Angelographia; or, A Discourse concerning the Nature and Power of the Holy Angels [Annotated]
Madrigal and Trulletta. A mock-tragedy: Acted under the direction of Mr. Cibber at the Theatre-Royal in Covent-Garden. With notes by the author, and Dr. Three dialogues between Hylas and Philonous: The design of which is plainly to demonstrate the reality and perfection of humane knowlege, the incorporeal nature of the soul, and the immediate providence of a deity: in opposition to sceptics and atheists. Also, to open a method for rendering the sciences more easy, useful, and compendious. By George Berkeley, A treatise concerning the principles of human knowlege: Part I.
Wherein the chief causes of error and difficulty in the sciences, with the grounds of scepticism, atheism, and irreligion, are inquir'd into. A caution against socinianism given in a discourse: preached at the cathedral and metropolitical church of Christ, Canterbury; on Good Friday, By George Berkeley. A letter to Mr. David Hume, on the tragedy of Douglas: its analysis: and the charge against Mr. By an English critic. Literary memoirs of living authors of Great Britain: arranged according to an alphabetical catalogue Some account of the medicinal water, near Tewkesbury: with thoughts on the use and diseases of the lymphatic glands.
In a letter to Edward Johnstone, M. An essay on regimen: Together with five discourses, medical, moral, and philosophical: serving to illustrate the principles and theory of philosophical medicin, By Geo. Also several other remarkable passages and occurrences. Written by his own hand. To which is added, a supplement by J. The minute mathematician: or, the free-thinker no just-thinker. Set forth in a second letter to the author of The analyst; containing a defence of Sir Isaac Newton and the British mathematicians, By Philalethes Cantabrigiensis.
Geometry no friend to infidelity: or, a defence of Sir Isaac Newton and the British mathematicians, in a letter to the author of The analyst. Proposals for recovering persons apparently dead by drowning and suffocation from other causes. Published by order of the Governors of the Dispensary.
Esq; Now first translated into English. Miscellaneous works: of Edward Gibbon, Esquire. With memoirs of his life and writings, composed by himself: illustrated from his letters, with occasional notes and narrative, by John Lord Sheffield. Paul evinced, Cibber and Sheridan: or, the Dublin miscellany. Containing all the advertisements, letters, Lately publish'd, on account of the theatric squabble. To which are added, several prologues and epilogues, spoke at the theatre in Smock Alley, Also two songs by Mr.
Observations on Soame Jenyns's View of the internal evidence of the Christian religion; addressed to its almost-Christian author. Kenrick, LL. Observations, civil and canonical, on the marriage contract, as entered into conformably to the rites and ceremonies of the Church of England. An affectionate address to passionate professors: shewing the blessedness of a meek and quiet spirit: the evil of giving way to bad tempers and sinful passions: and pointing out some remedies for subduing them.
A dissertation on the rise, union, and power, the progressions, separations, and corruptions, of poetry and music. To which is prefixed, the cure of Saul. A sacred ode. Written by Dr. The botanic garden: a poem, in two parts. Containing the economy of vegetation. Part II. The loves of the plants. With philosophical notes. By David Hume, Esq.
A token for children: Being an exact account of the conversion, holy and exemplary lives, and joyful deaths of several young children. In two parts. By James Janeway, Compiled from ample materials scattered in a variety of books, In four volumes. The legislative independence of Ireland vindicated: in a speech of Mr.
Sheridan's on the Irish propositions, in the British House of Commons. To which is annexed an authentic copy of the twenty resolutions, on the Irish commercial intercourse; as they passed that House, on the 30th of May, ;. Aristotle's master-piece: or the secrets of generation display'd in all the parts thereof; Very necessary for all midwives, nurses and young-married-women. A collection from Dyers letters: concerning the elections of the present Parliament: with an appendix, relating to some other publick matters.
