Orlando furioso: 162 (Classici) (Italian Edition)
Fabio Frezzato Vicenza: Neri Pozza, , ch. Daniel V. Thompson New York: Dover, James B. Clough and P. Marica Milanesi Turin: Einaudi, —88 , Vol. Gaston C. John N. John Tedeschi and Anne Tedeschi Baltimore, , pp. Guglielmo Gorni Milan: Ricciardi, , p.
The medals date from Charles S. Singleton, ed. Daniel Javitch New York: Norton, Cited in Yassana C. Sutton and H. Francesco Bausi Parma: Ugo Guanda, , p. See also Jon R. The Cellini medal request is mentioned at ibid. Campbell et al. Libro primo , ed. Francesco Erspamer Parma: Ugo Guanda, , p. Giannozzo attributes the saying to the merchant-statesman Benedetto Alberti d. Murtha Baca New York: Marsilio, If Pigna and Ga- rafolo affirm that he fell ill in December, it may be un- derstood that he then took to his bed ; and as to the medal of Ariosto crown'd, nothing can be proved from that.
It was not till near the time of Petrarch that poetry recovered its an- cient lustre or importance, or was invested with its for- mer prerogatives. The day of the ceremony being fixed, the assembly was con- voked early in the morning on Easter-day, which hap- pened to be very serene and favourable to the solemnity. The trumpets sounded, and the people, eager to view a ceremony that had been discontinued for so many years, ran in crowds to behold it.
The streets were strewed with flowers, and the windows filled with ladies dressed in the most sumptuous manner, who sprinkled as much perfumed waters on the poet, as would serve for a year in the kingdom of Spain. When he was seated in his place, Petrarch made a short harangue upon a verse drawn from Virgil : after which, having cried three times, " Long live the people of Rome! Long live the senator! God preserve them io liberty! This sonnet is not in his works. Long live the poet! Peter, where, after a solemn mass, and returning thanks to God for the honour he had re- ceived, he took off his crown to place it among the of- ferings, and hung it up on the arch of the temple.
In fine, they declare him a citizen of Rome, with all the privileges thereof, as a reward for the affection he has always expressed for the city and republic. The name of this poet is still held in that kind of veneration by his countrymen with which the English consider their Shakespeare. Antonio Zatta, in his edition of Ariosto's works of , relates that a chair and ink-standish, which, according to tradi- tion, belonged to Ariosto, were then in the possession of II Signor Dottore Giovanni Andrea Barotti at Ferrara, and that a specimen of his hand-writing was preserved in the public library of that city.
The republic of Venice did him the honour to cause his picture to be painted, and hung up with the senators and other illus- trious men in the great Council Hall, which was after- wards destroyed by fire. It appears, however, that Ariosto did not finally re- ceive from his professed patrons those rewards, or obtain that establishment, to which he thought his merits had entitled him. Nothing particular is recorded of the benefactions of the cardinal to him, before he incurred the displeasure of that pre- late.
Ariosto himself seems to impute his loss to tha duke, and speaks thus on the subject, in his satire ad- dressed to A. Sigismundo Malaguzzi. Tu dei saper, che la mia voglia avara Unqua non fu ; ch'io solea star contento De lo stipendio, che traea in Ferrara. Ma non sai forse ; come usci poi lento Succedendo la guerra, e come vol.
Thou know'st I ne'er was tutor'd wealth to crave. Content with what Ferraia's patrons gave, Th' allotted stipend but thou'rt yet to know Succeeding wars had made the stipend low. At length so will'd the duke the gain decreas'd To less from little, till the whole had ceas'd. Such were the great advantages which he derived from those in whose service he had engaged, and whose names he had immortalized by his muse. The motto of both these medals was pro bono malum.
Some affirm, that these devices were of Ariosto's inven- tion; the first to express the nature of his detractors; and the second to shew that, instead of honours and rewards for his labours, he met only with scoff and derision, alluding the reception given his Orlando by the cardinal, who, having perused it, asked him, with the most tasteless indifference, where he had collected so many fooleries. Every reader of fine taste, with which fine feeling is inseparable, will form some idea of the poet's thoughts at that time, and may recollect the like illiberal reflection of the statesman Burleigh, on Queen Elizabeth's bounty to our own Spenser, All this for a song.
