When the Flies Once Owned the Camels and Eighty Other Stories of the Rendille

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Guaranteed Delivery see all. No preference. Condition see all. Brand new. Like new. Very good. Please provide a valid price range. Item location see all. Australia Only. Delivery options see all. Show only see all. The beetle Malingo Contents note continued: The dikdik and the hare The three girls Nge-ngemedi The greedy man Another greedy man The woman and her buttocks Ko-dura or Berri-kimo The furnigation The lugu'd The visiting Roongummo warrior The Roongummo man and the lafo aacchi marriage The woman and her tibaato The Roongummo girl The angry rhinoceros horn The wife as head of the family The eight-headed woman Rendille under women's rule The hajjuusa and the mahan The poor girl The dragged decision The life giving thing The foolish man and his son The two robbers Khorojebsi, the giant snake" python?

The giant defeated The clever Turuga The sacred green camel Eysimerta's big problem The clever brothers The foolish warrior and the clever warrior The sankuleite Comments to the Rendille myth of origin Contents note continued: The Rendille myth of origin This means that in a country where the roads are poor to non-existent, the baggage camel may be the transport of choice. Loading of the camel is best accomplished with the animal in sternal recumbency and, unless it is a fully trusted animal, the front legs tied in flexion by a rope over the neck or the halter held by an assistant.

Packsaddle design varies a great deal in different regions. The loader should always make sure that the saddle is adequately padded to prevent skin abrasion, that the load is evenly distributed on each side and that the load is kept clear of the hump. When the camel is standing after loading, girths may be tight enough to just permit passage of the hand. No part of the load should restrict freedom of limb movement.

Over tightening of the flank girth, either per se or as a result of load slippage, can damage the penis and urethra of male camels. Ideally, this means gradually increasing the load and distance traveled from half to full over a period of 8 to 10 weeks. This will benefit musculoskeletal system as well as the skin which will become tough at the load bearing points and more resistant to saddle sores. Fully loaded, unconditioned camels and those overloaded, are likely to have difficulty lifting the load and are subject to tearing of the muscular attachments of the forelimb.

They can be pushed a lot harder, but their body condition will not hold up, their resistance to disease will be diminished and their working life would be shortened. Well managed camels involved in baggage and transport work are expected to have normal working life from age 6 to age 20 years.

Write a note on draught camels. There are many countries in Africa and a few in Asia where even today the camel provides power for wheeled transport, tilling of agricultural land, grain grinding machines, for oil extraction devices, cane crushers and for drawing water from wells. Part — I Production and Management of Camels Castrated males of a heavy build are preferred but all types and even females are used. The camel is roughly comparable to the light draught horse in power output but staminawise the camel far exceeds the horse.

The camel can be harnessed to two or four wheeled vehicles. Large teams were once used to pull wagon loads of wool in outback Australia. One example is that of a transporter in Australia who regularly hauled 14 tons of wool with a 14 camel team. Daily stages of 30 km with the loaded wagon and 45 km with the empty wagon were common for Australian team. It is a general rule that one day of rest should be provided to the camel for each day of heavy work, but not necessarily day by day.

Perhaps work a week and then some days spelled. Otherwise the animals lose body condition and general health and resistance declines. The draught camel drawing a wheeled vehicle has the advantage that it is not constantly supporting a heavy load against a gravitational pull. Once the load is rolling over the firm ground, the tractive effort is minimal on level going and almost nothing on a downgrade. Big effort is only required to start or make the load moving and on upgrades.

In fact many camels are renowned for dead pull ability. They have been used to extricate stuck up motor vehicles. For ploughing the camel can be used singly, in pairs and even yoked together with a different species. The stature and morphology of the camel requires a relatively high point of draught and, unless the traces are relatively long, there is tendency for the plough to lift. Possibly a camel of heavy build but short in legs should be selected for tillage work. Otherwise the distance of the camel in front of the ploughman may require the camel being led by another person.

Six to eight hours of work per day is reasonable. Since ploughing usually is a seasonal work, therefore rest for the camel is not a problem. Off season provides ample time for rest and recuperation. Give the causes along with a suitable treatment. Camels that are unable to rise to a standing position are called downer camels. There may be a variety of reasons for this problem such as damage to muscles, bones and nerves.

Metabolic and some severe infectious diseases may also result into this type of inability. Severe pelvic fracture, hind leg long bone fracture, broken back, spinal injury and infections and abscesses, plant poisoning, snake bite, tick paralysis and epidural anaesthetic overdose all cause this inability. It is, however, necessary to be sure that there is no other reason for the continued recumbency before using force to induce the camel to rise.