A concise and genuine account of the dispute between Mr. Hume and Mr. Rousseau: with the letters that passed between them during their controversy. As also, the letters of the Hon. Walpole, and Mr. Translated from the French. Fragments of ancient poetry, collected in the Highlands of Scotland, and translated from the Galic or Erse language. The cobler: or, a wife of ten thousand. A ballad opera. As it is performed at the Theatre-Royal, Drury-Lane. A generous discovery of many curious and useful medicines and preparations, both in physic, chymistry, cookery, and stiffenry; as a drink for the small pox, To be had at Mrs.
Hey's near the Wax-candle in St. Andrew's Norwich. An answer to a pamphlet entituled, An argument to prove the affections of the people of England to be the best security of the government. By the author of The free-holder. The gipsies. A comick opera, in two acts. As it is performed at the Theatre-Royal in the Haymarket. The metamorphoses. A comic opera. As it is performed at the Theatre-Royal, in the Hay-Market.
An essay on the virtue and efficient cause of magnetical cures. To which is added, a new method for curing wounds without pains, and without the application of remedies. Written originally in Latin, by the famous Dr. Herman Boerhaave,. A practical display of the philosophical system called animal magnetism, in which is explained different modes of treating, with some medical observations on the diseases of the human body,.
A new comic opera. As it will be performed this evening at the Theatre-Royal, Drury-Lane. Remarks on Dr. Boerhaave's Theory of the attrition of the blood in the lungs. By Samuel Musgrave,. The absurdity and perfidy of all authoritative toleration of gross heresy: blasphemy, idolatry, popery, in Britain. In two letters to a friend. By John Brown, Pity's gift: a collection of interesting tales, to excite the compassion of youth for the animal creation.
Ornamented with vignettes. From the writings of Mr. Selected by a lady. Gleanings in England; descriptive of the countenance, mind and character of the country. Gleanings through Wales, Holland and Westphalia: with views of peace and war at home and abroad. To which is added Humanity; or the rights of nature. A poem, revised and corrected. Occasional observations on a double-titled-paper, about the clear produce of the civil-list revenue, from midsummer , to midsummer last.
The history of England: under the House of Tudor. By David Hume, Esq; In two volumes. An address to the Whig Club: with an essay on the judicial discretion of judges, on fiats and on bail. Alciphron: or, the minute philosopher. In seven dialogues. Containing an apology for the Christian religion, against those who are called free-thinkers. The life of David Hume, Esq: Written by himself. To which is added, a letter from Adam Smith, LL. Sketches of the natural, civil, and political state of Swisserland: in a series of letters to William Melmoth, Esq; from William Coxe, Heads of Mr.
Francis's speech, in the House of Commons, on the 7th of May, , on Mr. Grey's motion for a reform in Parliament. Answer of Philip Francis, Esq. A general history of the stage: from its origin in Greece down to the present time. Collected and digested by W.
A philosophical, historical, and moral essay on old maids. By a friend to the sisterhood. An extraordinary case of lacerated vagina, at the full period of gestation. With observations, tending to show that many cases related as ruptures of the uterus, have been lacerations of the vagina. By William Goldson,. Notes upon the twelve books of Paradise lost: Collected from the Spectator. The children's friend: Translated from the French of M.
Berquin; complete in four volumes. Ornamented with frontispieces. The great advantage of the use of the bark in mortifications. With several additions. By John Rushworth, surgeon. Ode inscribed to John Howard: Esq. Don Quixote in England: A comedy. As it is acted at the New Theatre in the Hay-Market. By Henry Fielding, Esq;. April the 15th, By Stephen Duck. By Richard Sheridan,. Travels, in various parts of Europe, Asia, and Africa, during a series of thirty years and upwards.
By John MacDonald,. Liberty chastised: or patriotism in chains. A tragi, comi, political farce, as it was performed by his M-'s S-ts, in the year ; Scenes near the P- and in St. Gregoir's Fields. Modernised by Paul Tell-Truth, Esq. Speech of Mr. Sheridan, in the House of Commons, on Friday the 21st of April, on the motion to address His Majesty, on the present alarming state of affairs. The happy prescription; or, the lady relieved from her lovers: a comedy, in rhyme. Written for a private theatre, by William Hayley, Esq. An elegy on the ancient Greek model.
