Lhomme couvert de dollars (Littérature Française) (French Edition)
The Peace of Westphalia , which ended the Thirty Years' War, and the Peace of the Pyrenees marked the end of Habsburg hegemony and established France as the dominant power on the European continent. The active reign of Louis XIV began in , the year of Mazarin's death, and lasted until his own death in Louis XIV had served in the French army against Spain before his accession, and married the daughter of the King of Spain in order to bring peace to the region, despite his love for Mazarin's niece.
Assisted by his able ministers Colbert and Louvois, he completed Mazarin's work of domestic centralization and transformed the French state into an absolute monarchy based on the so-called divine right of kings. Industry and commerce were encouraged by mercantilist policies, and great overseas empires were carved out in India , Canada , and Louisiana. By transforming the nobles into perennial courtiers, financially dependent on the crown, the king clipped their wings.
Lavish display marked the early period of his reign, when the great palace at Versailles was built, beginning the era of French Classicism. It was a golden age for French culture as well, and French fashions and manners set the standard for all Europe. Nevertheless, the Sun King, as he was styled, left the country in a weaker position than he had found it. In , he revoked the Edict of Nantes , and an estimated , Huguenots fled the country to escape persecution.
Whole provinces were depopulated, and the economy was severely affected by the loss of many skilled and industrious workers. Louis undertook a long series of foreign wars, culminating in the War of the Spanish Succession — 14 , in which England, the Netherlands, and most of the German states were arrayed against France, Spain, Bavaria , Portugal , and Savoy. In the end, little territory was lost, but the military primacy of the country was broken and its economic strength seriously sapped.
The reign of Louis XV — 74 and that of his successor, Louis XVI — 93 , which was terminated by the French Revolution , showed the same lavish display of royal power and elegance that had been inaugurated by the Sun King. At the same time, the economic crisis that Louis XIV left as his legacy continued to grow more serious. A series of foreign wars cost France its Indian and Canadian colonies and bankrupted the country, including the French and Indian War — Meanwhile, the locus of the economic power in the kingdom had shifted to the hands of the upper bourgeoisie in the Enlightenment , who resented the almost wholly unproductive ruling class that espoused Classicism.
The intellectual currents of the so-called Age of Reason were basically opposed to the old order. Voltaire attacked the Church and the principle of absolutism alike; Diderot advocated scientific materialism; Jean-Jacques Rousseau preached popular sovereignty. The writer changed from a royal servant into a revolutionary force. In , faced with an unmanageable public debt , Louis XVI convened, for the first time since the reign of Louis XIII, the States-General, the national legislative body, to consider certain fiscal reforms.
The representatives of the third estate, the Commons , met separately on 17 June and proclaimed themselves the National Assembly. This action, strictly speaking, marked the beginning of the French Revolution , although the act that best symbolized the power of the revolution was the storming of the Bastille, a royal prison, by a Paris mob on 14 July — an event still commemorated as a national holiday.
With the support of the mob, which forced the king, his wife Marie Antoinette , and his family from the palace at Versailles into virtual imprisonment in the Tuilerie in Paris; the Assembly was able to force Louis to accept a new constitution including The Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen, providing for a limited monarchy, the secularization of the state, and the seizure of Church lands.
War with Austria, which wished to intervene to restore the status quo ante in France, broke out in Louis XVI was convicted of treason and executed. The radical group of Jacobins under Maximilien Robespierre's leadership exercised strict control through committees of public welfare and a revolutionary tribunal. The Jacobins attempted to remake France in the image of an egalitarian republic. Their excesses led to a Reign of Terror — 94 , carried out indiscriminately against royalists and such moderate republican groups as the Girondins.
Manifold opposition to the Jacobins and specifically to Robespierre combined to end their reign in the summer of In , a new constitution of moderate character was introduced, and executive power was vested in a Directory of five men. The Directory, weakened by inefficient administration and military reverses, fell in turn in , when the military hero Napoleon Bonaparte engineered a coup and established the Consulate.
Ruling autocratically as the first consul, Bonaparte established domestic stability and decisively defeated the Austrian-British coalition arrayed against France. In , he had himself proclaimed emperor as Napoleon I and, until his downfall in , he ruled France in that capacity. Capitalizing on the newly awakened patriotic nationalism of France, Napoleon led his imperial armies to a striking series of victories over the dynastic powers of Europe.
By , he was the master of all Europe west of Russia with the exception of the British Isles. That year, however, the revolt in Spain — upon whose throne Napoleon had placed his brother Joseph — began to tax French military reserves. Napoleon's ill-fated attempt to conquer Russia in was followed by the consolidation of a powerful alliance against him, consisting of Russia, Prussia , Britain , and Sweden. The allies defeated Napoleon at Leipzig in and captured Paris in the spring of He was, however, finally and utterly crushed by the British and Prussian forces at Waterloo 18 June and spent the remaining years of his life as a British prisoner of war on the island of St.
Helena in the South Atlantic. Charles attempted to restore the absolute powers of the monarchy and the supremacy of the Catholic Church. In , he was ousted after a three-day revolution in which the upper bourgeoisie allied itself with the forces of the left. In , his regime was overthrown in the name of the Second Republic.
Four years later, however, its first president, Louis Napoleon, the nephew of Napoleon I , engineered a coup and had himself proclaimed emperor under the title Napoleon III. The Second Empire, as the period — 71 is known, was characterized by colonial expansion and great material prosperity.
The emperor's aggressive foreign policy eventually led to the Franco-Prussian War — 71 , which ended in a crushing defeat for France and the downfall of Napoleon III. France was stripped of the border provinces of Alsace and Lorraine which once belonged to the Holy Roman Empire and was forced to agree to an enormous indemnity. A provisional government proclaimed a republic on 4 September and took over the responsibility for law and order until a National Assembly was elected in February Angered at the rapid capitulation to Prussia by the provisionals and the conservative National Assembly, the national guard and radical elements of Paris seized the city in March and set up the Commune.
During the "Bloody Week" of 21 — 28 May, the Commune was savagely dispatched by government troops. Democratic government finally triumphed in France under the Third Republic, whose constitution was adopted in Royalist sentiment had been strong, but the factions backing different branches of the royal house had been unable to agree on a candidate for the throne. The Third Republic confirmed freedom of speech , the press, and association. It enforced complete separation of church and state. Social legislation guaranteeing the rights of trade unions was passed, and elections were held on the basis of universal manhood suffrage.
The Third Republic, however, was characterized by an extremely weak executive.
A long succession of cabinets was placed in power and shortly thereafter removed from office by the all-powerful lower house of the national legislature. Nevertheless, the republic was strong enough to weather an attempt on the part of the highly popular Gen. Georges Boulanger to overthrow the regime in the late s, as well as the bitter dispute between the left-wing and right-wing parties occasioned by the trumped-up arrest and long imprisonment of Capt.
Alfred Dreyfus, a scandal in which Dreyfus's being Jewish was as much an issue as the treason he had allegedly committed. The eventual vindication of Dreyfus went hand in hand with the decisive defeat of the monarchists and the emergence of a progressive governing coalition, with Socialist representation. Although France, under the leadership of Georges Clemenceau , could claim a major share in the final Allied victory, it was in many respects a Pyrrhic victory for France.
Almost all the bitter fighting in the west was conducted on French soil, and among the Allies French casualties — including nearly 1,, war dead — were second only to those sustained by Russia. The heavily industrialized provinces of Alsace and Lorraine were restored to France under the Treaty of Versailles , and Germany was ordered to pay heavy war reparations.
Nevertheless, the French economy, plagued by recurrent crises, was unable to achieve great prosperity in the s, and the worldwide economic depression of the s exacerbated in France by the cessation of German reparations payments was accompanied in France by inflation, widespread unemployment, and profound social unrest. Rightand extreme left-wing elements caused major disturbances on 6 February Blum nationalized certain war industries, carried out agricultural reforms, and made the hour week mandatory in industry.
In a futile attempt to secure peace, Daladier acquiesced in British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain 's policy of appeasement toward Hitler. Hitler was not to be appeased, however, and when Germany invaded Poland in September , France joined the United Kingdom in declaring war on Germany. On 10 May , the Germans launched a great invasion of the west through the Low Countries and the heavily wooded and sparsely defended Ardennes region. In less than a month, German forces outflanked the French Maginot Line fortifications and routed the French armies between the Belgian frontier and Paris.
With the exception of a triangular zone with its northern apex near Vichy, all France was placed under the direct occupation of the Germans.
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The Vichy regime ended the Third Republic and proclaimed a constitution based on the slogan "labor, family, fatherland," as opposed to the traditional republican "liberty, equality, fraternity. Charles de Gaulle , a brilliant career officer who had escaped to London on 18 June to declare that France had "lost a battle, not the war. The Free French forces took part in the fighting that followed the Allied invasion of North Africa in , and in a provisional French government was established at Algiers.
Regular French units and resistance fighters alike fought in the campaign that drove the Germans from France, and shortly after the liberation of Paris, de Gaulle's provisional government moved from Algiers to the capital. France's postwar vicissitudes have been political rather than economic.
De Gaulle resigned as head of the government early in over the issue of executive powers, and in spite of his efforts the Fourth Republic, under a constitution that came into effect in December , was launched with most of the weaknesses of the Third Republic. Almost all powers were concentrated in the hands of the National Assembly, the lower house of Parliament, and there were numerous warring political parties.
Although the people of metropolitan France overwhelmingly approved de Gaulle's program for eventual Algerian independence, some French army officers and units attempted to overthrow the government by terrorism, which de Gaulle suppressed by temporarily assuming emergency powers. Peace negotiations were successfully concluded with Algerian rebel leaders, and Algeria gained independence on 1 July By then, nearly all of France's former African territories had attained independence. France has continued to provide economic assistance, and its ties with most of the former colonies have remained close.
Almost continuous fighting overseas in French colonies, first in Indochina, which was lost in , and later in Algeria, the scene of a nationalist rebellion among the Muslims, placed a heavy burden on France and led, especially after the Suez expedition of , to disillusionment on the part of elements in the French army, which felt that its work was being undermined by a series of vacillating parliamentary governments.