Therefore, early use of antiinflammatory drugs e. Finadyne, Dexatomonol and corticosteroids Dexone-5 can be of benefit. Part — I Production and Management of Camels recumbency is determined, its treatment must be pursued with vigour. A debate exists as to the value of using slings to get the camel off the ground, as against allowing it to be recumbent until it either recovers or is deemed to be a hopeless case.

However, over the time it is necessary that these animals are assisted to stand at least twice in 24 hours and given support for some time to watch whether they have gained stability. It is important that these animals be fed a sound nourishing diet so that their strength may be maintained. Give a full length description of conformation of riding camels.

Riding camels should have a well-balanced conformation so that both the rider and the camel are comfortable at the faster gaits. They are finer boned and more agile than the heavier baggage and draught camels.

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The feet should be of medium size, but large enough to support the weight of the camel and rider and small enough to be consistent with agility. The forefeet should face forward while the hind may toe out slightly. The sole pads should be tough, yet pliable and evenly worn. The forelimbs should be well muscled, long and straight and, while closer together than in the heavier types of camels, the elbows must not brush the pedestal.

The hind legs should be long, nearly straight to quite straight and free from sickle hocks and bowing. The croup should slope anteriorly up at degree. The thigh and gluteal muscles, although small in camels and more so in riding camels, yet be well formed. The head should be smallish, fine and neat, with large prominent eyes.

The head carriage should be such that the anterior facial plane is almost parallel to the ground. The neck should show good muscling without coarseness. It should have a low body attachment and extend forward horizontally for almost half of its length before sweeping vertically upward. The body should show good chest capacity. The flanks should be short and the abdomen small but well rounded. The description given above should not be interpreted to mean that animals lacking all the above features cannot be ridden.

Any camel can be trained to be a riding camel.

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However, animals with less desirable conformation are usually less comfortable and tiring to both the rider and themselves, especially over long journeys. Military protocol and records provide the best insight into the capabilities of the riding camel. The load includes rider, saddle, arms, and personal gear for army camels, which together make about kg.

The center of gravity of the camel is said to be about 15 cm above and behind the elbow. This position affords better control over the camel. For racing and the training of novice riders, a position behind the hump is preferred since it gives the rider a definite sense of security. In an emergency he can grasp the hair on the top or sides of the hump Manefield and Tinson, Are riding and racing camels much different conformationwise?

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Give an outline of selection, training and management of racing camels. Conformationwise racing camels are not much different from real riding type of camels. As a matter of fact racing camels emerge from fine and faster groups of riding camels. It is their training that helps them develop into racing camels.

The fastest of them appear to have developed in Sudan, where racing as a sport also occurs since long. Camel racing has probably been going on since the animal was first employed for riding. As a highly organized sport on specially prepared tracks, with rules governing participation and conduct, it has only been going on for the last two and a half decades.

Royal sheikhs and other wealthy people have set up breeding centers, some using sophisticated artificial breeding methods, to speed up the reproductive rate of their best camels and increase the likelihood of producing champions. Although seemingly the camel does not appear to be a trainable animal, yet training must be undertaken to condition all the body systems to withstand the physical, physiological and psychological stresses involved.

The intensity of competition dictates that every possible advantage must be exercised since races may be won or lost by a few centimetres. Practice conditioning races commencing at 2 and working up to 4 km are held regularly in September on country tracks. These tracks are generally straight raceways fenced with a top rail of water piping and a couple of plain wires. Gradually the camels are jogged and raced into fitness to race longer distances.

In fact, there is some racing activity year round, while the already trained racing camels are resting from May to August, the new 2 year old crop is being trained and tested in the early hours of morning. Segregation of competitor camels is made first on the basis of purebred local, crossbred Sudani and pure Sudani. They are further subdivided to run in age groups of 3 to 4 years, 4 to 5, 5 to 6 and over 6 years.

The criterion for age is tooth eruption. Serious racing commences at the distance of 5 km. As the season progresses, most of the races are held over 8km. Tracks are so constructed as to provide the distance with one circuit. Over an 8 to 10 km distance the camels may get quite a long way away from the spectators.

To compensate for this the grandstands are equipped with television sets. Race times do vary from track to track. For 5 km a very good time is under 8 min 30 sec, for 6 km under 10 min. For 8 km the best time is between 13 and 14 min, but camels running under 14 min 20 sec may win some races. For 10 km the best times are under 18 min, but 18 min 20 sec can still win some races. For a detailed account of training racing camels, you are referred to Manefield and Tinson To be able to select superior racing camels at an early stage of their career, three scientific criteria are suggested.