By William Hayley, Esq. Dissertations on subjects relating to the genius and the evidences of Christianity: By Alexander Gerard, D. The history of Hindostan: from the death of Akbar, to the complete settlement of the empire under Aurungzebe. To which are prefixed, I. A dissertation on the origin and nature of despotism in Hindostan. An enquiry into the state of Bengal; By Alexander Dow, The history of Hindostan: from the earliest account of time, to the death of Akbar; translated from the Persian of Mahummud Casim Ferishta of Delhi With an appendix, containing the history of the Mogul empire, from its decline in the reign of Mahummud Shaw, to the present times.
By Alexander Dow. With many entertaining anecdotes of his exploits in hunting, card-playing, The land of the muses: a poem, in the manner of Spenser. With poems on several occasions. By Hugh Downman, Infancy, or the management of children: a didactic poem, in six books. The fifth edition. By Hugh Downman, M. The singular case of a lady, who had the small-pox during pregnancy; and who communicated the same disease to the foetus: By W.
Lynn, Surgeon. As read at the Royal Society in February The speech of R. Containing the medicines used in the hospitals of London, by the direction of Dr. Coatsworth, Dr. Mead, Dr. Cade, Dr. Wadsworth, Dr. With suitable instructions for their common use. A letter to T P, Esq; from the author of Siris: Containing some farther remarks on the virtues of tar-water, and the methods for preparing and using of it. To which is added, an answer to a supposed physician's letter to the The poetical works: of Thomas Gray. With the life of the author.
Cooke's edition. Embellished with superb engravings. Nature in perfection; or, the mother unveil'd: being a congratulatory poem to Mrs. Bret, upon His Majesty's most gracious pardon granted to Mr. Richard Savage, son of the late Earl Rivers. Proverbs exemplified, and illustrated by pictures from real life. Teaching morality and a knowledge of the world; with prints.
The London adviser and guide: containing every instruction and information useful and necessary to persons living in London, and coming to reside there; By the Rev. Chronology; or, the historian's vade-mecum: Wherein every remarkable occurrence in English history, John Trusler. Chronology: or, a concise view of the annals of England: Where every particular occurrence, By John Trusler, Cler.
Illustrated with divers beautiful similes, and useful digressions. An essay upon prints: containing remarks upon the principles of picturesque beauty, the different kinds of prints, and the characters of the most noted masters; A letter to a bishop, concerning lectureships. The history of Scotland from the accession of the House of Stuart to that of Mary.
With appendixes of original papers. By John Pinkerton. An account of the nature and excellent properties and vertues of the Pyrmont waters; dedicated to the Royal Society,. An essay on the principle of population, as it affects the future improvement of society. With remarks on the speculations of Mr. Godwin, M. Condorcet, and other writers. Phillis at court: a comic opera of three acts. The music by Signior Tomaso Giordani. Caractacus: a dramatic poem: written on the model of the ancient Greek tragedy. By the author of Elfrida. Original papers: containing the secret history of Great Britain, from the restoration, to the accession of the House of Hannover.
The whole arranged and published by James Macpherson, The elements of beauty: Also, reflections on the harmony of sensibility and reason. Published from the author's manuscript by Job Orton. The absolute and indispensible duty of Christians: in this critical juncture, considered and enforced, in an affectionate address.
An inquiry into the nature and causes of the wealth of nations: By Adam Smith, Additions and corrections to the first and second editions of Dr.
Adam Smith's Inquiry into the Nature and causes of the wealth of nations. An investigation of the cause of the present high price of provisions: By the author of the essay on the principle of population. The virtues and excellency of the American tobacco plant, for cure of diseases, and preservation of health: and the noxious qualities of the tobacco growing in Northern countries. An account of the mechanism of the eye: Wherein its power of refracting the rays of light, and causing them to converge at the retina, is consider'd By John Taylor, The amorous widow: or, the wanton wife.