In May , extremists among the French settlers in Algeria, acting with a group of army officers, seized control of Algiers. Sympathetic movements in Corsica and in metropolitan France raised the specter of a right-wing coup.
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The government found itself powerless to deal with the situation, and on 1 June, Gen. He ended the threat peaceably, and in the fall of , he submitted to a national referendum a new constitution providing for a strong presidency; the constitution won overwhelming approval. Elections held in November swept candidates pledged to support de Gaulle into office, and in December , he was officially named the first president of the Fifth Republic. During the mids, de Gaulle sought to distance France from the Anglo-American alliance. France developed its own atomic weapons and withdrew its forces from the NATO command; in addition, de Gaulle steadfastly opposed the admission of the United Kingdom to the EEC, of which France had been a founding member in The political stability of the mids ended in the spring of , with student riots and a month-long general strike that severely weakened the Gaullist regime.
In April , Gen. In June, Georges Pompidou, a former premier in de Gaulle's government, was elected the second president of the Fifth Republic. Between and , the Gaullist grip on the French populace continued to weaken, at the end of which time de Gaulle was forced to accept the United Kingdom, Ireland and Denmark into the EC, and to work within the economic constraints of the "Snake Mechanism" which, starting in , linked EC currencies.
Giscard strengthened relations with the United States but continued to ply a middle course between the superpowers in world affairs. The European Currency Unit ECU was born in from the economic stresses of the s, leading eventually to the introduction of the common currency, the euro, in Mitterrand launched a program of economic reforms, including the nationalization of many industrial companies and most major banks. However, three devaluations of the franc, high unemployment, and rising inflation led to the announcement of an austerity program in March In foreign policy, Mitterrand took an activist stance, opposing the US attempt in to halt construction of a natural gas pipeline between the former USSR and Western Europe , committing French troops to a peacekeeping force in Lebanon , and aiding the Chadian government against domestic insurgents and their Libyan backers.
In July , Mitterrand accepted the resignation of Prime Minister Pierre Mauroy and named Laurent Fabius to replace him, signaling his intention to stress economic austerity and modernization of industry. In foreign affairs, the government attempted some retrenchment during , withdrawing peacekeeping troops from Lebanon and announcing a "total and simultaneous" withdrawal of French and Libyan troops from Chad.
However, Libyan troops did not actually withdraw as envisioned, and fighting there prompted a return of French troops in A major scandal was the disclosure in that French agents were responsible for the destruction in New Zealand , with the loss of a life, of a ship owned by an environmentalist group protesting French nuclear tests in the South Pacific. In March elections, the Socialists lost their majority in the National Assembly, and Mitterrand had to appoint a conservative prime minister , Jacques Chirac, to head a new center-right cabinet.
This unprecedented "cohabitation" between a Socialist president and a conservative government led to legislative conflict, as Chirac, with backing from the National Assembly, successfully instituted a program, opposed by Mitterrand, to denationalize 65 state-owned companies.
Chirac encountered less success late in as he sought to deal with a wave of terrorist violence in Paris. Chirac then resigned, and Mitterand formed a minority Socialist government. Economic and social problems as well as government scandals strained relations between the Socialist Mitterrand, the Conservative PM Eduard Balladur in the second cohabitation, and a center-right government.
Unemployment remained high and new legislation increased police powers to combat illegal immigration. Several prominent politicians were the subject of corruption charges and in legal proceedings were instituted against former primer minister, Laurent Fabius , related to an HIV-infected blood scandal. A prominent Socialist prime minister , Pierre Beregovoy, committed suicide in May over media allegations of financial improprieties.
In May , Jacques Chirac was elected president, winning The National Assembly had elected an RPR-Gaullist majority in , setting the country firmly in the grips of the type of conservatism that had been ousting socialist and Social Democrats in much of Western Europe during the mid-to-late s. Chirac immediately set about instituting austerity measures to rein in government spending in the hope of meeting certain rigid monetary guidelines so that France would be ready to join the European Monetary Union EMU in The EMU would create a single European currency, the "euro," to replace member countries' individual currencies.
The idea of a monetary union had never been widely popular in France and the Maastricht Treaty, which set down conditions for EMU membership passed by only a slim margin. Many of Chirac's attempts to reduce public spending and limit — or even erode — France's welfare state met with stern resistance.
With the signing of the Amsterdam Treaty of , Chirac sensed the need for a reaffi rmation of his commitment to meet austerity measures for EMU membership. Chirac dissolved the National Assembly, calling for parliamentary elections in , one year earlier than constitutionally mandated. In doing so, the French president believed he would demonstrate that the majority of the population believed in responsible cutbacks in government spending and anti-inflammatory monetary policy, despite the adverse effects they might have on the country's already quite high inflation. In May and June of , elections were held and Chirac's plan badly backfired with the Socialists winning a commanding majority, along with the Communists.
After the elections, a demoralized Chirac appointed Socialist leader Lionel Jospin prime minister, beginning the third cohabitation government. Jospin, a halfhearted supporter of monetary union, called for a program of increased government spending to create , jobs, a reduction in the work week from 39 to 35 hours, and made a broad pledge to protect the welfare state.
The euro was successfully launched in , and the currency was circulated in January Presidential elections were held on 21 April and 5 May In the first round, Chirac won The strong showing by Le Pen sent shock waves throughout France and Europe, as his extreme right-wing, anti-immigrant, xenophobic party demonstrated its popularity. Jospin announced he was retiring from politics; for the first time since the Socialists did not have a candidate in a presidential runoff, marking a major defeat for the French left.
In the second round of voting, Chirac overwhelmingly defeated Le Pen, taking It was the largest majority since direct presidential elections were first introduced, and was preceded by a major popular campaign against Le Pen. Chirac named centrist Jean-Pierre Raffarin to be prime minister. In elections for the National Assembly held in June , the center-right coalition Union for the Presidential Majority consisting of Chirac's Rally for the Republic and the Liberal Democracy party and created on the wake of the first round on the ashes of the short-lived Union en Mouvement won a landslide victory, taking The Socialist Party finished second with Le Pen's National Front failed to win a single seat.
Jean-Pierre Raffarin started out by governing through ordinances, and eventually obtained a majority from his party that was large enough to carry him through the legislative elections. His political line exhibited a peculiar communicative style and enforced reforms with unflagging certainty — his adversaries would term this style "neo-liberalism. Raffarin's popularity rate began to plummet; this, combined with the sharp electoral defeat sustained at the regional elections, was blamed on his social policies.
As a consequence, the prime minister dissolved the government, and handpicked Jean-Louis Borloo as minister of social affairs. However, the prime minister had to handle both the former's social agenda — sustaining rent-controlled housing, backed up by President Chirac — and Sarkozy's extremely conservative managing of the finances.
Jean-Pierre Raffarin then faced even more criticism especially from Dominique de Villepin. Raffarin's term of office came to a brisk end after the "no" vote to the referendum held on 29 May , on whether to adopt the project of the European Constitutional Treaty. He offered to resign on 31 May , and was immediately replaced by Dominique de Villepin. Dominique de Villepin had been named minister of foreign affairs in , upon the reelection of President Chirac.
In — 03, France was confronted with a major foreign policy dilemma. Throughout , the United States and United Kingdom were committing troops to the Persian Gulf region, positioning themselves against Iraq and accusing its leader, Saddam Hussein , of possessing weapons of mass destruction. In the event that Iraq would not disarm itself of any weapons of mass destruction it might possess, it was evident that the United States and United Kingdom might use those troops to force a regime change in Iraq.
The UN Security Council unanimously passed Resolution on 8 November , calling upon Iraq to disarm itself of chemical, biological, and nuclear weapons or weapons capabilities, to allow the immediate return of UN and International Atomic Energy Agency IAEA weapons inspectors, and to comply with all previous UN resolutions regarding the country since the end of the Gulf War in The United States and United Kingdom indicated that if Iraq would not comply with the resolution, "serious consequences" might result, meaning military action.
The other three permanent members of the Security Council , France, Russia, and China , expressed their reservations with that position. France was the most vocal opponent of war, and threatened to use its veto power in the Security Council if another Security Council resolution authorizing the use of force was called for. The United States and United Kingdom abandoned diplomatic efforts at conflict resolution in March , and on 19 March, the coalition went to war in Iraq. Once coalition forces defeated Iraq and plans for reconstruction of the country were being discussed in April, France stressed the need for a strong role to be played by the UN in a postwar Iraq.
In his inaugural speech, he gave himself days to earn the trust of the French people and to give France its confidence back. He was increasingly perceived as a potential presidential candidate, an opinion reinforced by his acting as head of state during the cabinet meeting held on 7 September and for the 60th session of the UN General Assembly held on 14 — 15 September while President Chirac suffered from a cerebral vascular complication.
The eruption of rioting in many parts of France in fall posed the most serious challenge to government authority since the student riots that took place in Paris in The government imposed a state of emergency. Thousands of vehicles were set on fire in nearly towns; more than 1, people had been arrested by mid-November , when the violence began to subside.
Areas with large African and Arab communities were most affected France has Europe's largest Muslim population and over half the country's prison population is Muslim , where anger among many immigrant families over unemployment and discrimination has long been simmering. The unrest caused politicians to rethink their social and economic policies. Under the constitution of the Fifth Republic , as subsequently amended, the president of the republic is elected for a five-year term changed from a seven-year term following a referendum on 24 September by direct universal suffrage.
If no candidate receives an absolute majority of the votes cast, a runoff election is held between the two candidates having received the most votes. If the presidency falls vacant, the president of the Senate assumes the office until a new election can be held within 20 — 35 days. The president appoints the prime minister and, on the prime minister's recommendation, the other members of the cabinet. The president has the power to dissolve the National Assembly, in which event new elections must be held in 20 — 40 days.
When the national sovereignty is gravely menaced, the president is empowered to take special measures after consultation with the premier and other appropriate officials. The National Assembly, however, may not be dissolved during the exercise of exceptional powers. The president promulgates laws approved by the legislature, has the right of pardon, and is commander of the armed forces. The bicameral parliament consists of two houses, the National Assembly and the Senate. Under a system enacted in , the National Assembly is composed of deputies, each representing an electoral district.
