M. Théodore Mommsen (French Edition)
He died on 5 November It forms an authoritative source for documenting the surviving epigraphy of classical antiquity. Public and personal inscriptions throw light on all aspects of Roman life and history. The Corpus continues to be updated in new editions and supplements. CIL also refers to the organization within the Berlin-Brandenburg Academy of Sciences and Humanities responsible for collecting data on and publishing the Latin inscriptions. It was founded in by Theodor Mommsen and is the first and major organization aiming at a comprehensive survey.
Aim The CIL collects all Latin inscriptions from the whole territory of the Roman Empire, ordering them geographically and systematically. The earlier volumes collected and published authoritative versions of all inscriptions known at the time—most of these had been previously published in a wide r.
He is considered to be one of the most important figures of German realism. Life Storm was born in the small town of Husum, on the west coast of Schleswig, then a formally independent duchy ruled by the king of Denmark. From until his admission was revoked by Danish authorities in , he worked as a lawyer in his home town of Husum.
In Storm moved to Potsdam, moving on to Heiligenstadt in Thuringia in He returned to Husum in after Schleswig had come under Prussian rule and became a district magistrate "Landvogt".
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In Storm moved to Hademarschen, where. Retiarius vs Secutor, the two gladiators lying are dead, as signified by the theta nigrum The theta nigrum "black theta" or theta infelix "unlucky theta" is a symbol of death in Greek and Latin epigraphy. The term theta nigrum was coined by Theodor Mommsen, but It consists of a circle with a diagonal line. The Theta signified Thanatos, the Greek deity of death. A Dictionary of Latin Phrases. The legion fought in various provinces of the late Roman Republic and early Roman Empire.
It was stationed in Britain following the Roman invasion in 43 AD. The legion disappears from surviving Roman records after c. AD and there is no extant account of what happened to it. One theory per historian Theodor Mommsen was that the legion was wiped out in action in northern Britain soon after , the date of the latest datable inscription of the Ninth found in Britain, perhaps during a rising of northern tribes against Roman rule.
This view was popularised by the novel The Eagle of the Ninth in which the legion is said to have marched into Caledonia modern day Scotland , after which it was "never heard o. Life He was born in Pacov, a small town in South Bohemia, then part of the Austrian Empire, but from the age of two he grew up in nearby Lukavec.
Representation of a sitting of the Roman Senate: Cicero attacks Catilina, from a 19th-century fresco Auctoritas is a Latin word which is the origin of English "authority". While historically its use in English was restricted to discussions of the political history of Rome, the beginning of phenomenological philosophy in the 20th century expanded the use of the word. In ancient Rome, Auctoritas referred to the general level of prestige a person had in Roman society, and, as a consequence, his clout, influence, and ability to rally support around his will.
Auctoritas was not merely political, however; it had a numinous content and symbolized the mysterious "power of command" of heroic Roman figures. Noble women could also achieve a degree of Auctoritas. For example, the wives, sisters, and mothers of the Julio-Claudians had immense influence on society, the masses, and the political apparatus. Their Auctoritas was exercised less overtly than their male counterparts due to Roman societal norms, but they were. He was the twin brother of historian Hans Mommsen. In , he married Sabine von Schalburg, with whom he had four children. Mommsen wrote a biography of Max Weber in His main areas of expertise were in 19th centuryth century British and German history.
His interests were wide-ranging and he wrote about diplomatic, social, intellectual, and economic history. Mommsen championed a Sonderweg "special path" interpretation of G. History Madaurus was made a Roman colony at the end of the first century and was famous for its "schola". A colony of veterans was established there; it was called Colonia Flavia Augusta Veteranorum Madaurensium under emperor Nerva.
The city was fully Romanised in the fourth century, with a population of Christian Berbers, who spoke mainly Latin, according to Theodor Mommsen. There were three famous bishops of this diocese: Antigonus, who celebrated the Council of Carthage ; Placentius, who celebrated the Council of Carthage and Council of Carthage ; and Pudentius who was forced into exile, alongside others present at the Christian conference of Counci. Viriathus also spelled Viriatus; known as Viriato in Portuguese and Spanish; died BC was the most important leader of the Lusitanian people that resisted Roman expansion into the regions of western Hispania as the Romans called it or western Iberia as the Greeks called it , where the Roman province of Lusitania would be finally established after the conquest.