A comedy. As it is perform'd by Her Majesty's servants. Written by the late famous Mr. Thomas Betterton. Now first printed from the original copy. Arcana Mooreana; or, a succinct and lucid discourse, of the origine, essence, scituation symptoms, causes and cure of the cholick, Done by Mr. John Moore,. Together with the history of such minute insects as require investigation by the microscope.
The whole illustrated by coloured figures, An essay upon the trade to Africa, in order to set the merits of that cause in a true light and bring the disputes between the African Company and the separate traders into a narrower compass. Learning at a loss, or the amours of Mr. Pedant and Miss Hartley. A novel. Three short letters to the people of England, proving the public grievances complained of to be ideal: By the Revd.
Epistle to a friend: on the death of John Thornton, Esq. By the author of "An epistle to an eminent painter. Modern times: or the adventures of Gabriel Outcast. In imitation of Gil Blas. Remarks on forest scenery: and other woodland views, relative chiefly to picturesque beauty illustrated by the scenes of New-Forest in Hampshire. In three books. By William Gilpin, Observations, relative chiefly to picturesque beauty, made in the year on several parts of England; particularly the mountains, and lakes of Cumberland, and Westmoreland. By William Gilpin, M. Three essays: on picturesque beauty; on picturesque travel; and on sketching landscape: to which is added a poem, on landscape painting.
An address to the subscribers for the History and antiquities of the county palatine of Durham: with a sketch of the materials from whence the intended publication is compiled. By William Hutchinson, F. A view of Northumberland with an excursion to the abbey of Mailross in Scotland. Hutchinson: [pt. The alteration of the constitution of the House of Commons, and the inequality of the land-tax, considered conjointly. Together with A treatise on the management of insects in their several states; selected from the best authorities.
An essay on somnambulism, or sleep-walking: produced by animal electricity and magnetism. As performed by the Rev. John Bell, Observations on the state of the highways, and on the laws for amending and keeping them in repair: with a draught of a bill for comprehending and reducing into one act of parliament the most essential parts of all the statutes in force relating to the highways, By John Hawkins, Observations relative chiefly to picturesque beauty, made in the year on several parts of Great Britain; particularly the High-lands of Scotland.
Coriolanus: A tragedy. As it is acted at the Theatre-Royal in Covent-Garden. By the late James Thomson. Donovan, F. In five volumes. Secrets worth knowing: a comedy, in five acts. As performed at the Theatre Royal, Covent Garden. By Thomas Morton, The castle of Otranto: a story. Translated by William Marshal, Gent. From the original Italian of Onuphrio Muralto, The Earl of Essex: A tragedy. As it is acted at the Theatre Royal in Covent-Garden. Henry Jones. Name on the door. The variety of advertisements by several master taylors in London,.
Two dialogues: containing a comparative view of the lives, characters, and writings, of Philip, the late Earl of Chesterfield, and of Dr. Samuel Johnson. An essay on musical expression: By Charles Avison, With alterations and large additions. To which is added, a letter to the author, concerning the music of the ancients, Likewise, Mr. Avison's Reply to the author of Remarks on the Essay on musical expression. In a letter from Mr. Avison, to his friend in London. A sermon preached at the Parish-church of St.
Anne, Westminster: on Thursday, May the 10th, Select letters between the late Duchess of Somerset, Lady Luxborough, The whole now first published from original copies, by Mr. In two volumes: [pt. An epitome of the natural history of the insects of China: comprising figures and descriptions An epitome of the natural history of the insects of India, and the islands in the Indian seas An invitation to peace: or, Toby's preliminaries to Nestor Ironsides, set forth in a dialogue between Toby and his kinsman.