It has been demonstrated that camels that have exhibited superior racing performance have had larger maximum oxygen uptake capacity VO2max than individuals with poor performance. It is an inherited trait and no training method seems to modify it. Part — I Production and Management of Camels performers may be in the 40 to 50 range.

The same superior camels have also been shown to generate less plasma lactate when they are exercised at a given intensity velocity and time on a treadmill at a sub-maximal level. Also, superior camels have a greater stride length, both pacing and galloping. This is also probably an inherited characteristic. A study showed that the fastest camels had the longest stride length and the lowest stride frequency.

The fastest camel had a stride length of 5. Such assessments can be made by using a treadmill. For VO2max any workable system that can be used for the horse, should be adequate for the camel. The design and fitting of the mask is important, especially for the closed system where an airtight fit is required. Management: For the purposes of management, racing camels are generally kept in camp groups of animals almost throughout the year. Basic training of new young camels commences in special camps at about 12 months of age. After this they are tried as racing camels and only the swiftest find their way into a racing camp at about 2 years age.

During the racing season, the camps are usually centralized near the race tracks, forming large communities of camps with thousands of racing camels. During the resting hot season, the camps generally disperse from the central location to some favoured area where the camels may be allowed free ranging during the day. These areas are also chosen for their relative freedom from worrying insects and disease occurrence.

Each camp is self sufficient in having all necessary personnel, a water tank, a vehicle to transport fodder. Some groups may have access to a purpose built training swimming pool and a treadmill. Each camp is under the control of a head trainer whose assistants are responsible for timely feeding, exercise and continuous care of the animals. Until a few years ago, all camels were tethered to a buried object within their camps, with front leg hobbled with a rope. This method is still used for many young camels. Now portable pens constructed from steel piping are becoming popular.

They are so constructed as to pin together to form small pens or large yards. Some people do provide permanent stabling for their animals.

They are usually runs of 4x4 meter pens under a gable roof. Height at the ridge is about 4 meters and at the eaves 3 meters. Most camps provide at least plywood or date frond leaves shade houses for the summer, often tethering the camels under them. This simple protection from radiant heat affords significant comfort. The desert nights and winds can be very chilly in winter.

To protect the animals from wind chill, a common practice is to surround the camp with a permanent wall, a shade cloth fence, or bulldoze up a surrounding earth mound behind which the camel can couch and shelter. In addition the camels are rugged with a blanket. Nothing is worn for fast training runs tafheems on the track. Feeding: Feeding and watering is performed daily. The camels eat and drink from flat troughs approximately 90 cm high, 2. Alfalfa and hay are often fed in similar troughs with fine mesh bottoms.

Several camels may eat or drink from each trough simultaneously. Little actual grooming is done but the camels are washed almost daily with a motorized pump mounted on the back of the water tanker.

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Part — I Production and Management of Camels usually not watered within hours prior to competing. This practice has not been found detrimental to their performance. A typical daily ration contains 10 kg fresh weight of alfalfa tops, 3 to 4 kg of soaked whole barley, 1 kg of dates, 2 litres fresh milk, occasional hay and in some camps vitamin and mineral supplements.

These quantities are divided between two feedings. The camels are reported to run well and look healthy on this diet, but there are reports of frequent digestive upsets. The quantity could be reduced if the grain was cracked. Successful feeding of the racing camel requires that its ration must not be too bulky and gut filling to allow the camel to produce optimum performance and it should not be too highly energy concentrated and low in fibre to permit healthy rumen function.

The feeding of vitamin and mineral supplements is becoming more common to seek some sort of specific performance boost rather than maximizing performance by optimizing general health through better nutritional practices. Much of the supplements fed are washed and excessive quantities may in fact be harmful. If some trainers have some success, they tend to think that if the recommended amount is good then more must be better.

The racing camel trainer likes his camels to present the silhouette a profile or shadow- outline portrait of a fit greyhound i. He feels, probably correctly, that a large belly impedes the forward action of the hind legs and reduces the power to weight ratio. A rumen reasonably full of fibre may be a healthy one, but it appears to be an unnecessary weight on race day.

All camps are visited at least twice each week by a vet and daily when required. Some Sheikhs owning large camel herds employ their own vets and technicians and have sophisticated private laboratories. Routine blood and faecal samples are examined every 4 to 6 weeks. Additional samples are collected from sick camels for diagnostic purposes and whenever the camel registers a poor performance.

