miller Critics Consensus No consensus yet. Super Reviewer. Share on Facebook.

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View All Videos 1. View All Photos. Movie Info In the late 19th century, a young American woman travels amongst European high society, and sparks a number of conflicts and scandals with her brazenly flirtatious behavior. This period drama is an adaptation of the classic novella by Henry James.

Classics , Drama , Romance. Peter Bogdanovich. Frederic Raphael. Aug 12, Cybill Shepherd as Annie P. Barry Brown as Frederick Winterbourne. Cloris Leachman as Mrs. Ezra Miller. Mildred Natwick as Mrs. Eileen Brennan as Mrs. Duilio Del Prete as Giovanelli. James McMurtry as Randolph C. Nicholas Jones as Charles. George Morfogen as Eugenio.

The American in Europe: Henry James' Daisy Miller

Albert Messmer as Tutor. Jacques Guhl as Polish Boy. Hubert Goldin as Polish Boy. David Bush as Man at Chillon.

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Henry Hubinet as Chillon Guide. Maurizio Lucci as Miniaturist. Tom Felleghy as Mrs. Walker's Butler. Luigi Gabellone as Punch and Judy. John Bartha as Hotel Receptionist in Rome. Salamon Amedeo as Hotel Receptionist in Rome. Renato Talvacchia as Pianist. Salvatore Lisitano as Opera Singer.