The substance of General Burgoyne's speeches: on Mr. Vyner's motion, on the 26th of May; and upon Mr. Hartley's motion, on the 28th of May, With an appendix, containing General Washington's letter to General Burgoyne. Observations on some of the probable effects of Mr. Gilbert's bill; to which are added remarks deduced from Dr. Price's Account of the national debt. By the Reverend Mr. Brand, M. In a letter to a friend. A check on uncharitableness: or, an answer to a book, entitled, "The skeleton; or the Arminian anatomized; and the carnal preacher dissected.
To which is added, A farther check to uncharitableness By Thomas King. A lecture on muscular motion: read at the Royal Society, the 13th and 20th of November, By Gilbert Blane, M. Rebellion extinguished: a thanksgiving-sermon, preached at Barton under-Neewood, in the county of Stafford, October the 9th, On account of the deliverance of these kingdoms from the calamities of an intestine war.
By Thomas Vaughan, Paul's Covent-Garden. The calculation of solar eclipses without parallaxes: With a specimen of the same in the total eclipse of the sun, May By Will. An account of a most efficacious medicine for soreness, weakness, and several other distempers of the eyes: By Sir Hans Sloane, A short view of the difficulties and discouragements attending those who enter into Holy Orders: By John Latham, The occasional miscellany, in prose and verse: Consisting of, a variety of letters, written originally to a young gentleman who design'd to go into Holy Orders, By John Wallis,.
The peerage of Great Britain and Ireland: including the extinct, with a genealogical and historical account of each noble family. Embellished with a series of historical prints By Robert Pollard, F. A sermon preach'd on Sunday May 16th, , at the parish church of St. George's Bloomsbury: occasion'd by the death of the Rev. By Thomas Francklin. The poems: of Mr. To which are prefixed Memoirs of his life and writings by W. Mason, M. A full and just account of the present state of the Ottoman empire in all its branches: with the government, and policy, religion, customs, and way of living of the Turks, in general.
By Aaron Hill, Hannah Hewit: or, the female Crusoe. Being the history of a woman of uncommon, mental, and personal accomplishments; who, Supposed to be written by herself. A descriptive account of the islands lately discovered in the South-Seas: Giving a full detail of the present state of the inhabitants, their government, religion, Luxury no political evil: but demonstratively proved to be necessary to the preservation and prosperity of states.
Addressed to the British senate. Published from his original manuscript. The insolvent: or, filial piety. A tragedy. Acted at the Theatre in the Hay-market, by authority under the direction of Mr. Written by the late Aaron Hill, The honest farmer. A drama, in five acts, to which are added, Vanity punished, and Blind-man's buff.
Marian: a comic opera, in two acts. Performed at the Theatre-Royal, Covent-Garden. Thomas and Sally: or, the sailor's return: A musical entertainment. The music composed by Doctor Arne. Essays moral and philosophical, on several subjects: viz. A view of the human faculties. An essay on self-love. A sermon preach'd before the Right Honourable the Lord Mayor the aldermen, and citizens of London, at the cathedral church of St.
Conversations with Angels
Paul, on Friday the twenty ninth day of May, By James Townley,. The life of John Buncle: Esq; containing various observations and reflections, made in several parts of the world; and many extraordinary relations. An account of the jail fever: or typhus carcerum: as it appeared at Carlisle in the year By John Heysham Ovid's Metamorphoses in fifteen books.
Translated by the most eminent hands. Adorn'd with sculptures. A proposal for putting a speedy end to the war, by ruining the commerce of the French and Spaniards: and securing our own, without any additional expence to the nation. The levellers: or, Satan's Privy-Council. A Pasquinade, in three cantos. The author, Hugh Hudibras, Esq. The siege of Berwick: a tragedy, by Mr. Jerningham: as performed at the Theatre-Royal, Covent-Garden. A fragment of the history of that illustrious personage John Bull, Esq: compiled by that celebrated historian Sir Humphry Polesworth.
