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There are basically three types of Solar Inverters:. The batteries are always involved in the energy conversion process. This type of inverter works only as long as the batteries have some charge left in them. This way the LOADS have an uninterrupted supply of power and chances of total blackout is quite less. In my last post dated: February 12, am, I have explained about this arrangement for the simple automated switching without human intervention.
The output of the Inverter and Grid Supply are literally paralleled and connected to the Load. Let me cite an example to you. Say we have a 4. It also does a great job by letting us use that little amount of Watts of PV power to partially run our 1. As the Sun moves across the sky and more PV power is generated, the lesser utilization of the Grid to power that 1. This is a safety requirement for maintenance and troubleshooting personnel.
I am currently working for a University in Australia on a hybrid systems that will intergrate PV panels, batteries and the grid. Im very interested in this idea of Grid Synchronized Inverter that you mentioned. However I was just wondering what happens to any excess electricity that might be generated during the day and not used i. I think this is a fantastic idea if it can be made to work if the grid fails and power is lost.
If a battery backup can be implemented for these times then I think the idea is very plausable. Hi Tim, When the load consumption is less than energy production, it will always be fed back to the Grid for net metering and battery bank will also be kept charged. There will never be a time when the panels are producing power and are left idle. The only way this can happen is when the consumer is on a long vacation and the grid too has failed for a long stretch of time…..
However, I have some questions for you:. That is, a sunny day with an electric blackout and full batteries. Again — where would the energy be placed? Can solar panels simply be switched off the loop will they heat up or break? Another issue. We visited the local electric utility today Southern India and they had not ever been asked about feeding electricity back to the grid.
We need a system without the grid back-feeding, at least for starters. How does it re-sync once power comes back in. Has anyone got such a system going? This would completely avoid the grid syncing problem and the safety protocol issues. If this thing already existed, could be bought off-the-shelf and had the exact nice features I have been screaming about all along, I would be the dumbest person ever. Also see how much its development is suppressed to maintain the lead acid battery industry.
Even if the residents are on a vacation and batteries get fully charged, the output of the grid-tied Inverter is continuously fed to the GRID as long its synchronized with it. Finally if power output from solar array is not being consumed, the panels will not get damaged…they are just in an idle load condition.
India is a place where technology is implemented just before it got outdated elsewhere! So no surprise to me that they have never been asked about netmetering.
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Without grid feedback you will need a huge battery bank which is nothing but an off-grid system with revert-to-grid function for switching back to grid after juice in battery bank is over! Once gain this is extremely expensive due to huge battery bank…. During a planned grid shutdown or a grid blackout….. After this you will be prosecuted as per the law. Power Companies take this very seriously!
If this is left unchecked, the GT Inverter will blow! How can it support the entire neighborhood? This was what I planned to do and also add much more improvised functionality. Now the array will not continuously generate the needed Watts every second of the day…. If suppose your load demand was watts and the panels were only producing watts, what will happen? If its simple bulbs or ceiling fans, they will go dim or slowly rotate…. This I clearly explained in my previous posts. Upon restoration of Grid, the GT Inverter is designed to detect and re-sync automatically.
The idea to drop Grid AC to DC and charge battery bank when it gets too low when PV is not enough is to be used very rarely or only in case of emergencies as I mentioned in my previous posts. Using Grid power to charge batteries even once in a while is counterproductive on your initial intention to become less dependent on Grid and batteries are not so efficient. So with current implementations available in the market, the grid syncing and safety protocol are unavoidable.
Hi, backgroud…. I have a project where the current is only needed during the time the sun is bright to produce enought power to facililate the need so i dont need to charge batteries. There is no grid power available in the area or if i need to get grid support its going to sooo expensive.
For my understanding the off grid converters are not that efficient as the grid ties. Also the new trend is grid ties and such converters are easy access for me. The grid tie converters need the power source to be present to start work. Is it possible to get a low watt 50 — W off grid converter and link with few grid tie W x 5 inverters together? The grid ties would detect the output of the off grid and tigger to create the final out put i need. I have been researching an off grid system that is capable of feeding AC directly from the inverter and at the same time be able to charge the battery bank.
Xantrax has hybrid inverters, capable of inverting and charging the battery bank, i wil encourage some folks to review it. Hi, it looks like the webpage has been modified but the indication of the number of comments is not displayed. Also it would be nice to have an optional feature which sends an email alert if a new post has been placed or if someone replied or responded to your post.
