Perspective Made Easy - A Step-By-Step Method for Learning the Basis of Drawing

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Condition: Used: Very Good. More information about this seller Contact this seller 5. Condition: Used: Acceptable. No DJ. Cover has crayon mark, Edgewear. FFEP excised. Erasure on title page, No Marks in text. Seller Inventory SKU More information about this seller Contact this seller 6.

Published by Read Books, United Kingdom Condition: New. Language: English. Brand new Book. Seller Inventory AAV More information about this seller Contact this seller 7. About this Item: Macmillan. Meets the acceptable condition guidelines. Has wear. Five star seller - Buy with confidence!. More information about this seller Contact this seller 8. More information about this seller Contact this seller 9. More information about this seller Contact this seller We can look under the table and see the underside. We accomplish this by lowering our eye-level.

We stand on tiptoe or step up on a box to see over the heads of people in a crowd, We do this to raise the eye-level. New pictures are constantly being formed before our eyes by our various ways of raising and lowering the eyeJevel. It is interesting to watch for the effects and changes in a landscape when viewed from an automobile driven over a hilly road.

Showmen have taken advantage of this fact and have built the Ferris Wheel, a mechanical means of swiftly raising and lowering the eye-level. The quick change of picture helps to intensify the ex- perience. We find that the objects we draw are in two classes : the ones that are above and the ones that are below the line that indicates the eye-level Now let us go into it further.

As you sit there the room is filled with water until it just reaches the height of your eyes.

No matter in what direction you look this high -water mark appears to your eye as a straight level line across the objects of the room. When you are sketching outdoors this "water level" explanation will still hold true, Fences, buildings, hay- stacks, people, all have a "High-Water Mark" which is the artist's eye-level.

Step 1: Vocabulary

If you are seated on the ground sketching, or if you are on a roof, the "High- Water Mark" explanation still holds true. Eye-level below die table top. Sketched while standing beside the Sketched while sitting on the table. It is easily seen that you would get two entirely differ- ent views of your table if you made a sketch while stand- ing beside it, or if you sat on the rug and sketched the same table from that position. The whole system of perspective drawing is based on the height of this eye-level; whether or not the eyes are above or below the thing that is being sketched.

In a room you can create your own horizon.

How to Make a Two-Point Perspective Drawing: 12 Steps (with Pictures)

This is an eye-level mark around the wall. This line is the first thing we locate in making a perspective draw- ing. The visible outdoor horizon h not to be confused with the Hori- zontal Line HL in mechanical perspective as explained in the last step of this book. Problems Draw a line on the blackboard the height of your eyes when you are standing. This will appear as a straight line, though it may be in the corner of the room where the line is on different walls.

Change to a seated position and take notice of the line in the corner of the room. Does it still appear as a straight line where it joins at the two walls? Stand on a chair and note the result. Go outdoors and locate your eye-Jevel mark on the various things you see around you. Imagine where the eye-level line would cut across these different things if you were making a drawing. The two rails of Instead of this way? In a perspective drawing we do not actually draw these lines parallel.

Why not? When he looks down at the track at his feet his must take in a wide area in order to see both rails. For this reason the track appears narrower as he looks farther away. The shaded portion on the sketch shows this area. The portion he sees fifty feet away is shown by the black line. This is the vanishing point. Thus the nearer he looks, the wider appears the spread of the track, and the farther away he looks the narrower it appears until it becomes a point at his eye-level. This wide or narrow area is perhaps better understood if we think of the person drawing these widths on a piece of glass held upright as shown on page The above sketch shows how the man, in order to see farther along the track, must raise his eyes.

The two opposite sides of a table are parallel, the boards of the floor, the rails of a track. We know that the two parallel rails of the track ap- pear to converge at a point in the distance. Now take notice of the fences and telegraph wires that follow the. There are two exceptions to this rule. These excep- tions are shown in the drawing. There is no vanishing point. Perpendicular lines are explained on page The general rule for l and 2 is that parallel lines which are also parallel to the picture plane do not ap- pear to converge at a point.