Lately discovered in the repairs of Grub-Hatch, the ancient seat of the family of the Polesworths; now first published from the original manuscript, by Peregrine Pinfold, A defence of free-thinking in mathematics: In answer to a pamphlet of Philalethes Cantabrigiensis, intituled, Geometry no friend to infidelity, or a defence of Sir Isaac Newton, and the British mathematicians. Also an appendix concerning Mr. Walton's Vindication of the principles of fluxions The Copernicus explain'd: or a brief account of the nature and use of an universal astronomical instrument, for the calculation and exhibition of new and full moons, and of eclipses, By William Whiston, A letter from Pennsylvania to a friend in England: containing valuable information with respect to America.
Jardine, M. The hive of modern literature: a collection of essays, narratives, allegories, and instructive compositions; Pamela: or, virtue rewarded. In a series of familiar letters from a beautiful young damsel to her parents: and afterwards, in her exalted condition, between her, and persons of figure and quality, The third and fourth volumes.
By the editor of the two first. In a series of familiar letters from a beautiful young damsel, to her parents. The third edition. To which are prefixed, extracts from several curious letters written to the editor on the subject. An historical, physiological and theological treatise of spirits: apparitions, witchcrafts, and other magical practices. Containing an account of the genii With a refutation of Dr.
Bekker's World bewitch'd; and other authors By John Beaumont, gent. An oration on the utility of public infirmaries: Occasioned by the opening of the Radcliffe Infirmary at Oxford. By Joseph Bromehead, A vindication of The age of reason, by Thomas Paine: being an answer to the strictures of Mr. Gilbert Wakefield and Dr. By Thomas Dutton. An account of the nature, properties, and medicinal uses, of the mineral water at Nottington, near Weymouth, Dorset. By John Crane, With a view of the well, in it's present state.
A dissertation on the King's evil: with some account of a medicine which To which are added, the cases of many persons who have been cured, and a proposal highly meriting the consideration of the public. A trip to Scarborough: A comedy. As performed at the Theatre Royal in Drury Lane. Altered from Vanbrugh's Relapse; or, virtue in danger. By Richard Brinsley Sheridan, Esq. The following observations on the method of curing burns and scalds. The fountain of health: or, a view of nature. Wherein the causes of distempers, are philosophically explain'd By Henry Burdon. An essay on the formation, structure, and use of the teeth: With a supplement, By Mayer Lewis, A supplement to The State of the expedition from Canada: containing General Burgoyne's orders, respecting the principal movements, Discourses concerning government: by Algernon Sidney, Publish'd from an original manuscript.
The second edition carefully corrected.
To which is added, the paper he deliver'd to the Sheriffs immediately before his death. And an alphabetical table. Journal of a voyage to New South Wales: with sixty-five plates of non descript animals, birds, A dissertation concerning misletoe: a most wonderful specifick remedy for the cure of convulsive distempers. By Sir John Colbatch, Dampier's vindication of his voyage to the South-Seas in the ship St. George: With some small observations Funnel's chimerical relation of the voyage round the world; An English alphabet, for the use of foreigners: wherein the pronunciation of the vowels, or voice-letters, is explained in twelve short general rules, with their several exceptions, as abridged for the instruction of Omai from a larger work.
The compassion and beneficence of the deity: A sermon, preached before the Society incorporated by Royal Charter for the Benefit of the Sons of the Clergy of the Established Church of Scotland, May, By Hugh Blair, To which is added, an account of the objects and constitution of the Society.
Antiquitates vulgares: or, the antiquities of the common people. Giving an account of several of their opinions and ceremonies. By Henry Bourne, A sermon preached before the Sons of the Clergy: in the cathedral church of St. Paul, on Friday May 6th, To which is annexed, a list of the annual amount of the collection for this charity, from the year Ambassador in France. Now first printed from the originals in Mr. Sydney's own hand. The history of the Robinhood Society: In which the origin of that illustrious body of men is traced; the method of managing their debates is shewn; An account of a new poor-house: erected in the parish of Boldre, in New Forest, near Lymington, Spanish memoirs: in a series of original letters.