Blood is drawn 48 hours after the race or fast track run to allow homeostasis to tend to normalize the measured values. The blood is collected into plain and EDTA evacuated tubes for biochemical and haematological screening. The blood is obtained before the camels eat or leave for morning exercise. The trainer and his staff are very close to the camels and observe the smallest and most subtle changes in their behaviour. Part — I Production and Management of Camels maintain the camels within these limits. Low PCV may be associated with environmental stress such as going to a new race venue or onset of disease or digestive upset.

It appears to be seasonal with the coming of warmer weather. Severe parasitism and trypanosome infection are potent causes. Mild cases caused by stress or idiopathic factors will often improve dramatically following the administration of haematinics and vitamins as tonics. It is advisable to give some vitamin B1 as well. High PCV may be due to temperament. Two year old camels, during their first year in camp, are particularly prone to it.

The restraint must be gentle and the venipuncture and blood extraction done quickly and smoothly if a false high reading is not to be obtained. Some are even difficult to put the halter on and are upset and have a contracted spleen even before the technician approaches. Allowance for elevated PCV and erythrocyte count has to be made if the serum protein is within the normal range. True elevation of PCV seems to be associated with imbalance in water and electrolyte intake. The serum protein may be at the upper normal to slightly increased level. For marked increases in serum protein occur in camel when it is severely dehydrated.

Good response to treat for high PCV is usually obtained by the administration of electrolytes such as Lectade Plus or Hydrate Liquid twice daily for 3 days. Serum iron levels fluctuate drastically in camel. Levels outside this range can indicate the onset of a serious disease and the camel needs to be carefully monitored. Low iron level may be treated with injections such as Hemo or Hippiron.

High iron level can be due to underlying disease or overdosage. Excessive parenteral use of iron has caused kidney damage in equines. Supplements used are Bomin, 20 ml, one dose or Copprite capsules 2 of 4 mg repeated after one month. Copper absorption or availability is complicated by the levels of molybdenum, sulphur and iron in the diet. Although camels are more tolerant of low and high levels of copper than sheep and goats, yet the intake needs to be monitored carefully because excessive intake is associated with poor performance.

Depressed appetite may be shown by camels after racing when overstrained, in illness, due to boredom with the diet or may be a chronic state of ruminal acidosis. It is important that the cause is identified. In conjunction with correction of the cause, Vigest can be used as an oral medication or Mega B, 20 ml, once daily can be injected as a tonic restorative. Camels that leave grain and only eat lucerne should be given some hay since they are probably acidotic.

An oral dose of Ruminodigest and Bykagest antacid will help. When ruminal atony persists, Leocud powder, one, twice daily for three days will help. Write a note on milking camels. The greatest collection of milking camels over five million is in Somalia and the adjoining areas of neighbouring countries. The milk of these camels is the main source of income and a key to the survival of the associated human population. Good milking camels do exist in Pakistan and some border areas of India but their potential to produce more milk has not been properly exploited.

Culling of any animal with mammary gland seems impossible. Therefore it is not possible to apply the degree of selection pressure necessary to achieve increased production and type fixation. No reliable work on results from selection seems to have been published. However, enough variation exists for selection to have significant benefit. Milk production for days has been reported to vary from kg to 10, kg. It shows that given sufficient time for selection for milk yield, milk quality, less intense maternal instinct and development of management systems, camel dairying may be commercially feasible.

It appears appropriate to suggest that if a milking type is to be developed, such activities will need to be carried out at appropriate institutions. Discuss the salient features of Bactrian camel. The Bactrian camel Camelus bactrianus is two-humped. It is a sort of the closest cousin of the one-humped Camelus dromedarius. It is possible to interbreed the two species. The female progeny are normally fertile, long hump is a feature of the crossbred animals.

Embryologically they are identical and may be subspecies of a single humped species. The breeding of F1 hybrids probably commenced years ago and was a thriving business in Syria and Turkey seven to eight decades before present BP. The favoured cross was a Bactrian male to a dromedary female, but the reciprocal cross is quite possible. F1s were frequently backcrossed with a male of either parentage, but the Bactrian was preferred as the progeny resembled the male parent morphologically.

Other crosses, especially the F1 x F1 were considered to produce weaker animal with an unpalatable temperament. Bactrians from Bactria, an ancient name for the region of Western Asia between the Oxus river and the Hindu Kush mountains, is regarded as a part of the natural range of the Bactrian camel.