I hope its not too much to ask. Should be finished in a few weeks. Will look into the email feature that you are asking for Sudheer. Hi all, I have a question to ask regarding connecting load to my solar system. Its a great flow of ideas that I see over here. I am very much impressed by the idea of Mr. Sudheer Srivastava ,He gave such an insight into the PV system. So Do you know about Dispower that was started early in spare me if I am wrong about the date.
As we all know hybrid system have been coming into prototypes since a long time. One thing we always have been worried about is the backup power. What about integrating all the solar panels in a locality to form a macro-mini grid which is connected to the main grid. In this system we will only keep an emergency battery system. And when during the day time as the production of power would be greater in the daytime,we could use alternate storage methods like hydrogen conversion or methane conversion to use the spare power generated to help us become nearly self sufficient.
I am writing a business plan regarding that and thinking of implementing that in prototype in a small village in India afterwards. I an electrical engineer myself and would like to hear insights from people who have a knowledge in the field to give me deeper insights into the subject.. Razor, this sounds like a very plausible thing to do in rural India. One might not even need metering in a small village.
However, consider that the panels can just as well be placed jointly somewhere, instead of distributed at each home. The wiring will be the same. Maintenance will be easier. This is at the edge of my knowledge. Medium and Long Distance DC transmission at low voltages is inefficient. The fool called T. High Voltage DC transmission is an exception and also very lethal! It is used for Electric Locomotives and certain long distance power transmission. And finally, most of the appliances in homes whether in villages or urban areas are designed to operate on AC not DC.
All our present day electrical transmission and utilization infrastructure is compatible only with AC and I guess there is nothing wrong with it being so. My reply maybe razor sharp and criticizing but try to understand things before you get hot reading it. Also I am happy that you understand the uselessness of diesel generator as it causes more usage of fossil fuel, pollution and an obvious high expense.
Likewise you excellently wrote that large off-grid battery banks also are not the solution. Keep it up! X has watts of panels, Mr. Y has Watts and Mr. Z the richest has Watts. So according to you if we form an Integration of a nice gooey Watts, how will the output be distributed? People have ventured into this and incurred heavy losses and sold equipment to scrap for loan recovery! Not all states or governments have a damn good solar initiative.
Exceptions are a few places like Gujarat. What is with the spare power generated daytime and the Hydrogen and Methane Conversion? What exactly are these? Please elaborate. If the hydrogen stuff is water electrolysis then please check how much electrical energy is needed to split water and not to mention how will you obtain water pure to a great extent as electrolyzing tap water is not practical due to electrode corrosion, high amperage required and low yield…also check how much energy you will get back by burning that hydrogen. Even Solar thermal Splitting of Water is not yet feasible or will ever be.
If I get a grid-tied system and the grid stops working, does my system still provide my household with electrical power and for how long? Very cloudy days are for the grid but there would be enough batteries in this scenario to last over grid outages on those days, as well. Because grid reliability and weather differ vastly by geography. The name seems catchy! Here the Grid acts as the virtual Battery Bank. So when the Grid is stopped or fails…..
Even though your panels can output power, the GTI is restricted from working and will not supply even a single watt of power until Grid comes back and it resynchronizes. For a simple explanation read my reply to Mr. Asko Kauppi and further read all my posts to get a comprehensive understanding of the solar power stuff, the pros and cons of being grid-tied, netmetering etc.
Guys The SMA tl is the most advanced grid tied inverter out. It can give w of power when the grid goes down as long as the sun is shining. I tried to get my installers to change out my solar edge inverters, and use them instead,but they are giving me a hard time. This inverter was made in Germany and came to the usa market 6 months ago.
To: sudheersrivastav rediffmail. Hi, you got me all wrong. Capital letters are stressed words for short reading and are not symbolizing shouting. If everything is written capitalized then its shouting…hope you understand. There is no MS-Word like features in the blog to stress some words and hence have to use capitalization.
I have been using capitalization before and no one ever said i shouted. Non-technical readers will not peruse the entire comment and i keep getting emails repeatedly asking the same questions again and again and so that they can read in a short summarized fashion i capitalize certain words so that they will quickly understand technical stuff.
Also i do verify every fact before posting it up there. So that is as polite and responsible as one can be. In most parts of the US feeding power back to the grid excess production and you will be paid. That was with a 5. At that time we were allowed up to 10kwh per residence. As of Oct the power company will not allow us to add additional panels as we are acting as our own utility company.
We also get approx days of full sunshine per year. In comparison to India or S Africa it may seem greedy on my part, but that is our capitalist society. Question is, since I am grid tied, can I disconnect certain appliances I. Some ideas may work here, but most appear just happy to get power and unhappy to give it back to the grid for free?