Containing the history of Donna Isabella della Villarea, Published by the author of Maria, or the generous rustic. Miscellanies in prose and verse: Containing candid and impartial observations on the principal performers belonging to the two Theatres-Royal; from January , to May Likewise strictures on two favourite tragedies, viz.
The orphan and The fair penitent. By William Hawkins, gent. Genuine letters from a gentleman to a young lady his pupil Written some years since. Now first revised and published with notes and illustrations, by Thomas Hull, The harmony and agreement of the collects, epistles, and gospels: as they stand in the Book of Common-Prayer, from the first Sunday in Advent, to the last Sunday after Trinity.
Proper to be bound up with the Common-Prayer, Curiosities of literature: Consisting of anecdotes, characters, sketches, and observations, literary, critical, and historical. Justification by Christ alone: a fountain of life and comfort. Declaring that the whole work of man's salvation was accomplished by Jesus Christ upon the Cross, Written by Samuel Richardson, in the year An inquiry into the nature, causes, and termination of nervous fevers: together with observations tending to illustrate the method of restoring His Majesty to health, and of preventing relapses of his disease.
By Robert Jones, The tobacconist, a comedy: of two acts altered from Ben Johnson. Acted at the Theatres Royal in the Hay-market and Edinburgh. Essays upon several subjects in law: sciz. Annus mirabilis: or, the wonderful effects of the approaching conjunction of the planets Jupiter, Mars, and Saturn. By Abraham Gunter, An essay concerning the growth of empiricism; or the encouragement of quacks. By Fran. Guybon, M. Evenings at home; or, the juvenile budget opened: Consisting of a variety of miscellaneous pieces, Llwhuddwhydd, and others. The extraordinaries of these times.
Collected from Zaphaniel's original papers. Illustrated with copper-plates. Henry Jones,. One thousand eight hundred; or, I wish you a happy new year: Being a choice collection of favourite songs, on serious, moral, and lively subjects. Written and carefully revised by George Saville Carey. Anecdotes of eminent painters in Spain: during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries; with cursory remarks upon the present state of arts in that kingdom. By Richard Cumberland. An accurate and descriptive catalogue of the several paintings in the King of Spain's palace at Madrid: with some account of the pictures in the Buen-Retiro.
By Richard Cumberland, The life of Milton: in three parts. To which are added, Conjectures on the origin of Paradise lost: with an appendix. Discourses for the use of families: on the advantages of a free enquiry, and on the study of the scriptures. Hazlitt, M. With a collection of authentic documents, Written and collected by himself, Some reasons given against an opinion that a person infected with the small-pox may be cured by antidote without incurring the distemper By Thomas Frewen, M.
A collection of poetical essays: Consisting of I. An elegy on a pile of sacred ruins; Memoirs of the court of France, and city of Paris: containing the intrigues of that court, and the characters of the ministers of state, and other officers; together with the occurrences of the town. Remarks on the scurvy as it appeared among the English prisoners in France: in the year ; with an account of the effects of opium in that disease, Crosfeild, M.
The mogul tale: or, the descent of the balloon. A farce. As it is acted at the Theatre-Royal, Smoke-Alley. The castle of Andalusia: a comic opera. As it is performed at the theatres in London and Dublin. By John O'Keefe, Esqr. An essay on circulation and credit: in four parts; and a letter on the jealousy of commerce. From the French of Monsieur de Pinto. Translated, with annotations, by the Rev. Baggs, M. The works: in verse and prose, of Dr. Thomas Parnell, Enlarged with variations and poems, not before publish'd.
Of the crime of Onan together with that of his brother Er, punished with sudden death Gen. A branch of the Sacramentarians; so called from the Latin Adesse, to be present, because they believed the presence of Christ's body in the eucharist, though in a manner different from the Romanists. A name given in the sixteenth century to the moderate Lutherans who adhered to the sentiments of Melancthon; and afterwards to those who subscribed the interim of Charles V.