If no candidate receives a clear majority, there is a runoff among those receiving at least All citizens aged 18 or over are eligible to vote. The deputies' term of office, unless the Assembly is dissolved, is five years. The Senate consisted, as of , of members indirectly elected to nine-year terms, one-third being chosen every three years. Of the total, represented metropolitan France, 13, overseas departments and territories, and 12, French citizens residing abroad; all are chosen by electoral colleges.
In addition, European elections are held to choose 87 French deputies out of in the European Parliament every five years, with proportional representation. To become law, a measure must be passed by parliament. Parliament also has the right to develop in detail and amplify the list of matters on which it may legislate by passing an organic law to that effect. Regular parliamentary sessions occur once a year, lasting nine months each amended in from two shorter sessions a year. A special session may be called by the prime minister or at the request of a majority of the National Assembly.
Bills, which may be initiated by the executive, are introduced in either house, except finance bills, which must be introduced in the Assembly. These proceedings are open to the public, aired on television, and reported. The prime minister and the cabinet formulate national policy and execute the laws. No one may serve concurrently as a member of parliament and a member of the executive.
Under certain circumstances, an absolute majority in the National Assembly may force the executive to resign by voting a motion of censure. Under the new law of , members of the government are liable for actions performed in office deemed to be crimes or misdemeanors, and tried by the Court of Justice.
French political life has long been ruled both by considerations of political theory and by the demands of political expediency. Traditional issues such as the separation of church and state help to distinguish between right and left, but otherwise the lines separating all but the extremist political parties are diffi cult to draw. One result of this has been the proliferation of political parties; another, the assumption by political parties of labels that seldom indicate any clear-cut platform or policy.
Broadly, since the late s, French politics has been dominated by four political groups: the Gaullists, an independent center-right coalition, the Socialists, and the Communists. After the parliamentary elections of 23 and 30 November , the first to be held under the constitution of the Fifth Republic, the largest single group in the Assembly was the Union for the New Republic UNR , which stood for the policies of Gen.
Only 16 members were elected by the center groups and only 10 were Communists. In the first presidential elections held by direct universal suffrage in December , President de Gaulle was reelected on the second ballot with Following nationwide strikes and civil disturbances by workers and students in the spring of , new parliamentary elections were held in June, in which de Gaulle's supporters won a sweeping victory. On 28 April , following the defeat in a national referendum of a Gaullist plan to reorganize the Senate and regional government, President de Gaulle resigned. During the Pompidou administration, Gaullist control was weakened by an alliance between the Communist and Socialist parties.
The Communists and Socialists increased their representation to 72 and , respectively. The remaining seats were won by the RI 55 and by centrists, reformists, and unaffiliated candidates On 2 April , President Pompidou died. However, as neither had won a majority, a run-off election was held on 19 May. Giscard, with the help of Gaullist votes, defeated Mitterrand by a margin of The Socialists and Communists, who ran on a common platform as the Union of the Left, together won seats Socialists , Communists 86 and Independents, with the remaining 3. In the presidential elections of 26 April and 10 May , Mitterrand received Within weeks, Mitterrand called new legislative elections: that June, the Socialists and their allies won In return for concessions on various political matters, four Communists received cabinet portfolios, none relating directly to foreign affairs or national security.
The sweeping victory of the left was, however, eroded in March when Socialist and Communist officeholders lost their seats in about 30 cities in municipal balloting. Meanwhile, the Communists had become disaffected by government policies and did not seek appointments in the cabinet named when a new Socialist prime minister, Laurent Fabius, was appointed in July The National Assembly elections held in March represented a major defeat for the Socialist Party and their allies. The Communists also suffered losses, securing only 24 seats.
Minor parties and independents won 26 seats. The Socialists lost of the Socialist seats that were at stake. As a result, the Socialists introduced a new system of proportional voting aimed at reducing their losses in the forthcoming general election of 16 March The Communists, suffering a historic defeat, split the remaining 70 seats evenly with the far-right National Front, which won representation for the first time. Following his defeat by Mitterand in the May presidential election, Chirac resigned and a minority Socialist government was formed.
In , one year before they were scheduled, Chirac called for new parliamentary elections, hoping to achieve a mandate to inaugurate his policy of fiscal austerity. Instead, the Gaullists suffered a stunning defeat by the Socialists and Communists, leading to the appointment of Jospin as prime minister.
In those elections, held 25 May and 1 June , the Gaullists saw their parliamentary presence decline from seats to ; the Socialists and related splinter groups went from 75 seats to ; the Communists from 24 to 38; the Greens from no seats to 8; and the far-right National Front maintained its single seat. The Greens held only three seats. Its first test occurred in March , during the cantonal and regional elections. While suffering a devastating loss, it managed, through alliances, to secure a relative majority of the votes.
Its second test was the European elections, also held in The UDF's relative success was largely caused by the attractive alternative that it offered voters that were unhappy with the government's take on social and European issues. The relative slump of the right can also be explained by the rise of popularity of the National Front and the unpopularity generated by the Raffarin governments.
In , parliament approved a code of regional reforms that had been rejected when proposed previously by President de Gaulle in Under this law, the 96 departments of metropolitan France were grouped into 22 regions. Regional councils composed of local deputies, senators, and delegates were formed and prefects appointed; in addition, regional economic and social committees, made up of labor and management representatives, were created. This system was superseded by the decentralization law of 2 March , providing for the transfer of administrative and financial authority from the prefect to the general council, which elects its own president; the national government's representative in the department is appointed by the cabinet.
The law like-wise replaced the system of regional prefects with regional councils, elected by universal direct suffrage, and, for each region, an economic and social committee that serves in an advisory role; the national government's representative in each region, named by the cabinet, exercises administrative powers. The first regional assembly to be elected was that of Corsica in August ; the first direct assembly elections in all 22 regions were held in March Each of the 96 departments and four overseas: Martinique, Guadeloupe, Reunion and French Guiana is further subdivided for administrative purposes into arrondissements , cantons, and communes municipalities.
The basic unit of local government is the commune, governed by a municipal council and presided over by a mayor. A commune may be an Alpine village with no more than a dozen inhabitants, or it may be a large city, such as Lyon or Marseille. The majority, however, are small. As of , France had 36, communes. Most recently the trend has been for the smallest communes to merge and create larger urban communities, or to come together as communal syndicates to share responsibilities.
Municipal councilors are elected by universal suffrage for six-year terms. Each council elects a mayor who also serves as a representative of the central government. Several communes are grouped into a canton, and cantons are grouped into arrondissements, which have little administrative significance. As of 1 January , France had 36, communes of them overseas. There are two types of lower judicial courts in France, the civil courts tribunaux d'instance and tribunaux de grande instance in , including overseas departments and the criminal courts tribunaux de police for petty offenses such as parking violations, tribunaux correctionnels for criminal misdemeanors.
The most serious crimes, for which the penalties may range to life imprisonment, are tried in assize courts cours d'assises ; these do not sit regularly but are called into session when necessary. They are presided over by judges from the appeals courts. In addition, there are special commercial courts tribunaux de commerce , composed of judges elected among themselves by tradesmen and manufacturers, to decide commercial cases; conciliation boards conseils de prud'hommes , made up of employees and employers, to decide their disputes; and professional courts with disciplinary powers within the professions.
Special administrative courts tribunaux administratifs deal with disputes between individuals and government agencies. From the lower civil and criminal courts alike, appeals may be taken to appeals courts cours d'Appel , of which there were 27 in Judgments of the appeals courts and the courts of assize are final, except that appeals on the interpretation of the law or points of procedure may be taken to the highest of the judicial courts, the Court of Cassation in Paris.
If it finds that either the letter or spirit of the law has been misapplied, it may annual a judgment and return a case for retrial by the lower courts. The High Court of Justice Haute Cour de Justice , consisting of judges and members of parliament, is convened to pass judgment on the president and cabinet members if a formal accusation of treason or criminal behavior has been voted by an absolute majority of both the National Assembly and the Senate.
The death penalty was abolished in The Conseil Constitutionnel, created by the constitution, is now the only French forum available for constitutional review of legislation. Challenges to legislation may be raised by the president of the republic, the prime minister, the president of the Senate, the president of the National Assembly, 60 senators, or 60 deputies of the National Assembly during the period between passage and promulgation signature of president. Once promulgated, French legislation is not subject to judicial review. The French judiciary is fully independent from the executive and legislative branches.
The judiciary is subject to European Union mandates, which guide national law. This has been the case in the Court of Cassation since , in the Council of State since , and now even in the civil courts. In there were , active personnel in the French armed services. An additional , served in the Gendarmerie Nationale, which is heavily armed. Reserves totaled 21, from all services. France's strategic nuclear forces in had 4, active personnel, of which 2, were Navy personnel, 1, Air Force, and 41 Gendarmarie Nationale.
The French have the third-largest nuclear arsenal in the world with a suspected total of weapons. The Army in numbered , military and 28, civilian personnel. Included were 7, members of the Foreign Legion, a 14, member marine force and an estimated 2, Special Operations Forces, as part of the French Army. Equipment included main battle tanks, 1, reconnaissance vehicles, armored infantry fighting vehicles, 4, armored personnel carriers, and artillery pieces towed. The French Navy numbered 46, active personnel and 10, civilians in For that year, the Navy was equipped with 10 modern submarines 4 SSBNs and 6 SSNs , 34 principal surface combatants including one CVN and one CVH or helicopter carrier , and 85 other ships for mine warfare, amphibious operations, and logistics and support.
France had 6, naval aviation personnel. There were also 2, naval marines, including commandos. The Navy also provided coast guard services and fishery protection. The French Air Force numbered 65, active members, plus 5, civilians, and operated combat capable aircraft. France maintains substantial forces abroad in a number of countries, current and former possessions, and protectorates. These forces are supported by aircraft and naval ships in the Indian and Pacific oceans, and in the Carribean.
Troops are also deployed on peacekeeping missions in several different regions and countries. France joined the WTO in France is also a founding member of the European Union. In December , the country announced an intention to increase participation in the NATO military wing once again.