Replies appreciated. Thank you all for these very useful information…the topic is new and interesting! In my opinion the best Off Grid modules are from the germany manufacturer Solarworld. For this kind of solar systems is always important a good quality. Why does everyone say we need batteries. A AC generator goes directly to the house panel.
What is the difference? Once we go the AC inverter this should be suitable to go to the house panel? If not why? Is the AC from the inverter different than from the generator or the grid? Also can the power from an AC windmill go directly to the house panel? Are there Charge controllers that can use utility grid power as a backup?
So do I still need to a battery bank in my system, and will it be ok if I connect the DC rectified grid power to the charge controller same as the PV power, and use an automatic changeover switch to change when PV output is low? Can I ask if we can combine the off-grid and on-grid system? We have plan to supply the power from solar panel while supplying the power from grid to the load. But when there is no power from the grid, we can still used the solar through an stand-alone inverter but we will used the automatic transfer switch and identify the load that will be supplying for the 5kw system.
It is possible? Thank you so much! Hi Mathias, I want to install a watt solar system…. Sudheer, you have mentioned that features in your to-be system is much advanced, can you help me in layman language on them. As an FYI, I am not from this industry and have read as an interested end user, hoping that I may find a solution cheaper than buying from the grid.
This is my first time pay a quick visit at here and i am genuinely happy to read everthing at one place. Yes, I agree with you.. Thanks to Mathias and thank you all for your contributions. I am into off grid solar pv system here in this part of the Philippines while waiting for grid to arrive in 5 to 6 months time. What I need is a grid-tie ready inverter that uses batteries for the time being. I have been using my Grid-Tied systems over the last 2 month. I have 3 Watt solar panels. I live in GA, and seem like the smart net metering is not helping at all.
Any help or idea would be much appreciated. I also bought a AH battery bank. I wanted to check if my home system about W, lights works and connected the solar micro inverter to it. Power for the inverter came from the batteries, not from the solar panels. I go a fault notice on the inverter and no V power. A normal inverter worked. My question: is the GTI able to use battery power?
Thank you in advance. Hello I live in Israel in private house I wounder if your system will enable me and other potential buyers to go off the grid. Hola from Spain Mathias, thanks for sharing your wonderful knowledge on solar electricity.. Delta Connections On Dol Panel. Use our interactive diagrams, accessories, and expert repair help to fix your Delta Kitchen Faucet consent of Delta Electronics, Inc. Why trust your plumbing repairs to anything less than genuine Delta repair parts?
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Also just a one off response in thanks for info gained from this site. The bus termination assembly is attached at the bottom. Three key motivations for developing indices and indicator frameworks have been identified: Ranking relative performance Influencing or driving change in performance Understanding and diagnosing performance The choice, type and manipulation of the data vary for each different motivation and an approach developed for one motivation, for example to measure relative performance, is not likely to be appropriate for another motivation, for example planning and goal setting within a single city.
Methods The wide deployment of indicators and related methodologies to study a range of phenomena related to disaster risk, vulnerability and resilience requires a strict set of criteria to enable an extensive review. The following criteria for the review were selected: Composite indicator including those on a spatial basis or scorecard approach. Framework has been tested or implemented. Open in a separate window. Map of Authors. Location of lead authors or their institution for included methodologies.
Classification Schema. Schema used for classifying variables in the composite indicator methodologies. Stakeholder-focussed Methods These methods have been mostly developed for the use of communities or governments as a self-assessment tool and as such focus on explicit elicitation of disaster preparedness and risk reduction outputs.
Relational Analysis Methods These methods generate an index based on analysing the relationship between vulnerability inputs and disaster impacts using either simple or multiple linear regression or Data Envelopment Analysis DEA. Novel Statistical Techniques Four methods in the literature used more advanced construction methods, which have not been broadly deployed.
They are: The Local Disaster Index. Results - Growth in Number of Methodologies Figure 3 shows the year of development or submission for publication of each methodology. Growth in Number of Methodologies. Results - Geographic Level Table 1 shows the geographic level at which each methodology has been applied.
Results - Geographic Coverage Of the 25 national or multiple level methodologies only 23 directly compare nations, with two of the multiple level methodologies taking a gridded approach to mapping the index value. Table 2 Location of single country sub-national methods. Location and number of composite indicators implemented at the sub-national level in single countries and multiple countries.