Dolce relates, that he caused the device of the serpent to be prefixed to the second edition of his poem; but that in the third he changed it into the bee-hive. With respect to Pope Leo X. Leo to him succeeds, in whom we find 1 he light and mirror of a courteous mind : To him we owe, that now, in tuneful strains, Great Ariosto's page our ear detains. And in the margin is this note : Leo X.
Upon the exaltation of Leo X. The pope gave him a very gracious reception, and gave him a grant of half the profits of a certain bull, the amount of which is altogether unknown; and possibly the sum arising from this may be the donation meant by Simeoni. It is however certain, that he left Rome dis- satisfied in his expectation : he declares that Fortune, when she raises men to dignities, dips them in Lethe; at the same time he bears testimony to the pope's honour- able reception of him. Testimonio son io di quel ch'io scrivo, Ch'io nol 'ho ritrovato, quando il piede, Gli baccia prima, di memoria privo.
Piegassi a me de la heata sede, La mano e poi le gote mr. De meza quella holla anco cortese Mi fu, de la qual ora il mio Bibiena Espedito m' ha il resto a le mie spese. Satire iii. This well I know, this truth can well attest, When with my lips his reverend foot I press'd. But it seems that Ariosto had raised his thoughts to some great ecclesiastical preferment: on which occa- sion Signor Rolli observes, that one reason why he was not preferred was, that he was devoted to Alphonso of Ferrara, whom the pope hated, and therefore could not give our author a cardinal's hat.
Leo died in , six years after the first publication, and the year in which Ariosto published the third edition of his poem. Perhaps had he lived longer, the poet might have experienced further marks of his generosity. A very extraordinary circumstance is related, and has been received as truth by some, that pope Leo X. Bayle, in his article of Leo X. Upon a close inquiry it will perhaps appear, that there was no other foundation for this story than a diploma or licence granted by Leo for the sale of the work, and this merely from his authority as a temporal prince, in the same manner as patents or privileges are granted in other nations by their respective sovereigns.
We learn from Fontanini, that to the third edition of Ariosto's poem in , published at Ferrara, was a diploma of Leo X. Apostolo Zeno relates that he had seen a fourth edition, which had once been in the pos- session of Peter Aretine, in the blank leaf of which were several poetical pieces by that poet; and that in the beginning was a diploma of Clement VII. In the college library at Winchester is an old edition of a Greek Pindar, printed at Rome in , the year in which Ariosto's work was first published, with a diploma or privilege of Leo X.
After what has been said, I believe there can be little reason to doubt but that this pretended bull of Leo was nothing more than a common licence to a book, granted in the customary forms ; which circumstance appears to have been violently exaggerated, from the religious fury of the times, to cast an odium on the papal authority in general, and on Leo in particular ; and has since been received without examination. The general character and qualities of Ariosto may be, in some sort, gathered from the foregoing narrative, to which his Italian biographers have added the follow- ing particulars.
In his conversation he was modest and affable to every body, demeaning himself in such a manner, as if al- together unconscious of that great superiority which nature had given him : he was close in argument and ready in repartees, but was seldom observed to laugh more than became the dignity of a philosopher : yet, though his temper was rather inclined to melancholy, which is perhaps the nature of every great genius, he was very remote from a rigid disposition ; being par- ticularly open and sprightly in his conversation with women, by whom his company was much coveted.
He was an avowed enemy to ceremony, though always ready to pay due respect to place and rank. He abhorred all those dignities that could only be acquired by ser- vility: he was a sincere lover of his country, loyal to per quinquennium bos imprimere, aut venundare Libros possit, utque qui seeus fecerit, is ab universa Dei Ecclesia, toto orbe teifarum expers excommunicatusque censeatur.
Full text of "Orlando furioso"
I little heed what plenteous -wealth affords, Where costly dainties pile luxurious boards: Well had I liv'd, when man to hardship bred, In early times on simple acorns fed! Satire ii. His integrity was incorruptible, as appears by what he says to his brother Galasso of the old man, who, being possessed of great wealth, was fearful of being poisoned by his relations, and therefore would trust himself in no hands but Ariosto. I view my mother's age with pitying eye, That draws my soul by every tender tie : Shall she be left by all?
His son Virginio has left behind him the following particulars relative to his rather, which we will insert in his own words, as the least matter of information must gratify curiosity in the life of so extraordinary a man. He was very fond of gardening, but so frequently varying his design, that he never suffered any plant to remain above three months; at the same time he knew little of botany. I remember, that once imagining he had planted capers, he was highly j leased to see them thrive so well, till at last, instead of capers, he found that he had planted elder. Of authors he highly approved Virgil and Tibullus ; he greatly ex- tolled Horace, but thought little of Propertius.