The picture plane is ex- plained on the next page. A good example of parallel upright lines is a forest of tall straight trees. The trees farther back in the forest appear smaller, thus suggesting depth or distance. If you trace this scene as you see it on the sheet you will have a drawing in perspective. We think of perspective drawings as made on this pic- ture plane. The picture plane stands upright perpendicular between the artist and the object he is drawing. Also, the picture plane is placed directly across at right angles to the line of direction in which the artist is looking. The diagram at the right explains this.

Look through this hole and sketch as if the window were the sheet of paper. Simply trace on the glass the buildings and landscape as you see 29 them beyond the window. The result is a perspective drawing. Suppose we remove the windowpane with this draw- ing and lay it on the table- On the table it looks like any other perspective drawing done on a piece of paper. How is it possible to make this drawing without first tracing it on an upright piece of glass? The following steps will explain how this can be done. Remember The two rails of a track are parallel.

These two parallel lines, when shown in a perspective drawing, come together at a poinL When two parallel lines meet at a point all other lines parallel to these two meet at the same point. You lower your eyes to see your feet. You raise your eyes to see ohjects on the ground at a distance. The picture plane stands upright between the artist and the object he ia drawing. Problems Draw the top view of a man standing at the end of a long narrow table. Show the difference in the area of his vision when looking at the width of the far end of the fcable compared with that of the near end.

Stand in the center of a straight level highway. Draw it as you see it — disappearing in the distance. Add a sidewalk parallel to iL Add two rows of telephone poles, a row on each side. Add a fence beside the walk, Draw a railroad on the prairie sketched from the center of the track. Now let us turn the brick so that we are looking i straight along the length lines. The sketch on the. We now have the end view of the brick.

Try this. You see that the facts discovered in regard to the railroad track on the plain now hold true for bricks; the line of the eye-level, vanishing point, and all Now let us remove all the bricks but one- Here it stands. The vanishing point is where they meet.

A horizontal line drawn through this point gives us our eye-level. Where they cross is the vanishing point. A straight line through the two vanishing points thus 35 located shows on the photograph just how high the camera's eye was above the ground. This is the eye- level. Any photograph of a building or a room can be used for this experiment. An easy method is to paste the photograph or clipping in the middle of a large piece of paper and then draw the lines right over the photo and paper. We draw a straight line to show where two Bides join. Opposite edges are parallel lines. A row of bricks placed end to end becomes a railroad track.

All bricks but one can be removed, still we can find the eye-level and the vanishing point, Problems Draw an empty cigar box in perspective. Show which of the sides are parallel. Which lines are parallel? Now we have three lines which can be extended, thus locating the vanishing point and the eye-level, 41 After locating the point and line turn the brick a trifle more. This changes the vanishing point, but the eye-level is still the same. Here is another set of parallel lines representing the width of the brick. Let us extend these and see what happens.

Here lies the brick just as before with its length lines extended to a vanishing point and the eye-level line passing horizontally through this point. The width lines also meet at a point which lies on the 43 very same eye-level line as the point reached by the length line. This must be as we see it because, when we glance at the three sides of the brick as it lies there on the level surface? Turn the brick some more and we find that our first vanishing point moves away from the brick along the eye-level while the new point moves toward the brick.

This is easy, The third set of parallel lines or the "height" lines may be drawn straight up and down with no vanishing point to consider. This is true because the "height" lines cut across our picture and we always see only this small segment of them no matter how far they may be extended up or down. The "height" lines might be compared with the upright mullions or bars of a window through which we look.

Both points are on the eye -level line. Height lines are up-and-down with no vanishing point. Problems Draw a book lying on the table. Stand a brick on end and sketch it in this position. Show the direction of the "height" linea. Do they meet at a point? Correct, Vanishing points closely spaced. It is good drawing to place the vanishing points well apart. If the points are close together the drawing is not of a square object; it is diamond shaped. This is called "violent" or "warped" perspective. It is a student's temptation to place the points close together, within easy range; thus the drawing has the wrong beginning and will always look wrong.

Place the points a long way apart even if it is an effort to do so. Now let us suppose there is a table out on the porch. These two points are found where the lines pass through the glass when they are extended from his eye parallel to the two sides of the table.