Results - Variable Selection Methods In the vast majority of methodologies 90 the variables were chosen by expert judgement relying on the literature, theory models and stakeholder knowledge. Results - Data Collection Methods A variety of methods were used to collect data which are summarised in Table 3. Table 3 Number of methodologies using different data collection approaches. Results - Imputation Methods The majority of methods 96 did not perform any imputation with a small number using either case deletion 2 or some form of single imputation 8 to deal with missing data.
Results - Normalisation Methods Many methodologies applied no normalisation to the data, either because it was not relevant to the aggregation method or because the data types were already consistent. Table 4 Number of methodologies that use different normalisation approaches.
Results - Weighting Methods A broad variety of methods for weighting variables in index construction have been deployed, including a number of bespoke methods. Table 5 Use of different weighting approaches by composite indicator methodologies. Results - Index Construction and Aggregation A variety of inductive and deductive approaches were used to construct the indices. Table 6 Numbers of variables in deductive methodologies with different numbers of intermediate levels between the variables and the reported index.
Number of levels Number of Methods Smallest number of variables Median number of variables Largest number of variables 0 20 2 7 56 1 28 4 Results - Presentation of Outputs Almost all methodologies provided some display of the results with maps and tables being the most popular as summarised in Table 7. Table 7 Number of methods presenting outputs in different forms. Results - Sensitivity and Uncertainty Analysis Although many papers discussed the potential limitations of the methodology developed, only twenty have any explicit analysis of uncertainty or sensitivity.
Results - Number of Variables There was a large variation in the number of variables each methodology used with the minimum being 2 and the maximum being , however most methodologies used relatively few with two thirds using less than Number of Variables. Frequency of use of different numbers of variables in composite indicators. Results - Prevalence of Variables, Sub-Indicators, Indicators and Categories The methodologies used variables of which were unique. Table 8 Most commonly used variables across all the methodologies. Table 9 Most commonly used sub-indicators across all the methodologies.
Table 10 Most commonly used indicators across all the methodologies. Table 11 Number of methodologies using variables in each of the 15 categories. Table 12 Number of Indicators, Sub-Indicators and Variables in each category and the proportion of variables in each category that are used in more than one methodology. Table 13 Number of methodologies containing variables in each environment.
Results - Composition of Indices Although the prevalence of different variables provides some insight into their popularity in disaster risk, vulnerability and resilience indices it does not reveal the make-up of the individual indices. Composition of Indices.
Table 14 Proportion of variables from each environment that comprise each index, on average, for all methodologies and for methodologies that only include variables in that environment. Table 16 Proportion of variables from each environment present in methods using the three most common construction approaches.
Results - Commonality between the variable sets chosen in each methodology It is desirable to know whether the large number of composite indicator methodologies is actually adding new explanatory power to understanding of vulnerability, risk or resilience or whether they are repeatedly using the similar sets of variables and only varying the construction method. Table 17 Overlapping score calculated for each level in the classification hierarchy. Level Overlapping Score X Variable 0. Discussion This review has revealed a broad range of practice in the development of composite indicators for the measurement of disaster risk, vulnerability and resilience.
The Broad Methodology Types Although the review found considerable diversity in the methodologies of index construction the majority take a fairly standard deductive or hierarchical approach with a weighted sum of the variables included in the index. Problems with Repeatability The review of the literature found 24 methodologies that were not sufficiently well described to include in the analysis. Sensitivity and Uncertainty Analysis Numerous researchers have been pointing out flaws in index construction and calling for greater use of sensitivity and uncertainty analysis for quite some time as outlined in the introduction.
Outputs Most studies communicated results for example by using maps and summary tables. Direct Measurement of Risk, Resilience and Vulnerability This study aimed to review composite indices that claim to measure disaster risk, vulnerability and resilience. The Tension between Comparison and Self-Assessment Two key motivations have emerged from this analysis of composite index and dashboard methodologies of disaster risk, vulnerability and resilience.
Lessons for End-Users The number and variety of composite indicator methodologies that have been developed clearly indicate their potential end use for decision makers working in disaster risk reduction, humanitarian and emergency response, civil protection or other fields related to disaster resilience. Composite indicator frameworks with high quality and reliability are likely to have: Consideration of the purpose of the composite indicator framework, in particular whether it is needed for comparison of many areas or for local self-assessment.
Conclusion An extensive review of disaster risk, vulnerability and resilience composite indicator methodologies has been conducted drawing on a range of sources in both the academic and grey literature. Competing Interest The author has declared that no competing interests exist. Annex 1 - List of Methods Analysed Link to external file. Annex 2 - Excluded Methods Link to external file. Acknowledgments The author would like to thank Dr. Funding Statement The author received no specific funding for this work.
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