He was in general so lost in meditation, that he attended little to what passed. It so happened that a stranger once came to visit him at dinner-time, and while his guest was talking, Ariosto eat the meat that was set before him: for which being afterwards reproved by his brother, he only cooly re- plied, " That the loss was the stranger's, and that lie ought to have taken care of himself. Take the relation in Sir John's own words. TS stave or other out of Orlando Furioso, I think where Rinaldo requested his horse to tarry for him, in the first book, the 32d stanza.
Ferma, Baiardo, mio, deh, terma il piede Che l'esser senza de troppo. Stay, myBayardo, stay! The poor potter, put quite beside his song, and almost beside himself, to see his market half marred before it was a quarter done, in a pitiful tone or manner, between railing and whining, asked, What he meant to wrong a poor man that had never done him injury in all his life?
Yes, varlet! Mickle observes, that " both these silly tales are borrowed from Plutarch's Life of Arcesilaus, where the same dull humour is told of Philoxenus. It has been said that he might possibly allude to this by the sculpture of his ink-standish, on the top of which was a Cupid, with his fore ringer placed on his lip, as an emblem of silence. This disposition to gallantry, which he retained to the last year of his life, is confirmed by many parts of his writings.
Pen-i, clii vuol, ch'el tempo i lacci scioglia Che amore anoda, e che ci dorrem' anco, Noraando questa leve e bassa voglia ; Ch'io per me voglio al capel nero e bianco, Amare ed esortar che sempre -'ami, E se in me tal voler dee venir manco ; Spezzi or la parca al mia vita i stand. Tliere are who think, that time, with stealing hand, Dissolves the knot of- Cupid's tender banil ; That frozen age ill suits with amorous lire, When wisdom bids as scorn each frail desire: Tor me, let graceful ringlets deck my head, Or hoary snows my wrinkled temples spread ; Still mast I love— still woo the melting dame, Exhorting all to love— but when the flame Is quite extinct, the sifters' fata!
Lhzy xv. The names of the women, whom he loved, do not appear to be mentioned, except one whom he is said to le strongly attached to, of the name of Geneura, to whom he is supposed to allude in his Sonnet. Should some fair plauet, from benignant skies, Befriend a lover's cares, a lover's sighs, And kindly lead him to the goal design'd, Tho' haply Phrebus chide, or Bacchus frown, Their slighted leaves shall ne'er my temples crown, But this lov'd tree my happy brows shall bind. Soyinet vii.
Angelica's Loveknots: The Poetics of Requited Desire in 'Orlando Furioso' 19 and 23
In his early life he contracted an intimacy with a noble Florentine called Nicolo Vespucci, whom he ac- companied into Florence in , being then thirty-nine years old, to perfect himself in the Tuscan dialect, and to be present at the magnificent ceremony used at the feast of St. Ariosto, who was then deeply engaged in writing his poem, is supposed, from this circumstance, to have taken the idea of that beautiful simile in the twenty-fourth book, when he describes the wound received by Zerbino from the hand of Mandricardo.
Le lucide arme il caldo sangue irriga, Pen sin al pie di rubiconda riga, Cosi Uil bora, un bel parpareo uastro Ho veduto partir tela d'argento. Da quelia biaoca man piu ch' a lab astro Da cui partir il cor sepesao mi seuto. It has been the opinion of some, that he was privately married, but that he was obliged to keep it secret for fear of forfeiting some church benefices which he en- joyed: some go so far as to say, that his wife's name was Alexandra, and that he alludes to her in rhese lines.
Alessandra gentil ch'umida avea, Per la pieta del giovanetto i rai. Ariosto left behind him two sons by Alexandra, who were always considered illegitimate; Virginio before named, and J. Baptista; the first of whom being brought up under his father, who took great pains to instruct him, and was made a canon of the house of Ferrara, and Ariosto resigned a great part of his benefices to him : the latter went very young into the army, and having acquired considerable reputation as a soldier, re- turned to Ferrara a little while before Ariosto's death, and died himself an officer in the duke's service.