Note how far apart the points lie. This is why a square-cornered object looks out of shape when the points are too closely spaced, In other words the artist says in his picture, 'This object is not square-cornered. But remember; keep them far apart. Notice the warped shape of the bed- To correct this error move either vanishing point A or B outward from the drawing and along the eye-level line.

Room with point B moved outward, 53 The two drawings on the preceding page are ex- amples showing the result of the vanishing points widely spaced. The first drawing shows point B in the same position as in the previous sketch, but point A has been moved to the left in order to widen the distance between A and This wide spacing of points gives a natural appear- ance to the furniture. The second drawing shows the results when A re- mains unmoved and B is moved out to the right. When we do this we create a wide space between A and B, Here again the result is a natural appearance of the furniture but a different appearing drawing.

Both drawings are pleasing from the standpoint of perspective. The different results produced show how this particular group of furniture appears from two different positions in the room. The first drawing obviously was made when the artist was in a position where he could get a side view of the bed. The second drawing shows his position changed so that his view is more toward the foot of the bed. If we hold these drawings before a mirror we can see the grouping of furniture as it appears from a similar position on the opposite side of the room. We have discovered that the spacing of vanishing points is most important, not only in giving the drawing 54 i correct appearance but also to show different view- points of whatever we are drawing- It may be interesting to know that this has been one of the problems in animated cartooning, where a back- ground shows an interior in perspective and a figure is moving across it.

The customary background used in animation is a single drawing. What appears as a figure moving across this background is a series of drawings made on transparent sheets placed over the background and then photographed. When the figure moves across the background and is followed by the camera, the background should change in perspective as the camera changes its viewpoint.

Fortunately for the animater the attention of the audience is centered upon the moving figure and in many cases the unchanging background loses impor- tance. To overcome this problem, however, new meth- ods are being devised in the animation studios. Remember If you place vanishing points close together you are not drawing a square-cornered object. You are sure of a pleasing drawing if you space the points widely. The vanishing point lies at the place where a line passes through the drawing, This line is one that extends from the artist's eye and is parallel to the line he is drawing.

Place points close together and redraw the box. Compare the results. Experiment by tracing with a china marking pencil something that you see through the window. When this is done move farther away from the window and notice that the object appears larger than your drawing. Use the diagram of the artist and the window. Note the change that would take place in the size of his drawing if you were to move him closer or farther from the window. Would the position of vanishing points be changed? Let us assume that you are pointing to- ward the east- Now then, the adjoining side of the cube runs northward- Point in that direction with the other hand.

You are now p ointing at the two vanishing points of the cube. Your two arms form a square corner right angle. If the cube is turned the vanishing points will change 59 their positions. When the position of the cube is changed the relation- ship of the points must change. Let us see what this relationship is. The diagram above shows this arrangement ; the tack represents the place where you are standing and the two 60 sides of the paper show the directions of your out- stretched arms.

This is the same arrangement as the diagram on page Now revolve the paper around the tacked corner so that the distance from the tack to the line is the same along the two edges of the paper first position. Second Position Revolve the paper from the first position on the pre- ceding page to the second position as shown above. Point number one moves toward the center which is directly above the tack. Point number two moves away from this center at a much faster rate.

The cube is shown drawn with the vanishing points in this relationship. This is like the drawing of the railroad track where we have one-point perspective. The line that determines point number two does not cross the line which represents the eye-level. Hence, no point- SB Here we have a drawing of the cube in this relation- ship of points. The cube has a single side facing us with the top drawn in one-point perspective. This is the arrangement of perspective points that we use in making a sketch of a room while standing at the center and directly facing a wall.

Point num- ber one passes the center and immediately point num- ber two appears again on the line but in the opposite direction from its former positions. The cube drawn to this arrangement is like position number two except opposite in direction. Remember in using this method that the diagram of the line and sheet of paper is not a perspective drawing but merely a method of showing how the two vanishing points may be moved in relation to each other — one moves slowly, and the other quickly.

It shows also that the two points should be spaced widely apart in a perspective drawing. As soon as we turn the cube in order to create that relationship we find that the point passes to the other side, One perspective point is on the left and the other on the right of the center of in- terest.