This Roman province spread over areas comprising most of Portugal the northernmost part was included in Gallaecia , all of Extremadura and the province of Salamanca. Its eastern frontier reached the proximities of Toletum, in central Hispania. Current Galicia was not included in the province, since it comprised most of the territory of another province, the aforementioned Gallaecia, but like the Vettonian people in the South, the Galaic tribes living there were also related to them.
He led his army, supp. Theodor Fontane German: ; 30 December — 20 September was a German novelist and poet, regarded by many as the most important 19th-century German-language realist author. Youth Fontane was born in Neuruppin, a town 30 miles northwest of Berlin, into a Huguenot family. At the age of sixteen he was apprenticed to an apothecary, his father's profession.
He became an apothecary himself, and during , at the age of 20, wrote his first work Heinrichs IV. Fontane's first published work, the novella Geschwisterliebe Sibling Love , was published in the Berlin Figaro during December His biographer Gordon A. Craig claims that this gave few indications of being a gifted writer: "Although the theme of incest, which was to occupy Fontane on later occasions, is touched upon here, the mawkishness of the tale Garding is a town in the district of Nordfriesland, Schleswig-Holstein, Germany. It has a population of 2, as of It is located in the Eiderstedt peninsula, and part of the Amt Eiderstedt.
Otto Beckmann born , painter, draftsman and graphic artist, rebuilt the mill "Emanuel" in Garding since Quartal XLS-file ".
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He was a nephew of philologist Karl Gottlob Zumpt. From to , he was a professor at Friedrich Werder Gymnasium Berlin , afterwards working as a professor at Friedrich-Wilhelms-Gymnasium under the direction of Karl Ferdinand Ranke. He travelled extensively during his career; England , , Italy , , , Greece, Egypt, Palestine and Asia Minor — The Roman presence in the Arabian Peninsula had its foundations in the expansion of the empire under Augustus, and continued until the Arab conquests of Eastern Roman territory from the 's onward.
The Romans never managed to conquer the peninsula proper. The Romans furthermore maintained a small legionary garrison in the Nabataean port of Leuke Kome "meaning "the white village", located nor. Map showing the territories of the Iapygian tribes. They lived in the eponymous region Iapygia and were divided in three populations: the Daunians, Peucetians and Messapians. Their land was annexed by the Roman Republic, and they were eventually Latinized and assimilated into Roman culture. Identity Roman coin portraying Hercules from Oria, the most ancient Iapygian city. The Iapyges have unknown origins but could have been an Illyrian tribe.
Their other tribes included the Daunians and the Peucetians. Gaius Julius Solinus, Latin grammarian and compiler, probably flourished in the early 3rd century AD. Historical scholar Theodor Mommsen dates him to the middle of the 3rd century.
He was the author of De mirabilibus mundi 'The wonders of the world' which circulated both under the title Collectanea rerum memorabilium 'Collection of Curiosities' , and Polyhistor; but the latter title was favoured by the author. The work is indeed a description of curiosities in a chorographical framework. Adventus, to whom it is dedicated, is identified with Oclatinius Adventus, consul It contains a short description of the ancient world, with remarks on historical, social, religious and natural history questions. According to Mommsen, Solinus also used a chronicle possibly by Cornelius Bocchus and a Chorographia pliniana, an epitome of Pliny's work with additions made about the time of Hadrian.
Schanz, however, suggests. Ernst Theodor Amadeus Hoffmann commonly abbreviated as E. Hoffmann's stories highly influenced 19th-century literature, and he is one of the major authors of the Romantic movement. Life Youth Hoffmann's ancestors, both maternal and paternal, were jurists.
It ended in defeat, and near disaster, for the Romans. They travelled southeast and encountered the Scordisci, with whom they fought.
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Following their victory over the latter, they arrived at the Danube in Noricum BC , which was home to the Taurisci, who were allied with Rome. Unable to repel these new invaders, the Taurisci appealed to Rome for assistance. The consul Gnaeus Papirius Carbo responded the following year, leading the legions into Noricum, where he took up a position on the heights near Aquileia. The Cimbri had heard many stories from other tribes about the fearsome power of Rome, and after seeing the.
The Romana is a Latin book written by Jordanes in the 6th century, being a short compendium of the most remarkable events from the creation down to the victory obtained by Narses, in AD , over king Teia. The work has been published under many different titles: De Regnorum ac Temporum Successione, Liber de origine mundi et actibus Romanorum ceterarumque gentium or De gestis Romanorum. It is an epitome of epitomes that was begun before, but published after, the Getica, covering the history of the world from the Creation, mainly based on Jerome, with material from Florus, and for the last part from Marcellinus Comes, the continuator of Jerome; it is of some value for the century —, when Jordanes is dealing with recent history, and also for some accounts of several barbarous nations of the north, and the countries which they inhabited.