Ariosto is reported to have met his dissolution with the utmost composure, and to have told some of hia friends, who were present at his last moments, that he left the world without the least reluctance; and the more so, because, as he believed, that, in another state, men would know each other, he was impatient to meet again so many friends that had gone before him. He was interred in the church of St. He forgot that though he wrote the epitaph in a state of uncertainty, yet it could not be laid over him till his grave was made f. Johnson's Preface to Pope's Works. Benedict, contrary to their usual custom, attended his body to the grave ; and so great was their veneration of his name, that they would, by no means, consent that his bones should be after- wards removed to a chapel or sepulchre erected for him by his son Virginio, in the garden belonging to his house, which was afterwards destroyed by an ignorant builder, without the concurrence, and to the great mor- tification of the owners of the dwelling.
However, many years after, Signor Agostino Mosti, who had a sincere regard for the memory of Ariosto, having been early initiated by him in the knowledge of polite letters, and who was concerned that so great a man should want a monument worthy of him, resolved to build one that should be answerable to the veneration he had for his many virtues. He therefore caused a marble sepulchre to be erected at his own expense in the same church of St.
Benedict, adorned with proper emblems, and a fine statue of Ariosto ; and to show the zeal with which he paid this last duty to his master, he deposited, with his own hands, the bones of this illustrious poet in their new sepulchre, with the following inscription, and the annexed verses composed by Lorenzo Frizolu " D.
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Idus Junii Alphonso II. Obiit ann. This monument is still to be seen in the church of the Benedictines at Ferrara, with the following inscription : " D. Hail, matchless bard! ARLEMAIN, having proclaimed a solemn feast and tournament in Paris, at which were present mariy foreign princes and knights from various parts of trie -world, as well Pagan as Christian, on a certain day, when all the nobles and strangers were assembled, a'n unknown knight and lady entered the hall, attended by four giants of a dreadful stature.
The lady, whose per- sonal charms dazzled all the spectators, addressed herself to the emperor ; and begging an audience, told him, that her name was Angelica, that she came with her brother Uberto, from a distant kingdom, attracted by the fame of the magnificence of his court; that her brother, who earnestly desired to prove his valour with the warriors then present, was ready to meet any of them in the field, whether Saracen or Christian, upon condition, that who- ever was unhorsed by him, should immediately become his prisoner; but that if he himself should be over- throw!
The lady, having received a gracious answer, retired with her company, while every knight, captivated with her charms, felt the utmost impatience to enter the list with the stranger : but above the rest, Orlando, whose eyes had been rivetted on so beautiful an object, con- fessed the poison of love, though he studiously endea- voured to conceal his inward emotions : even Namus could not resist the power of such perfections, nor was Charlemain himself wholly exempted from the general contagion. Malagigi having heard this, conceived the design of delivering his country from the impending danger : he caused himself to be transported, by his spirits, to the pavilion of Argalia, whom he found asleep, with Ange- lica near him, guarded by the four giants : these he soon cast into a deep slumber by the force of his spells, and drew his sword, with a determination to put an end to the life of this dangerous beauty : but, as he approached her, he began to feel sensations of a very different na- ture, till every resolution, giving way to the softer pas- sions that inspired him, from a nearer view of her charms, he could no longer resist the powerful impulse, but advanced to embrace her.
Angelica, who had the ring upon her finger, which preserved her from the force of his incantations, suddenly awaked, and finding herself in the arms of a man, ut- tered a loud cry: Argalia ran to her assistance, and seized Malagigi, while the princess made herself mistress of his magical book, and calling upon his spirits, com- manded them to convey the prisoner to her father's kingdom ; which was performed in an instant.
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In order to put an end to the dissention that had arisen in the Christian court, each champion claiming the pre- ference to enter first the list with Argalia, the emperor commanded that lots should be drawn ; when the names that appeared were Astolpho, Ferrau, Rinaldo, and next Charlemain, who would not be excluded, notwithstand- ing his age : after these came a number more before the name of Orlando appeared. Next morning, at day-break, Ferrau, a Spanish knight, came from the city to try his fortune, and was overthrown in the same manner : but refusing to yield to the conditions of the combat, the giants endeavoured to seize his person ; these he slew, and compelled Argalia to engage him on foot.
Angelica, fearing the issue of their combat, fled ; when Argalia, perceiving her flight, followed her, and was as suddenly pursued by Ferrau. Ferrau, after some time, entering the forest of Arden, found Argalia asleep, who had not been able to overtake his sister. The Spaniard, determined that he should not escape him, turned Argalia's horse loose, and waited, with the utmost impatience, till his enemy awaked. An obstinate battle then ensued, till victory at last declared for Ferrau, when Argalia, finding himself mortally wounded, entreated that when he was dead, his body, with all his arms, might be thrown into the river, that no one might wear them after him, and reproach his memory for suffering himself to be vanquished when he was defended with impenetrable armour.