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This relationship does not hold, of course, in one-point perspective. Remember When you point in the same direction as the line you are sketch- ing, you are pointing toward the vanishing point of that line. The two vanishing points lie on the eye-level line out in the direction of the two lines forming the square corner on which you stand. As the ohject is turned this corner revolves around the point on which you stand.

You can thus follow the change in direction of the points. The two vanishing points hold opposite sides of the center of interest. They cannot get together. Problems Place books so that they lie in different positions on your desk. Now point toward the vanishing points of each book.

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Make a drawing of a box and then show how its vanishing points would be determined by the diagram. This second brick adds more parallel lines which in turn can be extended to the two vanishing points of brick number one. When the pile reaches your eye level the top of the brick can't be seen at all because the lines of the two parallel edges have come together. This is true no matter how high we pile them.

Lay several more bricks on the table, end to end or side against side. The new lines formed by the additional bricks all extend to the same vanishing points, 71 Place more bricks on top of the ones you already have. Now add more at the top, building the piles to various heights. When you sketch a city from the window of a high office building, keep in mind that the buildings you see are nothing more than bricks piled up in the manner just explained. First, decide how high a person's eye-level would be if he were standing beside one of the buildings. The height of his eyes would be about where the mark is on the door, 75 Now we redraw the buildings, lowering the eye-level so that it passes through the mark on the door.

The vanishing points remain on the line in their same rela- tive position as before. The upright lines of the build- ings are in the same position. Only the horizontal lines change for this change of eye-level. Different views of the buildings may be drawn in this manner by raising or lowering the eye-level. AH horizontal lines merge into the eye-level line when they reach the eye-level.

Parallel lines that are below the eye- level tilt upward; when above the eye-level they tilt downward toward the vanishing point, A building can be considered as a stack of bricks. Whoever can draw bricks can draw a city. Problems Place books in a stack on your desk so that the top edge of the top book reaches your eye-level. Make a sketch. Now stand up and sketch the same group. Place the books on something that is above the eye-level and sketch them.

Compare the three drawings. Make a drawing of some building that you can see from yotir window. Draw it as if it were bricks. Now draw a whole group of buildings in this manner. The places where we wish to sketch these people are marked with X. In order to place figures on the street we must first know how high a person would be compared with the height of the building.

A person at the corner of the building would be the height of the line where it touches the corner. From this height at the corner extend a line in the other direction to the vanishing point of the other wall. Also extend the base line of the building. The distance between these two lines is the height of a person standing anywhere on the lower line. Now to find the height of a person standing on the spot marked X. Stop where it crosses the lower height or base line. Then, go straight up until you reach the upper height line. Next, turn hack on a line that comes from the vanishing point and continue until you are above the X These directions are shown with arrows.

The distance from the X up to this line will be the height of a person standing on the X.

Easy way to draw a realistic eye for Beginners step by step

This is true with all the places marked X. Often when making an illustration it is desirable to show people in the foreground with only their heads and shoulders appearing in the picture. By this method we can determine correctly just how much of the per- son will be shown. Anything that is the same height as a person may be substituted. Draw another line starting from the place where the first line crosses the eye-level line.

Extend this line to the head of the figure and then on until it is above the X. A line from this point straight down to the X is the height of the figure. This is another way of making the "man-high wall" extending to a vanishing point on the eye-level line. It can be used for drawing any standard-height objects resting on the ground or floor such as seated figures, chairs, tahles in a dining hall, or autos on the street- Notice in the above diagram that the method holds true whether the X is in the foreground or in the back- ground beyond the figure.

It makes no difference where the figure is placed, or whether or not his head is above or below the eye-level line. Any standard of measurement may be used. We discover that the objects could not be arranged in this position because they are so closely crowded that they merge into one another. This is the same group of objects. The shaded areas show where the objects overlap. Sketch two or three persons walking along the sidewalk. Show the height of an automobile in the entrance of the garage.

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  5. Show the height of the same car when in the street. On the left of the diagram within the frame the drawing of the street looks quite correct in perspective. When we extend the street to point B the buildings become misshapen. Now if we extend the drawing to the left beyond A, the part we extend will likewise become warped. The reason for this is that what the eye takes in is only a small area. Beyond this area the picture grows blurred and distorted. By doing this, we form a new picture, The first picture now passes to the edge of onr vision or beyond. The new picture requires a rearrangement of vanishing points.