France is one of the most richly endowed countries of Europe. The favorable climate, extensive areas of rich soil, and long-established tradition of skilled agriculture have created ideal conditions for a thriving farm economy. Agriculture and the agro-food industries account for a larger share of economic activity than in many other west European nations. Large deposits of iron ore, a wellintegrated network of power plants, important domestic reserves of natural gas , good transport, and high standards of industrial workmanship have made the French industrial complex one of the most modern in Europe.
After World War II , France's economy was stronger than it had been in the period between the two world wars. But on the debit side were the extremely high costs of France's colonial campaigns in Indochina and North Africa; the periodic lack of confidence of French investors in the nation's economy, resulting in the largescale flight of funds; and the successive devaluations of the franc. Through most of the s and early s, the French economy expanded steadily, with GDP more than doubling between and Further oil price increases in — 80 marked the beginning of a prolonged recession, with high inflation, high unemployment, balance-of-payments deficits, declining private investment, and shortages in foreign exchange reserves.
However, GDP grew by an annual average of 2. By the late s, however, the economy began to record higher growth rates. In the French economy grew by 3. Unemployment, however, remained high at To combat this, the Socialist-led coalition of Lionel Jospin enacted legislation cutting the work week to 35 hours in However, France's exports increased at a greater rate than imports, fueling the economy.
France in fell from being the world's fourth-largest industrialized economy to fifth, being replaced by the United Kingdom. In , real GDP growth was 1. In , real GDP growth was expected to slow to 1. France and the United States are the world's top two exporting countries in defense products, agricultural goods, and services.
Taxes remain the highest in the G-8 industrialized countries, and the tax structure is seen as a hindrance to business activity. The fastest-growing sectors of the economy have been telecommunications, aerospace, consulting services, meat and milk products, public works, insurance and financial services, and recreation, culture, and sports.
Although the government has privatized many large companies, banks, and insurers, it still controls large sectors of the economy, including energy, transportation, and the defense industry. The French social model, characterized by heavy state involvement in the economy, a tax on wealth, and generous benefits for workers, has proved to be a strong disincentive to growth and job creation. Unemployment, at 9. The pension system and rising healthcare costs strain public finances. Attempts to liberalize the economy have met strong resistance from labor unions and the left.
Pension reforms proposed by the government of Jean-Pierre Raffarin in early were met by huge protests and strikes in France. Discontent with the economy played a large role in France's rejection of the EU constitution in May Violent unrest in hundreds of towns erupted in the fall of , triggered by frustration over high unemployment among urban youth. The CIA defines GDP as the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year and computed on the basis of purchasing power parity PPP rather than value as measured on the basis of the rate of exchange based on current dollars.
The annual growth rate of GDP was estimated at 1. The average inflation rate in was 1. It was estimated that agriculture accounted for 2. Household consumption includes expenditures of individuals, households, and nongovernmental organizations on goods and services, excluding purchases of dwellings. It was estimated that for the period to household consumption grew at an average annual rate of 1. It was estimated that in about 6. In , the French workforce was estimated at In the latest year for which data was available , Workers freely exercise their right to strike unless it is prohibited due to public safety.
Many unions are members of international labor organizations. Collective bargaining is prevalent. It is illegal to discriminate against union activity. This amount provides a decent standard of living for a family. The standard legal workweek is set at 35 hours with restrictions on overtime. Children under age 16 are not permitted to work, and there are restrictions pertaining to employment of those under Child labor laws are strictly enforced.
The labor code and other laws provide for work, safety, and health standards. Agriculture remains a vital sector of the French economy, even though it engages only about 3. In , France's fulltime farm labor force of , was still the second-highest in the EU.
France is one of the leaders in Europe in the value of agricultural exports — chiefly wheat, sugar, wine, and beef. Tropical commodities, cotton, tobacco, and vegetable oils are among the chief agricultural imports. About There were , farms in France in , of which only , were managed by full-time farmers.
Since the s, the number of farms has declined and the size of individual holdings has increased. By there were about 1. Average farm size had grown to around 50 hectares acres in Because French law provides for equal rights of inheritance, traditionally much of the farmland came to be split up into small, scattered fragments.
One of the major aims of postwar plans for rural improvement has been the consolidation of these through reallotment. Such consolidation also fosters the growth of mechanization. In there were 1,, tractors fourth in the world after the United States, Japan , and Italy compared with , in , and 1,, in The most productive farms are in northern France, but specialized areas, such as the vegetable farms of Brittany, the great commercial vineyards of the Languedoc, Burgundy, and Bordeaux districts, and the flower gardens, olive groves, and orchards of Provence, also contribute heavily to the farm economy.
Among agricultural products, cereals wheat, barley, oats, corn, and sorghum , industrial crops sugar beets, flax , root crops potatoes , and wine are by far the most important. In , the wheat crop totaled 39,, tons and barley, 11,, tons. Other totals in tons included oats, ,; corn, 16,,; sugar beets, 30,,; rapeseed, 3,, tons; and sunflower seed, 1,, tons. Wine production in totaled million liters from 7,, tons of grapes. There is large-scale production of fruits, chiefly apples, pears, peaches, and cherries.
In , farm animals included Poultry and rabbits are raised in large numbers, both for farm families and for city markets. Meat production in included 1,, tons of beef and veal, 2,, tons of pork, 1,, tons of poultry, and , tons of mutton. Dairy farming flourishes in the rich grasslands of Normandy. Total cows' milk production in was 25,, tons. France produces some kinds of cheese; in , production totaled about 1,, tons. Butter and egg production were , and 1,, tons, respectively. France's 4, km 2, mi of coastline, dotted with numerous small harbors, has long supported a flourishing coastal and highseas fishing industry.
French aquaculture consists mainly of oyster and mussel production; most of the facilities are located along the English Channel and the Atlantic coasts. Herring, skate, whiting, sole, mackerel, tuna, sardines, lobsters, and mussels make up the principal seafood catch, along with cod, mostly from the fishing banks off northern North America , where French fishing vessels have sailed for centuries. Production of canned seafood products in totaled 80, tons, mostly tuna, mackerel, and sardines. The United Kingdom and Norway are France's leading seafood suppliers. Forestry production in France has been encouraged by the government since the 16th century, when wood was a strategic resource in building warships.
Although much of the original forest cover was cut in the course of centuries, strict forest management practices and sizable reforestation projects during the last years have restored French forests considerably. Since , the government has subsidized the afforestation and replanting of 2. The reforestation project in the Landes region of southwestern France has been particularly successful.
During — , the forested area increased by an annual average of 0. There were some 16 million hectares The forestry and wood products sector employed , persons in 35, companies in Production of roundwood in was Hardwood log production reached 6. Softwood log production totaled 13 million cu m million cu ft in In December , a hurricane hit France and damaged an estimated 50 million cu m 1. France was a major European mineral producer, despite significant declines in the production of traditional minerals in recent years. France was among the leading producers of coal, was Europe's only producer of andalusite, and counted iron among its top export commodities in France was also self-suffi cient in salt, potash, fluorspar, and talc.
Talc de Luzenac, a subsidiary of Rio Tinto, was the leading producer of talc in the world. In addition, France had sizable deposits of antimony, bauxite, magnesium, pyrites, tungsten, and certain radioactive minerals. One of the world's most developed economies, France had to make considerable changes in the structure of its industries, particularly those mineral industries controlled by the state.
Prior to , the state's heavy economic and political involvement was a main element of national mineral policy. Cessation of government subsidies to unprofitable operations, cheaper foreign sources, and depletion of mineral reserves have greatly affected the industry, particularly bauxite, coal, iron ore, lead, uranium, and zinc. The government has made efforts to promote the private sector, to proceed with a program of privatization, and to reduce the dependence of state-owned companies on subsidies.
To encourage exploration, the government in passed a law expediting the granting of surveying and mining licenses. Production figures for were: agricultural and industrial limestone, 12, metric tons; hydraulic cement, 20 million tons; salt rock, refined brine, marine, and in solution , 6. In France also produced copper; gold; silver; powder tungsten; uranium; elemental bromine; refractory clays; diatomite; lime; nitrogen; mineral, natural, and iron oxide pigments; Thomas slag phosphates; pozzolan and lapilli; and soda ash and sodium sulfate.
No iron ore was produced in ; the iron ore basin, stretching from Lorraine northward, used to produce more than 50 million tons per year, but its high phosphorus and low iron content limited its desirability. Terres Rouges Mine, the last to operate in Lorraine, closed in France ceased producing bauxite named after Les Baux, in southern France in Mining of lead and zinc has completely ceased.
France's energy and power sector is marked by modest reserves of oil, natural gas and coal, and a heavy reliance upon nuclear energy to meet its energy needs. As of 1 January , France had estimated proven oil reserves of 0. In , crude oil production was 28, barrels per day, but declined to 23, barrels per day in In , domestic demand for oil came to an estimated 1, As a result of the disparity between consumption and production, France has had to import crude oil. In , net imports of crude oil came to 1. Like its oil resources, France's coal and natural gas reserves are very limited.
As of 1 January , the country had an estimated billion cu ft of proven natural gas reserves. Production and consumption of natural gas in totaled an estimated billion cu ft and 1, France's recoverable coal reserves, production, and consumption in were estimated at In April , France closed its last operating coal mine and has since relied on coal imports to meet its demand for coal. During the s France became increasingly dependent on outside sources for petroleum. Although petroleum and natural gas continued to be produced in France itself as they are today , the nation came to rely almost entirely on imports from oil fields of the Middle East , putting a heavy strain on the country's foreign exchange reserves.
Discoveries of large supplies of natural gas and petroleum in the Sahara Desert changed the outlook radically; in France was able to meet almost half its fuel needs from countries within the franc zone. Petroleum production from the Saharan fields rose spectacularly from 8. Although France lost title to the Saharan deposits after Algerian independence, arrangements were made with the Algerian government to keep up the flow of oil to France. Developments in the s exposed the limitations of this strategy.
Algeria took controlling interest in French oil company subsidiaries in The oil shocks of the mid-and late s drove France's fuel and energy imports up; in , fuel imports accounted for In response, France began an energy conservation program, but oil consumption continued to increase between and , when fuel imports made up Mergers involving France's top oil companies in and created the fourth-largest oil company in the world, TotalFinaElf.