Ferrau pro- mised to grant his request, having first desired the use of his helmet for a few days, his own being demolished in the battle. BP combat ; and having heard what had passed, determined to go in search of Angelica. Orlando, who had felt no ease since the appearance of the lovely stranger, after Astolpho's return, left the court of Charlemain, and set out likewise to follow Angelica, and in his way met with various adventures.
When Rinaldo first left the court of Charlemain to follow Angelica, he entered the forest of Arden, where he came to the enchanted fountain made by Merlin the magician, to cure Sir Tristram of his passion for Isotta ; but though it so happened that the knight never tasted of the water, yet the virtue of it remained ever after. Rinaldo arriving here, drank of the fountain, and imme- diately found his love for Angelica converted into ha- tred: he then came to the other fountain, likewise the work of Merlin, called the Fountain of Love, which had the faculty of inspiring the breast with that passion : here, tempted by the beauty of the place, he alighted from his horse, yet, as he had before quenched his thirst, he drank not of the stream, but stretching himself on the turf, soon fell into a profound sleep.
Angelica, who had fled while her brother was engaged with Ferrau, was led by chance to the same place where Rinaldo lay ; the princess, fatigued with her flight, and invited by the clearness of the water, drank a large draught, and conceived a violent passion for the sleeping knight, whom she stood contemplating with inexpressi- ble pleasure, till he awaked.
As soon as Rinaldo open- ed his eyes, and beheld Angelica, who was now become the object of his most bitter aversion, he remounted his horse, and left the place with the utmost precipitation, 90 GENERAL VIEW OF in spite of the most moving entreaties which the love- sick virgin made use of to detain him. About this time Gradasso, king of Sericana, having been long desirous to get possession of Durindana, Or- lando's sword, and of Bayardo, Rinaldo's horse, passed with a great army into France, and, Orlando being ab- sent, he defeated Charlemain in a general battle, and made him and many of his leaders prisoners.
After the return of Angelica to India, Agrican king of Tartary, and father of Mandricardo, demanded her in marriage ; but being refused by her, he raised a great army, and besieged her in Albracca, the capital of Ca- thay, inviting other nations to join him. Many gallant actions were performed at the siege. Orlando, Brandi- mart, Sacripant, Marphisa, Astolpho, and many others, took the part of Angelica ; but Rinaldo, who at that time hated Angelica, from his having drank of the en- chanted fountain, joined himself to her enemies: in consequence of which he had several encounters with Orlando.
When Angelica, after the taking of Albracca, returned to France with Orlando, she passed again through the forest of Arden, and, in her way, happened to drink of the fountain of hatred, which entirely obliterated her former passion. About the same time Rinaldo, meeting with the contrary fountain, drank of the waters of love. While the siege of Albracca was carrying on, Agra- mant, the young king of Africa, only twenty-two years of age, and the bravest knight in the dominons of Africa, except Rodomont king of Sarza, burning with desire to revenge the death of his father Troyano, slain by the Christians, ordered a council to be called in the city of Biserta, the capital of his empire, where two and thirty kings, his tributaries, being assembled, he proposed to them his design of invading the kingdom of Charle- main.
After many debates it was at last resolved to transport a powerful force into France, notwithstanding the prophecy of the king of Garamanta, who declared that the expedition would prove fatal to Agramant and his army. When the king of Garamanta had in vain endeavour- ed to dissuade Agramant from his designed invasion of France, he told the monarch, that there remained but one expedient by which he might hope to meet with any success against the Christians; this was, to take with him a young hero, named Rogero, who then resided with 92 GENERAL VIEW OF Atlantes, the magician, on mount Carena.
Agramant having, in consequence of this advice, made many fruit- less researches to find the fatal warrior, was directed, by the king of Garamanta, to procure the enchanted ring, then in possession of Angelica, daughter of Galaphron, king of Cathay, without which the retreat of Atlantes could never be discovered. Thereupon Agramant, of- fering great rewards to any one that would undertake this adventure, Brunello, a person of mean extraction, but well versed in the arts of fraud, engaged to perform it. Accordingly he went to Albracca, stole the ring from the princess, and brought it to Agramant, who, in recom- pense for his good service, made him king of Tingitana, In this excursion, Brunello likewise stole Sacripant's horse Frontino, Marphisa's sword, Orlando's sword Balisarda, which he had won from the enchantress Fa- lerina, and the famous horn which he had taken from Almontes.