It did not spread to the extent of the dromedary, and came to occupy a range running east-west adjacent to and sometimes overlapping the northern boundry of the dromedary range. This area includes mountains and the cooler deserts of China and Mongolia. From ancient times the Bactrian has been raised to produce wool, meat and milk, and was first recognized as an important draught animal on the famous silk road.

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Today, they are primarily kept for wool production in China, Mongolia and southern parts of former Soviet Union. Part — I Production and Management of Camels Bactrian camels in various parts of their range, reportedly developed for varying purposes such as superior wool or milk production or draught capability. Its draught capability is about the same as that of a one- humped camel. One of the most striking differences between the dromedary and the Bactrian is that of hump; the other pertains to the distribution and characteristics of coat.

The Bactrian has a thicker, longer coat, a mane on the upper and under sides of the neck and an obvious tuft like a forelock on the forehead. The elbows and forearms are also covered with long hair. Their heads are relatively fine and their bodies are strong and robust. They are not as nimble agile as most of the dromedaries but the work rate at slower speeds is comparable. Their body colour varies from dark brown through fawns to grey with an occasional white, which is highly priced.

They can endure hardship and within their own range can easily survive for 7 to 8 days without water. For some time it was believed that the Bactrian camel no more exists in wild state. The number of such animals is very small Uncontrolled hunting and their capture for domestication adversely affected wild Bactrian population. Severe drought in s further reduced their number. In contrast, the number of existing domesticated Bactrians is estimated as 2 million. The Lop Nur area having about animals, has been proposed as the site for the International Protection Center for the wild camel and the Wild Camel Protection Society has been formed to prevent the extinction of the Bactrians as a wild species.

The Bactrian camel was introduced to Ladakh area in the 19th century by traders from Tibet. With the closure of the trade route in s, the animals were released in the grazing area of Nobra situated at an altitude of metres. They became a tourist attraction there. Because of their dwindling numbers a protection project is underway to preserve them.

Describe some of the peculiar features of Camelidae in respect of their nutrition. All Camelidae have a thin upper lip, split in the middle, and prehensile for selecting and grasping feed. The upper dental pad is hard. The small tongue is very active and helps in feed selection. All the salivary glands are very well developed and these allow digestion of the feed to start immediately when it enters the mouth.

The oesophagus is very large. The size and long legs of the camel, its economy in the use and turnover of water, its ability to stand high levels of salts in its feed and water and the peculiarities in its digestive system and digestive processes are adaptations to the arid environments in which the camel is usually found. The Camelidae seem to be much more efficient in digesting dry matter, fibre and crude protein than other ruminants and domestic non- ruminants.

The way in which the stomach contents are turned over rapidly and frequently although kept in stomach for a long time is probably the reason for this better efficiency. Is camelid stomach different from true ruminant stomach? The camelid stomach has three distinct compartments, whereas there are four in true ruminants. Although Camelidae are ruminating animals they are not classified as Ruminantia. They differ from true ruminants in that they walk on the pads of the two last digits instead of on the sole of the foot, they have no horns. The same general characteristics of rumination and microbial digestion of fibrous feeds in a large and compartmented stomach system have developed independently in camelids and ruminants.

The independent development resulted in marked differences in morphology, histology and motility of stomach system. The forestomach in camelids consists of three distinct compartments. The largest one is compartment 1 C1 which is subdivided by a strong muscular ridge into a cranial and a caudal portion. The relatively small compartment 2 C2 is only incompletely separated from compartment 1. The ventral parts of the compartments 1 and 2 are made up by series of glandular sacs. Compartment 3 C3 is a long tubiform, intestine-like organ, situated at the right side of compartment 1. The HCl producing hind stomach H is a short terminal part of the tubiform compartment 3 with no clear separation from it.

The dorsal parts of the stomach compartments 1 and 2 are lined with smooth stratified epithelium. The ventral parts and the entire compartment are lined with glandular mucosa, which is arranged in longitudinal folds in compartment 3 Figure 8. The most striking feature differentiating it from the appearance of the true ruminant stomach are the glandular sacs.

These sacs were once considered to be the famous water store of the camel.

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It is now thought that the sacs are secretion areas for enzymes where fermentation of feed takes place. Is intestinal system of camelids different from ruminants?

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The intestines of camelids are similar to those of true ruminants. The colon is large in diameter and is a major site of water absorption. The liver is markedly lobulated. The camel has no gall bladder and thus does not produce bile to help in digestion. Write a note on rumination in dromedaries.