France's electric power sector is marked by a heavy reliance upon nuclear power. France has become the world's leading producer of nuclear power per capita, with the world's second-greatest nuclear power capacity exceeded only by the United States. Nuclear power accounts for In , France had an installed generating capacity estimated at GW, with production and consumption estimated at All electric power generation and distribution is controlled by the state-owned monopoly, Electricite de France EdF. However, France has slowly begun to deregulate its electricity sector and to privatize EdF.
France is also Europe's second-largest power market, exceeded only by Germany. Industry has expanded considerably since World War II, with particularly significant progress in the electronics, transport, processing, and construction industries. France is the world's fourth-leading industrial power, after the United States, Japan, and Germany although France was surpassed by the United Kingdom in as the world's fourth-largest economy. This PIRT exercise identified SFP accident phenomena that are of high importance and yet are highly uncertain, thus highlighting their primary interest for further studies.
The report recommends further support for existing experimental programmes and the establishment of a number of new programmes to focus, for example, on large-scale thermal-hydraulic experiments on the coolability of partly or completely uncovered spent-fuel assemblies and the investigation of spray cooling for uncovered spent-fuel assemblies in typical storage racks.
It features articles on the latest nuclear energy issues concerning the economic and technical aspects of nuclear energy, nuclear safety and regulation, radioactive waste management and decommissioning, radiological protection, nuclear science and nuclear legislation. Feature articles and studies in this issue include: "Legal challenges to the operation of nuclear reactors in Japan"; "Inside nuclear baseball: Reflections on the development of the safety conventions"; and "The Peaceful Nuclear Energy Programme in the United Arab Emirates: Background and history". The transition from an operating nuclear facility to the decommissioning phase is critical in the life cycle of every facility.
A number of organisational and technical modifications are needed in order for the facility to meet new objectives and requirements, and a certain number of activities must be initiated to support the transition and preparation for the dismantling of the facility. Thorough preparation and planning is key for the success of global decommissioning and dismantling projects, both to minimise delays and undue costs and to ensure a safe and efficient decommissioning process. The aim of this report is to inform regulatory bodies, policy makers and planners about the relevant aspects and activities that should begin during the last years of operation and following the end of operation.
Compiling lessons learnt from experiences and good practices in NEA member countries, the report supports the further optimisation of transition strategies, activities and measures that will ensure adequate preparation for decommissioning and dismantling. For the past several decades, the Nuclear Energy Agency Salt Club has been supporting and overseeing the characterisation of rock salt as a potential host rock for deep geological repositories.
This extensive evaluation of deep geological settings is aimed at determining? Studying the microbiology of granite, basalt, tuff, and clay formations in both Europe and the United States has been an important part of this investigation, and much has been learnt about the potential influence of microorganisms on repository performance, as well as about deep subsurface microbiology in general. Some uncertainty remains, however, around the effects of microorganisms on salt-based repository performance.
Using available information on the microbial ecology of hypersaline environments, the bioenergetics of survival under high ionic strength conditions and studies related to repository microbiology, this report summarises the potential role of microorganisms in salt-based radioactive waste repositories.
The implementation of advanced nuclear systems requires that new technologies associated with the back end of the fuel cycle are developed. The separation of minor actinides from other fuel components is one of the advanced concepts being studied to help close the nuclear fuel cycle and to improve the long-term effects on the performance of geological repositories. Separating spent fuel elements and subsequently converting them through transmutation into short-lived nuclides should considerably reduce the long-term risks associated with nuclear power generation.
This report provides a comprehensive overview of progress on separation chemistry processes, and in particular on the technologies associated with the separation and recovery of minor actinides for recycling so as to help move towards the implementation of advanced fuel cycles. The report examines both aqueous and pyro processes, as well as the status of current and proposed technologies described according to the hierarchy of separations targeting different fuel components.
The process criteria that will affect technology down-selection are also reviewed, as are non-proliferation requirements. The field of emergency management is broad, complex and dynamic. In the post-Fukushima context, emergency preparedness and response EPR in the nuclear sector is more than ever being seen as part of a broader framework. The OECD has recommended that its members? In order to achieve such an all-hazards approach to emergency management, a major step in the process will be to consider experiences from the emergency management of hazards emanating from a variety of sectors.
A set of expert contributions, enriched with a broad range of national experiences, are presented in the report to take into account expertise gathered from the emergency management of hazards other than those emanating from the nuclear sector in an effort to support and foster an all-hazards approach to EPR. Feature articles in this issue include: "Reformed and reforming: Adapting the licensing process to meet new challenges"; "Reflections on the development of international nuclear law"; and "Facing the challenge of nuclear mass tort processing".
In , nuclear power continued to supply significant amounts of low-carbon baseload electricity, despite strong competition from low-cost fossil fuels and subsidised renewable energy sources. Three new units were connected to the grid in , in Korea, Russia and the United States. In Japan, an additional three reactors returned to operation in , bringing the total to five under the new regulatory regime. Three reactors were officially shut down in -- one in Japan, one in Russia and one in the United States.
These links work in the same way as an Internet link. Les Donnees sur l'energie nucleaire, compilation annuelle de statistiques et de rapports nationaux del'Agence de l'OCDE pour l'energie nucleaire, presentent la situation de l'energie nucleaire dans les paysmembres de l'AEN et dans la zone de l'OCDE.
Les rapports nationaux presentent brievement les politiques energetiques et les evolutions du cycle du combustible. En , l'electronucleaire a continue de generer des quantites importantes d'electricite en base faiblement carbonee, et ce en depit de la forte concurrence des combustibles fossiles bon marche et des energies renouvelable subventionnees. Cette meme annee, trois nouveaux reacteurs ont ete raccordes au reseau en Coree, aux Etats-Unis et en Russie.
Au Japon, trois reacteurs ont ete redemarres, ce qui porte a cinq le nombre de tranches en exploitation repondant a la nouvelle reglementation en vigueur. Trois reacteurs ont ete officiellement mis hors service en -- un aux Etats-Unis, un au Japon et un en Russie. Les pays decides a inclure le nucleaire dans leur bouquet energetique ont poursuivi leurs projets de developpement ou d'augmentation de la puissance nucleaire installee. Ainsi, les projets de construction en Finlande, en Hongrie, au Royaume-Uni et en Turquie ont progresse.
Le lecteur trouvera de plus amples informations sur ces evolutions et d'autres developpements dans les nombreux tableaux, graphiques et rapports nationaux que contient cet ouvrage. Cette publication contient des "StatLinks". Radiological characterisation is a key enabling activity for the planning and implementation of nuclear facility decommissioning. Effective characterisation allows the extent, location and nature of contamination to be determined and provides crucial information for facility dismantling, the management of material and waste arisings, the protection of workers, the public and the environment, and associated cost estimations.
This report will be useful for characterisation practitioners who carry out tactical planning, preparation, optimisation and implementation of characterisation to support the decommissioning of nuclear facilities and the management of associated materials and waste. It compiles recent experience from NEA member countries in radiological characterisation, including from international experts, international case studies, an international conference, and international standards and guidance.
Using this comprehensive evidence base, the report identifies relevant good practice and provides practical advice covering all stages of the characterisation process. Despite progress over the past decades, women remain under-represented in executive positions in science, technology, engineering and mathematics. Female students tend to do very well in math and science early in their academic careers but often take other career paths. Many countries are working to close the gender gap and are developing policies to reverse this trend.
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However, considering the increasing demand worldwide for skilled workers in all areas of science and technology, including in the nuclear energy sector, more advocacy is needed to encourage the next generation and to capture their interest in these fields. Because nuclear issues are embedded in broader societal issues such as the environment, energy, risk management, health policy and sustainability, they can often generate considerable interest and concern.
Actors involved in the nuclear energy sector, including regulators, governments and licensees, share the goal of reaching accepted, sustainable decisions and to ensure that the decision-making process is transparent. Stakeholder involvement in decision making is today seen as an essential means for improving decisions and for optimising their implementation. In this context, the Nuclear Energy Agency NEA organised a Workshop on Stakeholder Involvement in Nuclear Decision Making in January , acknowledging that different countries and sectors may face similar challenges and that sharing experiences and approaches could be useful.
The workshop was an opportunity to bring together experts with first-hand knowledge and experience in areas related to nuclear law, regulatory practices, radiological protection, nuclear waste management, the deployment of new nuclear facilities, extended operation of nuclear facilities, deployment of other energy technologies and infrastructures, and social and traditional media. This summary report attempts to capture the collective wisdom generated over three days of interaction.
It highlights some commonalities and differences in views and approaches, and identifies particular lessons that can be applied to improve the strategy and practice of involving stakeholders in decision making. Overall, the learning gained from this workshop can benefit governments and citizens alike. Measurements are isotopic concentrations from destructive radiochemical analyses of spent nuclear fuel SNF samples, supplemented with design information for the fuel rod and fuel assembly from which each sample was taken, as well as with relevant information on operating conditions and design characteristics of the host reactors.
The data have been reviewed for consistency with the experimental reports but have not been formally evaluated. Assay data evaluations are a multidisciplinary effort involving reactor specialists, modelling and simulation experts, and radiochemistry experts. Any errors in measurements, omissions or inconsistencies in the original reported data may be reproduced in the database. Therefore, it is important that any user of the data for code validation consider and assess the potential data deficiencies.
The evaluation of assay data will provide a more complete assessment and may result in the development of benchmark specifications and measurement data in cases of high quality experiments. The cost estimation process of decommissioning nuclear facilities has continued to evolve in recent years, with a general trend towards demonstrating greater levels of detail in the estimate and more explicit consideration of uncertainties, the latter of which may have an impact on decommissioning project costs.
The ISDC, however, provides only limited guidance on the treatment of uncertainty when preparing cost estimates. Based on experiences gained in participating countries and projects, the report describes how uncertainty and risks can be analysed and incorporated in decommissioning cost estimates, while presenting the outcomes in a transparent manner. Radioactive waste inventory data are an important element in the development of a national radioactive waste management programme since these data affect the design and selection of the ultimate disposal methods. Inventory data are generally presented as an amount of radioactive waste under various waste classes, according to the waste classification scheme developed and adopted by the country or national programme in question.