    Remember that the two vanishing points will not al- low you to make a panorama drawing. Take a further example and look down the track. The eye sees the part of the picture shown within the frame. The area outside the frame is seen out of the so-called corner of the eye. Vanish- ing point A has moved to the left of our vision and vanishing point B comes in at some distance to the right. This shows how new pictures are formed with a new arrangement of vanishing points when we give attention to objects that lie at the edge of our vision. If we wish to keep our drawing correct in perspective, we do not attempt to take in a wide area.

    The drawing on the opposite page is an example of the arrangement described on page We change it so that it conforms to the arrangement shown on page The first of the above drawings of the track repre- sents the arrangement of the cube when it is turned to a position of one-point perspective. The second posi- tion represents the cube turned so that the vanishing point has moved toward the left. The these roofs meet an up-and-down horizon line- — if such a thing can be imagined. This up-and-down horizon passes through the true vanishing point A of the building. This can be better understood by turn- ing this drawing on its side.

    The roof of the building H lies in the opposite di- rection to the other buildings; hence the vanishing points of this roof lie on a line above and below through vanishing point B. The farther apart these up-and-down points are spaced, the steeper the roofs. Note the use of the cylinder in the above drawing. Remember There is danger of including too much area in a drawing.

    Two vanishing points will not allow you to make a panorama drawing. A new picture is formed each time our attention is turned to a different point of interest. The sloping lines of roofs meet at points above and below the normal vanishing points of the building. Problems Sketch a book that lies on the desk before you. Note the two vanishing points, Sketch more books on either side of the first book. Use the same vanishing point. How far can you extend this row of books?

    This kind of perspective is of irregular shapes like crooked trees, boulders, mountains, rubble, stones, gravel, and sand dunes, etc. Draw with this kind of perspective. The object sizes generally get smaller in the distance and the drawing elements like tree limbs, becoming thinner and less detailed in the background.

    The textures, shading and colors show less contrast as they are farther away so that colors fade become lighter and become tinted toward blue color tones in the distance. Use one-point perspective; draw cars gradually, getting smaller on the center chunk; and draw sidewalks with people on them. Yes No. Not Helpful 26 Helpful If on the river, draw the one-point perspective, and draw both the sides of the river. If on the riverbank, use the zero-point perspective. Not Helpful 31 Helpful Not Helpful 16 Helpful Just apply the guidelines in the article.

    You could start with counters and drawers, a table and a lot of details. Not Helpful 19 Helpful Do I need to use two point perspective in a drawing of a country landscape that has a house in the background? No, you do not need to, one point perspective should do the trick. Just draw the house approaching the vanishing point as it recedes into the background.

    Not Helpful 6 Helpful You can draw a closet from a lot of perspectives: one point, two points--even five like a snow globe! It's up to you to decide which perspective to use. Not Helpful 8 Helpful Just follow the instructions. Drawing in perspective is the same if you're 8 or To draw a bed, make a rectangular prism with a few rounded off squares and other shapes for pillows. If you were referring to a bed frame, just add a few wooden planks at the bottom of the prism. Not Helpful 28 Helpful You need to use foreshortening and look at anatomy.

    Landscape perspectives will not be of much help. Not Helpful 2 Helpful 5. Just draw a slim rectangular prism for the actual table, then draw some tall and thin rectangular prisms for the legs. Maybe draw a wood design on the table and legs. Not Helpful 10 Helpful Unanswered Questions. How do I draw a wall as if I'm looking up it? Answer this question Flag as Flag as Which perspective do I use when drawing a plain landscape with no trees?

    Can I use perspective drawing for still-life drawings? How do I draw buildings in the distance? How do I draw an area using perspective? Include your email address to get a message when this question is answered. Already answered Not a question Bad question Other. Tips Always use a ruler so that the lines you draw are straight. Always start your drawings with a hard pencil. Complete the drawings with a slightly softer pencil, such as HB. A good way to practice is to visit places where you can see a structure disappearing into the horizon railroad tracks are perfect, but be extremely careful of a train approaching from behind.

    Sit down and draw the structure head on; then move over 15 feet 4.