Initial reduction of the size of the feed eaten is achieved primarily by chewing, but this leaves fairly large pieces. Rumination or rechewing the cud is therefore essential for breaking down of particle size. The total time for chewing and ruminating is limited, restricting thus further breakdown of particles to very small sizes. Most rumination in camels that are herded by day takes place at night. Regurgitation of the feed from the stomach occurs at the time when the upper part of C1 is at its maximum contraction.

Eructation belching of the gases that are the products of digestion and fermentation takes place at the same time as the contraction of the lower part of C1 and C2, while the upper is relaxed. Discuss recycling of urea in camels. Camels are well adapted to diets that are low in protein due to their ability to recycle very effectively one of the end products of digestion i.

Recycled urea in reality is the same protein that is used more than once. The recycling rate of urea increases when camels are put under stress. Camels partially overcome the effects of diets that are low in protein by their ability to select high quality material. They can, however, only do this if they are given a wide choice of feed in grazing and browsing areas and allowed sufficient time to make their own selection. On the other hand, if they are provided with ordinary diets that are high in protein, they are simply competing with other ruminants and some of the advantages of keeping camels are thus lost.

What do you know about stomach motility in one-humped camel? Stomach motility differs strongly between true ruminants and camels. In the former the total digesta in the reticulo-rumen are mixed and transported within the organ a few hours after feed intake rather homogeneously; in the latter particles and fluids are separated in a suction-pressure rhythm during the motility cycle, whereby fluids and solutes are pressed into glandular sacs for potential absorption, thus selectively retaining larger feed particles in the fore stomach for prolonged microbial degradation.

The contents of C1 and C2 pass to C3 when the strong contraction of C2 causes an expansion of the connecting canal. The size of the digested feed particles varies from 0. The maximum size of particles which can pass from this area to the lower parts of the alimentary canal is 3 to 5mm in camels. The size of particles tends to increase as the amount of fibre in the diet increases. Digestion to reduce the size of the particles therefore takes longer if high roughage diets are fed.

The longer the diets high in fibre are retained in fermentation chamber of C1 and C2, the better it is. The time that feed particles remain in the fermentation chamber of C1 and C2 is important because it is responsible in large part for the amount of fibre digested. Longer retention times are required for efficient digestion of diets high in fibre. In the forestomach of the camel, small particles are retained for 41 hours, while larger particles are retained on an average for 57 hours. This is longer than in other camelids. For example, small particles are retained for 29 hours in the llama.

Engelhardt reports that the bulk of fore-stomach contents is slowly turned around counter-clockwise within C1. Fluid is squeezed out of the bulk contents by the strong contractions. Due to the motility sequences, fluid and small particles are exchanged between the ventral region of the cranial and the caudal C1 and between the caudal C1 and C2.

Fluid and small particles in C2 are finally sucked into the canal and are carried on into C3. Camels have longer retention times than true ruminants and therefore should be more efficient in digesting fibre although they perform better when allowed to select feed which is low in fibre such as green leaves of browse. Fluid is retained in the forestomach of the camel for 14 hours, this being shorter than that of the llama and true ruminants. High fluid turnover rates support rapid microbial fermentation through a higher buffering capacity and improve outflow of the soluble products of microbial metabolism.

Major factors that seem to be responsible for large particles being retained in C1 and C2 longer than small particles so that they can undergo further breakdown are an unequal distribution of particles and camel motility. Discuss in detail feeding behaviour and feed preferences of camel. All livestock species free ranging animals ingest higher numbers of forage species during the growing season than during dry season. Goats 20 and over 25 forage species in growing and dry season respectively followed by camels 18 and 22 forage species respectively accept the highest number of forage species resulting in a more even utilization of available vegetation.

Cattle and donkeys in comparison use a very limited range of forage species, which can lead to their overgrazing. The preference of the camel for higher vegetation strata, gives the camel the advantage of continuous access to high quality plant material since all plants reaching this height are shrubs, bushes and trees, which are deep rooted, often tapping into the groundwater and remaining green long into the dry season or throughout the year, when the herblayer is dry and highly lignified.

Plant species reaching the higher strata of the vegetation as a rule belong to the dicotyledon group.

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Part — I Production and Management of Camels that order, rank as intermediate feeding types with a certain emphasis to one or the other extreme. When allowed free choice, its preferred diet comprises mainly browse. Its ability to select high quality feed is helped by the long neck and legs and grasping upper lip and mobile tongue. Camel in this respect is rather like the giraffe.