Various waste classification schemes have evolved in most countries, and these schemes classify radioactive waste according to its origin, to criteria related to the protection of workers or to the physical, chemical and radiological properties of the waste and the planned disposal method s. The diversity in classification schemes across countries has restricted the possibility of comparing waste inventories and led to difficulties in interpreting waste management practices, both nationally and internationally.
To help improve this situation, the Nuclear Energy Agency developed a methodology that ensures consistency of national radioactive waste and spent fuel inventory data when presenting them in a common scheme in direct connection with accepted management strategy and disposal routes.
This report is a follow up to the report that introduced the methodology and presenting scheme for spent fuel, and it now extends this methodology and presenting scheme to all types of radioactive waste and corresponding management strategies. All national radioactive waste management authorities recognise today that a robust safety case is essential in developing disposal facilities for radioactive waste.
To improve the robustness of the safety case for the development of a deep geological repository, a wide variety of activities have been carried out by national programmes and international organisations over the past years. The Nuclear Energy Agency, since first introducing the modern concept of the?
This Sourcebook summarises the activities being undertaken by the Nuclear Energy Agency, the European Commission and the International Atomic Energy Agency concerning the safety case for the operational and post-closure phases of geological repositories for radioactive waste that ranges from low-level to high-level waste and for spent fuel. In doing so, it highlights important differences in focus among the three organisations. Large quantities of materials arising from the decommissioning of nuclear facilities are non-radioactive per se.
An additional significant share of materials is of very low-level or low-level radioactivity and can, after having undergone treatment and a clearance process, be recycled and reused in a restricted or unrestricted way. Recycle and reuse options today provide valuable solutions to minimise radioactive waste from decommissioning and at the same time maximise the recovery of valuable materials. The NEA Co-operative Programme on Decommissioning CPD prepared this overview on the various approaches being undertaken by international and national organisations for the management of slightly contaminated material resulting from activities in the nuclear sector.
It provides information on improvements and changes in technologies, methodologies and regulations since the report on this subject, with the conclusions and recommendations taking into account 20 years of additional experience that will be useful for current and future practitioners. Case studies are provided to illustrate significant points of interest, for example in relation to scrap metals, concrete and soil.
The project was endorsed as an official activity of the NSC in June While the NEA co-ordinates and administers the IRPhE Project at the international level, each participating country is responsible for the administration, technical direction and priorities of the project within their respective countries. The information and data included in this handbook are available to NEA member countries, contributors and to others on a case-by-case basis. This handbook contains reactor physics benchmark specifications that have been derived from experiments performed at nuclear facilities around the world.
The benchmark specifications are intended for use by reactor designers, safety analysts and nuclear data evaluators to validate calculation techniques and data. Example calculations are presented; these do not constitute a validation or endorsement of the codes or cross-section data. The edition of the International Handbook of Evaluated Reactor Physics Benchmark Experiments contains data from experimental series that were performed at 50 reactor facilities. To be published as approved benchmarks, the experiments must be evaluated against agreed technical criteria and reviewed by the IRPhE Technical Review Group.
A total of of the evaluations are published as approved benchmarks. New to the handbook is the evaluation of the CERES Phase II validation of fission product poisoning through reactivity worth measurements, which includes 13 fission products. The front cover of this year? The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident has had an impact on the development of nuclear power around the world. While the accident was followed by thorough technical assessments of the safety of all operating nuclear power plants, and a general increase in safety requirements has been observed worldwide, national policy responses have been more varied.
These responses have ranged from countries phasing out or accelerating decisions to phase out nuclear energy to countries reducing their reliance on nuclear power or on the contrary continuing to pursue or expand their nuclear power programmes. This study examines changes to policies, and plans and attempts to distinguish the impact of the Fukushima Daiichi accident from other factors that have affected policymaking in relation to nuclear energy, in particular electricity market economics, financing challenges and competition from other sources gas, coal and renewables.
It also examines changes over time to long-term, quantitative country projections, which reveal interesting trends on the possible role of nuclear energy in future energy systems. Worldwide consensus exists within the international community that geological repositories can provide the necessary long-term safety and security to isolate long-lived radioactive waste from the human environment over long timescales.
Such repositories are also feasible to construct using current technologies. However, proving the technical merits and safety of repositories, while satisfying societal and political requirements, has been a challenge in many countries. Building upon the success of previous conferences held in Denver , Stockholm , Berne and Toronto , the ICGR brought together high-level decision makers from regulatory and local government bodies, waste management organisations and public stakeholder communities to review current perspectives of geological repository development.
This publication provides a synthesis of the conference on continued engagement and safe implementation of repositories, which was designed to promote information and experience sharing, particularly in the development of polices and regulatory frameworks. Repository safety, and the planning and implementation of repository programmes with societal involvement, as well as ongoing work within different international organisations, were also addressed at the conference. Feature articles in this issue include: "Strengthening the international legal framework for nuclear security: Better sooner rather than later"; "Brexit, Euratom and nuclear proliferation"; and "McMunn et al.
Communication has a specific role to play in the development of deep geological repositories. Building trust with the stakeholders involved in this process, particularly within the local community, is key for effective communication between the authorities and the public. There are also clear benefits to having technical experts hone their communication skills and having communication experts integrated into the development process.
This report has compiled lessons from both failures and successes in communicating technical information to non-technical audiences. It addresses two key questions in particular: what is the experience base concerning the effectiveness or non-effectiveness of different tools for communicating safety case results to a non-technical audience and how can communication based on this experience be improved and included into a safety case development effort from the beginning?
The project quickly became an international effort as scientists from other interested countries became involved. This handbook contains criticality safety benchmark specifications that have been derived from experiments performed at various critical facilities around the world. The benchmark specifications are intended for use by criticality safety engineers to validate calculation techniques used to establish minimum subcritical margins for operations with fissile material and to determine criticality alarm requirements and placement. Many of the specifications are also useful for nuclear data testing.
Example calculations are presented; however, these do not constitute a validation of the codes or cross-section data. The evaluated criticality safety benchmark data are given in nine volumes. New to the handbook are 15 critical experiments with highly enriched uranium in an iron matrix performed to support the design of a repetitively pulsed reactor called the Sorgenta Rapida Reactor SORA at the Eurotom Research Centre in Ispra, Italy.
A photograph of this experiment assembly is shown on the front cover. Information provided by governments includes statistics on installed generating capacity, total electricity produced by all sources and by nuclear power, nuclear energy policies and fuel cycle developments, as well as projections of nuclear generating capacity and electricity production to , where available.
Total electricity generation at nuclear power plants and the share of electricity production from nuclear power plants increased slightly in , by 0. Two new units were connected to the grid in , in Russia and Korea; two reactors returned to operation in Japan under the new regulatory regime; and seven reactors were officially shut down - five in Japan, one in Germany and one in the United Kingdom. Governments committed to having nuclear power in the energy mix advanced plans for developing or increasing nuclear generating capacity, with the preparation of new build projects progressing in Finland, Hungary, Turkey and the United Kingdom.
Donnees sur l'energie nucleaire Les Donnees sur l'energie nucleaire, compilation annuelle de statistiques et de rapports nationaux de l'Agence de l'OCDE pour l'energie nucleaire, presentent la situation de l'energie nucleaire dans les pays membres de l'AEN et dans la zone de l'OCDE. Les informations communiquees par les gouvernements comprennent des statistiques sur la puissance installee, la production d'electricite totale et nucleaire, les politiques nucleaires, les evolutions du cycle du combustible ainsi que, lorsqu'elles sont disponibles, des projections jusqu'en de la puissance nucleaire et de la production d'electricite.
Deux nouveaux reacteurs ont ete raccordes au reseau en Russie et en Coree, deux reacteurs ont ete remis en service au Japon, ou un nouveau regime de surete est en vigueur, et sept reacteurs ont ete mis officiellement et definitivement a l'arret - cinq au Japon, un en Allemagne et un au Royaume-Uni. Les pays decides a inclure le nucleaire dans leur bouquet energetique ont poursuivi leurs projets de developpement ou d'augmentation de la puissance nucleaire installee, et ont realise des avancees dans de futurs projets de construction en Finlande, en Hongrie, au Royaume-Uni et en Turquie.
Although a valuable commodity, declining market prices for uranium in recent years, driven by uncertainties concerning evolutions in the use of nuclear power, have led to the postponement of mine development plans in a number of countries and to some questions being raised about future uranium supply.
This 26th edition of the "Red Book", a recognised world reference on uranium jointly prepared by the Nuclear Energy Agency NEA and the International Atomic Energy Agency IAEA , provides analyses and information from 49 producing and consuming countries in order to address these and other questions.
Recent interest in small modular reactors SMRs is being driven by a desire to reduce the total capital costs associated with nuclear power plants and to provide power to small grid systems. According to estimates available today, if all the competitive advantages of SMRs were realised, including serial production, optimised supply chains and smaller financing costs, SMRs could be expected to have lower absolute and specific per-kWe construction costs than large reactors.
Although the economic parameters of SMRs are not yet fully determined, a potential market exists for this technology, particularly in energy mixes with large shares of renewables. This report assesses the size of the market for SMRs that are currently being developed and that have the potential to broaden the ways of deploying nuclear power in different parts of the world. The study focuses on light water SMRs that are expected to be constructed in the coming decades and that strongly rely on serial, factory-based production of reactor modules.
It is important to understand the costs of decommissioning projects in order to develop realistic cost estimates as early as possible based on preliminary decommissioning plans, but also to develop funding mechanisms to ensure that future decommissioning expenses can be adequately covered. Sound financial provisions need to be accumulated early on to reduce the potential risk for residual, unfunded liabilities and the burden on future generations, while ensuring environmental protection.
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Decommissioning planning can be subject to considerable uncertainties, particularly in relation to potential changes in financial markets, in energy policies or in the conditions and requirements for decommissioning individual nuclear installations, and such uncertainties need to be reflected in regularly updated cost estimates. This booklet offers a useful overview of the relevant aspects of financing the decommissioning of nuclear facilities.