It was written in or at Constantinople for a man addressed as "nobilissime frater Vigilii", unlikely to be Pope Vigilius. Its Editio princeps, with the Getica an. The university received its current name in honour of Alexander and Wilhelm von Humboldt in The Mommsenstadion is a multi-purpose stadium in Berlin, Germany, named after the historian Theodor Mommsen. The stadium has a capacity of 15, people 13, standing , although the DFB have set an upper limit of 11, supporters for football games.
It soon adopted its name from a nearby gymnasium. Since it has also been the home ground of Tennis Borussia Berlin.
Manuel des antiquités romaines,
Team 2 Round Attendance. This is a list of official cities in the United Kingdom as of There are currently a total of 69 such cities in the United Kingdom: 51 in England, seven in Scotland, six in Wales, and five in Northern Ireland. In some cases, the area holding city status does not coincide with the built up area or conurbation of which it forms part. In Greater London, for example, the City of London and that of Westminster each hold city status separately but no other neighbourhood has been granted city status, nor has Greater London as a whole.
In other cases, such as the Cities of Canterbury and Lancaster, the status extends over a number of towns and rural areas outside the main settlement proper. Bad Oldesloe German pronunciation: is a town located in the northern German state of Schleswig-Holstein. It is the capital of the district of Stormarn. The area has been inhabited since Mesolithic times. The flint tools found here from that era — BC are clearly defined and known as the Oldesloer Stufe. It was called "Pilgerruh", i. It was given up because of difficulties with the Danish Church authorities. On April 24, the town was heavily bombed by the Allied forces in the final days of the Second World War operations in Germany.
Buildings 16th century Mennokate: Memorial for Menno Simons, founder and namegiver of the Mennonites, a group of anabaptists. He had some of his works prin. History The old Christianeum before The first Latin school here was founded as early as according to other sources: in Altona now a part of Hamburg. Decades later the school acquired the status of a famous Gymnasium, the most famous in the duchy of Holstein, and was re-founded by Christian VI.
In the school was relocated from Hamburg-Altona to its current location in the quarter Othmarschen. In when the first eight students enlisted themselves. Two years later the founder Christian the VI. In the following years the school expanded. In it had already 45 students and four years later the first Jewish studen. The proletariat from Latin proletarius "producing offspring" is the class of wage-earners in an economic society whose only possession of significant material value is their labour-power how much work they can do. In Marxist theory, a dictatorship of the proletariat is for the proletariat, of the proletariat, and by the proletariat.
On the Marxist view, this will endow the proletarian with the power to abolish the conditions that make a person a proletarian and, thus, build communism. Proletarii in Ancient Rome The proletarii constituted a social class of Roman citizens owning little or no property. The origin of the name is presumably linked with the census, which Roman authorities conducted every five years to produce a register of citizens and their property from which their military duties and voting privileges could be determined.
The sum of Heyse's many and varied productions made him a dominant figure among German men of letters.
He was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in "as a tribute to the consummate artistry, permeated with idealism, which he has demonstrated during his long productive career as a lyric poet, dramatist, novelist and writer of world-renowned short stories. His father, the distinguished philologist Karl Wi. Legislation was shared between the Reichstag and the Bundesrat, which was the Imperial Council of the reigning princes of the German States.
The Reichstag had no formal right to appoint or dismiss governments, but by contemporary standards it was considered a highly modern and progressive parliament. All German men over 25 years of age were eligible to vote, and members of the Reichstag were elected by general, universal and secret suffrage. Members were elected in single-member constituencies by majority vote. If no candidate received a majority of the votes, a runoff election took place. In , the Reichstag consisted of members, but from it was enlarged to members.
The Reichstag was opened once a year by the Emperor. In order to dissolve parliament. The Chronica Gallica of , also called the Gallic Chronicle of , is a Latin chronicle of Late Antiquity, presented in the form of annals, which continues that of Jerome. The chronicle begins in with the elevation of Theodosius I as co-emperor, and ends with the attack of Attila, king of the Huns, on Italy in The contents focus on Gaul, the emperors and the popes, while events in the eastern part of the empire find little mention.
It is the oldest preserved historical work from Gaul. The Chronica Gallica of , edited in the same MGH volume, also begins with Theodosius, but covers the period up to Economic liberalism is an economic system organized on individual lines, which means the greatest possible number of economic decisions are made by individuals or households rather than by collective institutions or organizations.