Agramant having got possession of this precious ring, went, with all his court, to the mountain, where Atlantes was said to reside ; and the ring having dispelled every mist that enchantment had cast before their eyes, they soon discovered the rock on which was the wonderful dwelling; but the height forbidding all approaches to it, Agramant, by the advice of Brunello, ordered a tour- nament to be held on the plain at the foot of the rock. Rogero, rouzed with the sound of the warlike instru- ments, and fired with the sight of horses and armour, which he stood for some time contemplating from the summit of the rock, at last made Atlantes, though with great reluctance, descend with him to the plain.
All the combat- ants were astonished at the valour of this unknown champion, till Agramant, having at last discovered him to be Rogero, whom he had so eagerly sought for, re- ceived him with open arms, conferred upon him the honour of knighthood, and engaged him to accompany him to France, notwithstanding all the arguments used bv Atlantes, to dissuade the kins; from taking; Rogero with him in that expedition.
The battle was fought with great obstinacy on both sides. Orlando and Rinaldo, elevated with the hopes of possessing An- gelica, performed prodigies of valour : Rodomont made great slaughter of the Christians, and Bradamant, sister to Rinaldo, signalized herself in a particular manner. In the mean time, Agramant, having embarked his forces at Biserta, was landed, and advanced with speedy marches towards mount Albano, bringing with him the flower of the African chivalry, among which was the young Rogero, who had been with difficulty drawn from the enchanted fortress, in which he had been shut byAtlantes, to avoid the destiny which threatened him, but whose presence, like that of Achilles, had been declared of the highest importance to the expedition.
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This young war- rior was accompanied by Atlantes, who, since he could not divert his charge from the pursuit of glory, was prompted, by his anxiety, to be near him in time of danger. The whole force of the Saracens being now united, the battle raged with redoubled fury. Rogero, having overthrown numbers of the Christians, at last singled out Orlando, when Atlantes, fearing the event of such an encounter, by his magic art fascinated the eyes of Orlando, who, believing that he saw Charlemain in dan- ger, abruptly left the field, and was made prisoner in an enchanted garden.
At this time Mandricardo joined the army cf Agramant, when Rogero and Rinaldo being. During this general buttle between the Pagans and Christians, Bradamant being engaged in single combat with Rodomont, received intelligence from Rogero, who chanced to be a spectator of their battle, that Charlemain was in imminent danger ; upon which she desired to go to his assistance, but Rodomont opposing this, Rogero took her quarrel upon himself, encountered Rodomont, and disarmed him, who then retired vanquished by the courtesy of his enemy.
After the departure of the prince of Sarza, Bradamant, struck with the manly deportment of Rogero, was desirous to learn who he was, and receiv- ed from him the account of his origin. Bradamant, in return, discovered her birth and name, and taking off her helmet, surprised the young warrior with her beauty.
Angelica's Loveknots: The Poetics of Requited Desire in 'Orlando Furioso' 19 and 23
At this instant a band of Pagans fell in with them, one of whom wounded Bradamant in the head, which was then unarmed. Orlando, having been delivered by Brandimart, Ro- gero and Gradasso, from the enchanted garden, where he had beeen confined by Atlantes, arrived at Paris when the city was closely besieged by Agramant, Marsilius, Rodomont, Mandricardo, Ferrau, and the whole power of the Pagans. Orlando and Brandimart attacked the enemy with great slaughter, and Rodomont attempting to scale the walls, was thrown down by Orlando. The city was however at last in imminent danger of being taken, having been fired in several places; but a great storm arising, with a sudden violent shower of rain, ex- tinguished the flames, and put an end to the battle for that time.
Here the great action of Boyardo breaks offunfinished, and the subject is again taken up by Ariosto, in the eighth book of the Orlando Furioso. The Christian army is defeated, in a general "battle, by the forces of Agramant and Marsilius. Angelica flies from the camp, and is met by Rinaldo, who fights for her with Ferrau, till the combat being broke off by the departure of the lady, they both go in search of her.