It provides information on cost estimation for decommissioning, as well as details about funding mechanisms and the management of funds based on current practice in NEA member countries. The Nuclear Energy Agency carried out an independent peer review of Japan's siting process and criteria for the geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste in May The review concluded that Japan's site screening process is generally in accordance with international practices.
As the goal of the siting process is to locate a site -- that is both appropriate and accepted by the community -- to host a geological disposal facility for high-level radioactive waste, the international review team emphasises in this report the importance of maintaining an open dialogue and interaction between the regulator, the implementer and the public.
Dialogue should begin in the early phases and continue throughout the siting process. The international review team also underlines the importance of taking into account feasibility aspects when selecting a site for preliminary investigations, but suggests that it would be inappropriate to set detailed scientific criteria for nationwide screening at this stage. The team has provided extensive advisory remarks in the report as opportunities for improvement, including the recommendation to use clear and consistent terminology in defining the site screening criteria as it is a critical factor in a successful siting process.
Various waste classification schemes have thus evolved in most countries, and these schemes classify radioactive waste according to its origin, to criteria related to the protection of workers or to the physical, chemical and radiological properties of the waste and the planned disposal method s. To help improve this situation, the Nuclear Energy Agency proposed to develop a methodology that would ensure consistency of national radioactive waste inventory data when presenting them in a common scheme. This report provides such a methodology and presenting scheme for spent nuclear fuel and for waste arising from reprocessing.
The extension of the methodology and presenting scheme to other types of radioactive waste and corresponding management strategies is envisaged in a second phase. Nuclear sites around the world are being decommissioned and remedial actions are being undertaken to enable sites, or parts of sites, to be reused. Although such activities are relatively straightforward for most sites, experience has suggested that preventative action is needed to minimise the impact of remediation activities on the environment and the potential burden to future generations.
Removing all contamination in order to make a site suitable for any use generates waste and has associated environmental, social and economic drawbacks and benefits. Site remediation should thus be sustainable and result in an overall net benefit. This report draws on recent experience of NEA member countries in nuclear site remediation during decommissioning in order to identify strategic considerations for the sustainable remediation of subsurface contamination — predominantly contaminated soil and groundwater — to describe good practice, and to make recommendations for further research and development.
It provides insights for the decision makers, regulators, implementers and stakeholders involved in nuclear site decommissioning so as to ensure the sustainable remediation of nuclear sites, now and in the future. Since the discovery of radiation at the end of the 19th century, the health effects of exposure to radiation have been studied more than almost any other factor with potential effects on human health. The NEA has long been involved in discussions on the effects of radiation exposure, releasing two reports in and on radiological protection science. This report is the third in this state-of-the-art series, examining recent advances in the understanding of radiation risks and effects, particularly at low doses.
It focuses on radiobiology and epidemiology, and also addresses the social science aspects of stakeholder involvement in radiological protection decision making. The report summarises the status of, and issues arising from, the application of the International System of Radiological Protection to different types of prevailing circumstances. While refurbishments for the long-term operation of nuclear power plants and for the lifetime extension of such plants have been widely pursued in recent years, the number of plants to be decommissioned is nonetheless expected to increase in future, particularly in the United States and Europe.
It is thus important to understand the costs of decommissioning so as to develop coherent and cost-effective strategies, realistic cost estimates based on decommissioning plans from the outset of operations and mechanisms to ensure that future decommissioning expenses can be adequately covered. This study presents the results of an NEA review of the costs of decommissioning nuclear power plants and of overall funding practices adopted across NEA member countries.
The study is based on the results of this NEA questionnaire, on actual decommissioning costs or estimates, and on plans for the establishment and management of decommissioning funds. Case studies are included to provide insight into decommissioning practices in a number of countries. Countries around the world continue to implement safety improvements and corrective actions based on lessons learnt from the 11 March accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. This report provides a high-level summary and update on these activities, and outlines further lessons learnt and challenges identified for future consideration.
It focuses on actions taken by NEA committees and NEA member countries, and as such is complementary to reports produced by other international organisations. It is in a spirit of openness and transparency that NEA member countries share this information to illustrate that appropriate actions are being taken to maintain and enhance the level of safety at their nuclear facilities. Nuclear power plants are safer today because of these actions. High priority follow-on items identified by NEA committees are provided to assist countries in continuously benchmarking and improving their nuclear safety practices.
The fundamental objective of all nuclear safety regulatory bodies is to ensure that activities related to the peaceful use of nuclear energy are carried out in a safe manner within their respective countries. In order to effectively achieve this objective, the nuclear regulatory body requires specific characteristics, one of which is a healthy safety culture. This regulatory guidance report describes five principles that support the safety culture of an effective nuclear regulatory body.
These principles concern leadership for safety, individual responsibility and accountability, co-operation and open communication, a holistic approach, and continuous improvement, learning and self-assessment. The report also addresses some of the challenges to a regulatory body's safety culture that must be recognised, understood and overcome.
It provides a unique resource to countries with existing, mature regulators and can be used for benchmarking as well as for training and developing staff. It will also be useful for new entrant countries in the process of developing and maintaining an effective nuclear safety regulator. Defence in depth DiD is a concept that has been used for many years alongside tools to optimise nuclear safety in reactor design, assessment and regulation. The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident provided unique insight into nuclear safety issues and raised questions about the tools used at nuclear power plants, including the effectiveness of the DiD concept, and whether DiD can be enhanced and its implementation improved.
This regulatory guidance booklet examines and provides advice on the implementation of DiD. A key observation is that the use of the DiD concept remains valid after the Fukushima Daiichi accident. Indeed, lessons learnt from the accident, and the accident? This report is intended primarily for nuclear regulatory bodies, although information included herein is expected to be of interest to licensees, nuclear industry organisations and the general public.
Feature articles in this issue include? Treaty implementation applied to conventions on nuclear safety? Crisis, criticism, change: Regulatory reform in the wake of nuclear accidents?. Radioactive waste management is embedded in broader societal issues such as the environment, risk management, energy, health policy and sustainability. In all these fields, there is an increasing demand for public involvement and engagement. This update of Stakeholder Involvement Techniques: Short Guide and Annotated Bibliography, assists practitioners and non-specialists by outlining the steps and issues associated with stakeholder involvement in decision making and by facilitating access to useful online resources handbooks, toolboxes and case studies.
The updated guide has been considerably enriched with experiences since and includes extensive references to the literature. It is published alongside the release of an online annotated bibliography that will be updated regularly. Example calculations are presented; however, these calculations do not constitute a validation of the codes or cross-section data.
A photograph of this experiment is shown on the front cover. In the field of long-term radioactive waste management, projects to construct repositories normally last from decades to centuries. Such projects will inevitably have an effect on the host community from the planning stage to the end of construction and beyond. The key to a long-lasting and positive relationship between a site and its host community is ensuring that solutions are reached together throughout the entire process.
The sustainability of radioactive waste management solutions can potentially be achieved through design and implementation of a facility that provides added cultural and amenity value, as well as economic opportunities, to the local community. This second edition of Fostering a Durable Relationship Between a Waste Management Facility and its Host Community: Adding Value Through Design and Process highlights new innovations in siting processes and in facility design — functional, cultural and physical — from different countries, which could be of added value to host communities and their sites in the short to long term.
These new features are examined from the perspective of sustainability, with a focus on increasing the likelihood that people will both understand the facility and its functions, and remember what is located at the site. This update by the NEA Forum on Stakeholder Confidence will be beneficial in designing paths forward for local or regional communities, as well as for national radioactive waste management programmes. Feature articles in this issue include "Entry into force of the Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage: Opening the umbrella"; "Towards a new international framework for nuclear safety: Developments from Fukushima to Vienna"; "Nuclear arbitration: Interpreting non-proliferation agreements".
The conference was attended by approximately participants from 17 countries and 3 international organisations. Participants included specialists from the radioactive waste management area and beyond, academics in the fields of archaeology, communications, cultural heritage, geography and history, as well as artists, archivists, representatives from local heritage societies and from communities that could host a radioactive waste repository. The global response to address climate change is a key policy challenge of the 21st century. Many governments around the world have agreed that action should be taken to achieve large cuts in greenhouse gas GHG emissions over the coming decades, to adapt to the impacts of climate change and to ensure the necessary financial and technical support for developing countries to take action.
This brochure describes the role that nuclear energy can play in helping to combat climate change, and sets that role in the context of all low-carbon electricity sources, with specific references to renewables. Information provided by member country governments includes statistics on installed generating capacity, total electricity produced by all sources and by nuclear power, nuclear energy policies and fuel cycle developments, as well as projected generating capacity and electricity production to , where available.
Total electricity generation at nuclear power plants and the share of electricity production from nuclear power plants increased slightly in , by 1. Les Donnees sur l'energie nucleaire, compilation annuelle de statistiques et de rapports nationaux de l'Agence de l'OCDE pour l'energie nucleaire, presentent la situation de l'energie nucleaire dans les pays de l'OCDE. Les informations communiquees par les pouvoirs publics des pays membres de l'OCDE comprennent des statistiques sur la puissance nucleaire installee, la production d'electricite totale et nucleaire, les politiques nucleaires, les evolutions du cycle du combustible ainsi que, lorsqu'elles sont disponibles, des projections jusqu'en de la puissance nucleaire et de la production d'electricite.
Aucun nouveau reacteur n'a ete connecte au reseau dans les pays de l'OCDE, et un reacteur, aux Etats-Unis, a ete mis definitivement a l'arret. Les pays decides a inclure le nucleaire dans leur bouquet energetique ont poursuivi leurs projets de developper ou d'augmenter la puissance nucleaire installee, avec des avancees dans de futurs projets de construction en Finlande, en Hongrie, au Royaume-Uni et en Turquie. As policy makers work to ensure that the power supply is reliable, secure and affordable, while making it increasingly clean and sustainable in the context of the debate on climate change, it is becoming more crucial that they understand what determines the relative cost of electricity generation using fossil fuel, nuclear or renewable sources of energy.