Although economic liberals can also be supportive of government regulation to a certain degree, they tend to oppose government intervention in the free market when it inhibits free trade and open competition. Economic liberalism is associated with free markets and private ownership of capital assets.
Historically, economic liberalism arose in response to mercantilism and feudalism.
Today, economic liberalism is also considered opposed to non-capitalist economic orders, such as socialism and planned economies. Richard Knabl born 24 October in Graz, Styria; died 19 June was an Austrian parish priest and epigraphist who, though he lacked formal academic training as a historian, became a prominent contributor to our current knowledge of the Roman period in Noricum and western Pannonia, especially on the territory of modern Styria.
Youth and parish priest Knabl was a son of the syndic Ambros Knabl, who had been mayor of Styria's capital Graz from to He attended school and studied theology in his home town, was ordained as a Roman Catholic priest in , and spent the following years as a chaplain and parish priest at various places in Styria.
In he was assigned to parishes in what was then the immediate vicinity of Graz, first to Karlau and then to St. Epigraphist and historian Only at this time, already at an age of 49 years, Knabl began to devote himself to epigraphy and numismatics. Inspired by the large collection of Roman artifacts on display at the Joanneum the largest mus. It lasted until and is an important event in the integration of what would become Portugal into the Roman and Latin-speaking world. In BC, war first broke out between the Romans and the Lusitanians, who were an autonomous people.
In , a major revolt was reignited under the leadership of Punicus, who allied with the Vettones. Caesarus succeeded after Punicus's death. Another warlord, Caucenus, made war against the Romans in the region south of Tagus down to North Africa. The praetor S. A graphic showing the rise and fall of Roman territory. The rise of Rome began with the expansion of the Roman Republic in Italy and continued under the Empire until the reign of Trajan, the last emperor to add significant territory to Rome.
It is the subject of a great deal of analysis by historians, military strategists, political scientists, and increasingly also some economists. Roman expansion The exact causes and motivations for Rome's military conflicts and expansions during the republic are subject to wide debate. While they can be seen as motivated by outright aggression and imperialism, historians typically take a much more nuanced view. It has been cited as the country of the Carduchians, a fertile mountainous district, rich in pasturage. The pe. Inspired by the Roman denarius, their circulation and perhaps their release continued even after the conflict ended, contemporary and promiscuously with their republican models.
Issues Types Coins issued during the Social War consist chiefly of silver coins of the weight of the contemporary Roman denarius, and they are thought to have been issued from the mints of Corfinium and Aesernia. This coinage belongs to the crucial years of the revolt against Rome BC. The battle resulted in a precarious Populares victory.
Context Through the course of the campaign of 82 BC, the Populares forces had divided into two groups, those in the north under the command of Gnaeus Papirius Carbo, and those in the south who were commanded by Gaius Marius the Younger. Sulla had successfully defeated Marius Battle of Sacriporto and had managed to pin Marius and his fellow survivors under a siege at Preneste.
Rome itself soon after had fallen to the Optimates. Soon after, the war had shifted to Etruria where Sulla engaged in a pitched cavalry skirmish against Popular forces near the Glanis River, emerging victorious. After a b. Latium was originally a small triangle of fertile, volcanic soil on which resided the tribe of the Latins or Latians. Subsequently, Rome defeated Veii and then its Italic neighbours, expanding Latium to the Apennine Mountains in the northeast and to the opposite end of the marsh in the southeast.
Digestorum, seu Pandectarum libri quinquaginta.
The Provinces of the Roman Empire
I don't know who the well wrote the English version of the Wiki article about him which says just the opposite of the German version , but Mommsen in the famous "Berliner Antisemtismusstreit" took the philosemitic position against Treitschke's antisemetic one. This is both against the law and against honour, as all Germans are equal in duties and rights. One already hears the call for special laws and exclusions of Jews from professions, from awards and positions of trust.
There is still time to speak up against this in no uncertain fashion, to avert national shame; the artificially ignited passions of the mob can yet be refuted by resistance of clear-headed men. Defend publically and in a calm, yet firm fashion the consensus of our shared existence: respect for whichever faith, equal rights, the same sun shining on competition, respect for virtuous work from Christians and Jews alike!
But anyway. Mommsen was a philosemite in no uncertain terms. Link Reply Thread. Link Reply Parent Thread. Anonymous Apr. That final flourish is a fairly accurate summary of Tacitus - toned down if anything.