Ferrau, endeavouring to recover his helmet from the river, sees the ghost of Argalia, who reproaches him with perjury. Angelica, having taken shelter in a bower, sees unexpectedly one of her former lovers, to whom 6he discovers herself : their conversation is interrupted by the arrival of a strange knight : a battle ensues : the stranger depart- ing, they find Bayardo, Rinaldo's horse, and soon after meet Rinaldo himself.
DAMES, knights, and arms, and love! Dames, knights, and arms,—] It is said Cardinal Hippolito had been heard to declare that Ariosto was particularly difficult ia, composing the two first lines of his poem, and that he wrote them many times before he could satisfy himself.
Nor will I less Orlando's acts rehearse, A title nor told in prose, nor sung in verse ; 10 Who once the flower of arms, and wisdom's boast, By fatal love his manly senses lost. If she, for whom like anguish wounds my heart, To my weak skill her gracious aid impart, The timorous bard shall needful succour find, 15 To end the task long ponder'd in his mind.
Vouchsafe, great offspring of th' Herculean line, In whom our age's grace and glory shine, Hippolito, these humble lines to take, The sole return your poet e'er can make; 20 Who boldly now his gratitude conveys In sheets like these, and verse for duty pays : Nor deem the labour poor, or tribute small ;? Tis all he has, and thus he offers all!
Here midst the bravest chiefs prepare to view, 25 Those honour'd chiefs to whom the lays are due Renown'd Rogero, from whose loins I trace The ancient fountain of your glorious race : My muse the hero's actions shall proclaim. His dauntless courage, and his deathless fame ; SO So you awhile each weightier care suspend, And to my tale a pleas'd attention lend. Orlando, long with amorous passion fir'd, The love of fair Angelica desir'd : For her his arms immortal trophies won, 35 In Media, Tartary, and India known.
And hither to the camp Orlando drew, But soon, alas! This Charles had doom'd the discord to compose, 55 That ' twixt Orlando and Rinaldo rose, Each kindred chief the beauteous virgin claim'd ; Deep hatred hence each rival heart inflam'd : The king, who griev'd to see the knights engage With fatal enmity and jealous rage, 60 iijv'd th' unhappy cause, and to the care Of great Bavaria's duke, consigned the fair; Ver.
Inn am. Each kindred chief- ] Orlando and Rinaldo were cousins. Yet promis'd he should hear the maid away, His valour's prize, on that important day, Whose arm could best the Pagan might oppose, 63 And strow the sanguine plain with lifeless foes. But Heaven dispers'd these hopes in empty wind : The Christian bands th' inglorious field resign'd; The duke, with numbers more, was prisoner made ; The tents, abandon'd, to the foes betray'd.
As through a narrow woodland path she stray'd, On foot a warrior chanc'd to meet the maid ; The shining cuirass, and the helm he wore, His side the sword, his arm the buckler bore ; 80 While through the woods he ran with swifter pace Than village swains half naked in the race. Not with such haste the timorous maiden flies, Who, unawares, a latent snake espies ; As, when Angelica beheld the knight, 85 She turn'd the reins, and headlong urg'd her flight. See- General View of Boyajdo'a Story. Meantime th' affrighted damsel threw the reins 95 Loose on her courser's neck, and scour'd the plains ; Through open paths she fled, or tangled shade, Nor rough, nor bushy paths her course delay 'd ; But pale and trembling, struck with deep dismay, She lets her flying palfrey choose the way.
His helmet , sunk—] This circumstance of Ferrau leav- ing the battle, and losing his helmet in the river, is related hy Boyardo. And now. Long had the knights contended in the field, Nor this nor that coidd make his rival yield ; With equal skill could each his weapon bear, Practis'd alike in all the turns of war, 1S5 When Alban's lord with amorous fears possess'd, First to the Spanish foe these words address'd.
While thus on me your thoughtless rage you turn, Yourself he cry'dj have equal cause to mourn; If yonder dame, the sun of female charms, 1 Ferrau with pleasure heard the Christian knight, Then both agreed t' adjourn the bloody fight ; And now so firmly were they bound to peace, So far did rage and rival hatred cease, That, in no wise, the Pagan prince would view Brave Anion's son on foot his way pursue, But courteous bade him mount the steed behind, Then took the track Angelica to find.
In this essay, I first draw attention to the practical and methodological obstacles, strategies, and resources related to this course. Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF. Skip to main content. Advertisement Hide. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access. Secondary Sources Allaire, Gloria. New York: Garland, Google Scholar. CrossRef Google Scholar. Buonanno, Michael.