A wide range of fuels and technologies are presented in the report, including natural gas, coal, nuclear, hydro, solar, onshore and offshore wind, biomass and biogas, geothermal, and combined heat and power, drawing on a database from surveys of investment and operating costs that include a larger number of countries than previous editions. The analysis of more than plants, based on data covering 22 countries, reveals several key trends, pointing, for example, to a significant decline in recent years in the cost of renewable generation.
The report also reveals that nuclear energy costs remain in line with the cost of other baseload technologies, particularly in markets that value decarbonisation. Overall, cost drivers of the different generating technologies remain both market-specific and technology-specific.
Readers will find a wealth of details and analysis, supported by over figures and tables, underlining this report's value as a tool for decision makers and researchers concerned with energy policies, climate change and the evolution of power sectors around the world. Heavy liquid metals such as lead or lead-bismuth have been proposed and investigated as coolants for fast reactors since the s. More recently, there has been renewed interest worldwide in the use of these materials to support the development of systems for the transmutation of radioactive waste.
Heavy liquid metals are also under evaluation as a reactor core coolant and accelerator-driven system neutron spallation source. In , a first edition of the handbook was published to provide deeper insight into the properties and experimental results in relation to lead and lead-bismuth eutectic technology and establish a common database. This handbook remains a reference and is a valuable tool for designers and researchers with an interest in heavy liquid metals. Since the beginning of the nuclear era, significant scientific attention has been given to thorium's potential as a nuclear fuel.
Although the thorium fuel cycle has never been fully developed, the opportunities and challenges that might arise from the use of thorium in the nuclear fuel cycle are still being studied in many countries and in the context of diverse international programmes around the world. This report provides a scientific assessment of thorium's potential role in nuclear energy both in the short to longer term, addressing diverse options, potential drivers and current impediments to be considered if thorium fuel cycles are to be pursued. Nuclear new build has been progressing steadily since the year , with the construction of 94 new reactors initiated and 56 completed reactors connected to the grid.
Drawing on a combination of conceptual analysis, expert opinion and seven in-depth case studies, this report provides policymakers and stakeholders with an overview of the principal challenges facing nuclear new build today, as well as ways to address and overcome them. It focuses on the most important challenges of building a new nuclear power plant, namely assembling the conditions necessary to successfully finance and manage highly complex construction processes and their supply chains.
Different projects have chosen different paths, but they nonetheless share a number of features. Financing capital-intensive nuclear new build projects requires, for example, the long-term stabilisation of electricity prices whether through tariffs, power purchase agreements or contracts for difference. In construction, the global convergence of engineering codes and quality standards would also promote both competition and public confidence.
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In addition, change management, early supply chain planning and "soft issues" such as leadership, team building and trust have emerged over and again as key factors in the new build construction process. This report looks at ongoing trends in these areas and possible ways forward. Several approaches are currently being used for decommissioning cost estimations, with an international culture developing in the field.
The present cost estimation practice guide was prepared in order to offer international actors specific guidance in preparing quality cost and schedule estimates to support detailed budgeting for decommissioning implementation, for the preparation of decommissioning plans and for the securing of funds. This guide is based on current practices and standards in a number of NEA member countries and aims to help consolidate the practice and process of decommissioning cost estimation so as to make it more widely understood.
It offers a useful reference for the practitioner and for training programmes. Spent nuclear fuel contains minor actinides MAs such as neptunium, americium and curium, which require careful management. This becomes even more important when mixed oxide MOX fuel is being used on a large scale since more MAs will accumulate in the spent fuel.
One way to manage these MAs is to transmute them in nuclear reactors, including in light water reactors, fast reactors or accelerator-driven subcritical systems. The transmutation of MAs, however, is not straightforward, as the loading of MAs generally affects physics parameters, such as coolant void, Doppler and burn-up reactivity. This report focuses on nuclear data requirements for minor actinide management, the review of existing integral data and the determination of required experimental work, the identification of bottlenecks and possible solutions, and the recommendation of an action programme for international co-operation.
It provides subscribers with authoritative and comprehensive information on nuclear law developments. Published twice a year in both English and French, it features topical articles written by renowned legal experts, covers legislative developments worldwide and reports on relevant case law, bilateral and international agreements as well as regulatory activities of international organisations. Feature articles in this issue include "Facilitating the entry into force and implementation of the Amendment to the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material: Observations, challenges and benefits"; "The legal status of nuclear power in Germany"; "Challenges facing the insurance industry since the modernisation of the international nuclear third party liability regime"; "Draft Federal Act of the Russian Federation, 'The Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage and its Financial Security'".
Ses abonnes beneficient d'informations exhaustives qui font autorite sur les developpements qui touchent ce droit. Publie deux fois par an en anglais et en francais, il propose des articles thematiques rediges par des experts juridiques renommes, rend compte du developpement des legislations a travers le monde et presente la jurisprudence et les accords bilateraux et multilateraux pertinents ainsi que les activites reglementaires des organisations internationales.
Les principaux articles de ce numero portent sur : " Les progres vers un regime mondial de responsabilite civile nucleaire " ; " La Convention sur la reparation complementaire des dommages nucleaires et participation des pays en developpement : Perspective de l'Afrique du Sud " ; " L'energie de fusion et la responsabilite civile nucleaire " ; et " L'energie nucleaire et la societe indienne : Participation du public, evaluation des risques et cadre juridique ". These volumes span approximately 67? New to the handbook are benchmark specifications for subcritical measurements of a nickel-reflected, plutonium-metal sphere performed at the National Criticality Experiments Research Center NCERC by experimenters at the Los Alamos National Laboratory in Development of innovative fuels such as homogeneous and heterogeneous fuels, ADS fuels, and oxide, metal, nitride and carbide fuels is an important stage in the implementation process of advanced nuclear systems.
Minor actinides can be converted into a suitable fuel form for irradiation in reactor systems where they are transmuted into fission products with a significantly shorter half-life. This report compares recent studies of fuels containing minor actinides for use in advanced nuclear systems.
The studies review different fuels for several types of advanced reactors by examining various technical issues associated with fabrication, characterisation, irradiation performance, design and safety criteria, as well as technical maturity. Total electricity generation at nuclear power plants and the share of electricity production from nuclear power plants remained steady in despite the progressive shutdown of all reactors in Japan leading up to September and the permanent closure of six reactors in the OECD area.
Governments committed to maintaining nuclear power in the energy mix advanced plans for increasing nuclear generating capacity, and progress was made in the development of deep geological repositories for spent nuclear fuel, with Finland expected to have the first such facility in operation in the early s. Les Donnees sur l'energie nucleaire, compilation annuelle de statistiques et de rapports nationaux de l'Agence de l'OCDE pour l'energie nucleaire, presente la situation de l'energie nucleaire dans les pays de l'OCDE. Les informations communiquees par les pouvoirs publics des pays membres de l'OCDE comprennent des statistiques sur la puissance nucleaire installee et sur la production d'electricite totale et nucleaire, les politiques nucleaires et les evolutions du cycle du combustible ainsi que, lorsqu'elles sont disponibles, des projections jusqu'en de la puissance nucleaire installee et de la production d'electricite.
En , la production totale d'electricite des centrales nucleaires ainsi que la part du nucleaire dans la production d'electricite sont restees stables malgre les mises a l'arret de tous les reacteurs japonais, intervenues progressivement jusqu'a septembre, et la mise a l'arret definitif de six reacteurs dans la zone de l'OCDE. Les pays decides a conserver le nucleaire dans leur mix energetique ont poursuivi leurs projets d'augmentation de la puissance nucleaire installee. Le developpement de centres de stockages en couche geologique profonde pour le combustible use a lui aussi progresse, la premiere installation de ce type devant entrer en exploitation en Finlande au debut des annees Cette publication contient des " StatLinks ".
Peer reviews are a standard co-operative OECD working tool that offer member countries a framework to compare experiences and examine best practices in a host of areas. It includes checklists that will help national programmes or relevant organisations to assess and improve decommissioning cost estimate practices in the future. This guide will act as the NEA reference for conducting such international peer reviews.
Uranium is the raw material used to fuel over operational nuclear reactors around the world that produce large amounts of electricity and benefit from life cycle carbon emissions as low as renewable energy sources. Although a valuable commodity, declining market prices for uranium since the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident in , driven by uncertainties concerning the future of nuclear power, have led to the postponement of mine development plans in a number of countries and raised questions about continued uranium supply.
This 25th edition of the "Red Book", a recognised world reference on uranium jointly prepared by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and the International Atomic Energy Agency, provides analyses and information from 45 producing and consuming countries in order to address these and other questions. It includes data on global uranium exploration, resources, production and reactor-related requirements. It offers updated information on established uranium production centres and mine development plans, as well as projections of nuclear generating capacity and reactor-related requirements through , incorporating policy changes following the Fukushima accident, in order to address long-term uranium supply and demand issues.
It provides authoritative and comprehensive information on nuclear law developments. Feature articles in this issue include: "Progress towards a global nuclear liability regime"; "The Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage and participation by developing countries: A South African perspective"; "Fusion energy and nuclear liability considerations"; and "Nuclear energy and Indian society: Public engagement, risk assessment and legal frameworks". Decommissioning of nuclear facilities and related remedial actions are currently being undertaken around the world to enable sites or parts of sites to be reused for other purposes.
Remediation has generally been considered as the last step in a sequence of decommissioning steps, but the values of prevention, long-term planning and parallel remediation are increasingly being recognised as important steps in the process. This report, prepared by the Task Group on Nuclear Site Restoration of the NEA Co-operative Programme on Decommissioning, highlights lessons learnt from remediation experiences of NEA member countries that may be particularly helpful to practitioners of nuclear site remediation, regulators and site operators.
It provides observations and recommendations to consider in the development of strategies and plans for efficient nuclear site remediation that ensures protection of workers and the environment. Producing uranium in a safe and environmentally responsible manner is not only important to the producers and consumers of the product, but also to society at large. Both national and international organisations agree that the fundamental objective of all nuclear safety regulatory bodies -- the regulator's prime purpose -- is to ensure that nuclear licensees operate their facilities at all times in a safe manner.
But until now, none have focused on the characteristics of an effective nuclear safety regulator.