The word is of Greek origin and signifies indifference or lukewarmness. Is that passion of the mind which is excited by the discovery of any great excellence in an object. It has by some writers been used as synonymous with surprise and wonder; but it is evident they are not the same. Surprise refers to something unexpected; wonder, to something great or strange; but admiration includes the idea of high esteem or respect.
Thus, we say we admire a man's excellencies, but we do not say that we are surprised at them. We wonder at an extraordinary object or event, but we do not always admire it. Denotes a hint or advice given to another, whereby we reprove him for his fault, or remind him of his duty. Admonition was a part of the discipline much used in the ancient church: it was the first act or step towards the punishment or expulsion of delinquents.
In case of private offences, it was performed according to the evangelical rule, privately; in case of public offence, openly before the church. If either of these sufficed for the recovery of the fallen person, all further proceedings,in a way of censure, ceased; if they did not, recourse was had to excommunication. One of the names of the Supreme Being in the Scriptures. The proper meaning of the word is "my Lords," in the plural number; as Adoni is my Lord, in the singular. The Jews, who either out of respect or superstition do not pronounce the name of Jehovah, read Adonai in the room of it, as often as they meet with Jehovah in the Hebrew text.
But the ancient Jews were not so scrupulous; nor is there any law which forbids them to pronounce the name of God. A party among divines and critics, who maintain that the Hebrew points ordinarily annexed to the consonants of the word Jehovah are not the natural points belonging to that word, nor express the true pronunciation of it; but are the vowel points belonging to the words Adonai and Elohim, applied to the consonants of the ineffable name Jehovah, to warn the readers, that instead of the word Jehovah, which the Jews were forbid to pronounce, and the true pronunciation of which had long been unknown to them, they are always to read Adonai.
The followers of Felix of Urgil and Epiland of Toledo, who, towards the end of the eighth century, advanced the notion that Jesus Christ in his human nature is the Son of God, not by nature, but by adoption. An act whereby any person receives another into his family, owns him for his son, and appoints him his heir. Spiritual adoption is an act of God's free grace, whereby we are received into the number, and have a right to all the privileges of the sons of God. Glorious, is that in which the saints, being raised from the dead, are at the last day solemnly owned to be the children of God, and enter into the full possession of that inheritance provided for them, Rom.
Adoption is a word taken from the civil law, and was much in use among the Romans in the apostles' time; when it was a custom for persons who had no children of their own, and were possessed of an estate, to prevent its being divided, or descending to strangers, to make choice of such who were agreeable to them, and beloved by them, whom they took into this political relation of children; obliging them to take their name upon them, and to pay respect to them as though they were their natural parents, and engaging to deal with them as though they had been so; and accordingly to give them a right to their estates, as an inheritance.
This new relation, founded in a mutual consent, is a bond of affection; and the privilege arising from thence is, that he who is in this sense a father, takes care of and provides for the person whom he adopts, as though he were his son by nature; and therefore civilian call it an act of legitimation, imitating nature, or supplying the place of it. It is easy, then, to conceive the propriety of the term as used by the apostle in reference to this act, though it must be confessed there is some difference between civil and spiritual adoption.
Civil adoption was allowed of and provided for the relief and comfort of those who had no children; but in spiritual adoption this reason does not appear. The Almighty was under no obligation to do this; for he had innumerable spirits whom he had created, besides his own Son, who had all the perfections of the divine nature, who was the object of his delight, and who is styled the heir of all things, Heb. When men adopt, it is on account of some excellency in the persons who are adopted; thus Pharaoh's daughter adopted Moses because he was exceeding fair, Acts vii. In civil adoption, though the name of a son be given, the nature of a son may not; this relation may not necessarily be attended with any change of disposition or temper.
But in spiritual adoption we are made partakers of the divine nature, and a temper or disposition given us becoming the relationship we bear, Jer. Much has been said as to the time of adoption. Some place it before regeneration, because it is supposed that we must be in the family before we can be partakers of the blessings of it.
But it is difficult to conceive of one before the other; for although adoption may seem to precede regeneration in order of nature, yet not of time; they may be distinguished, but cannot be separated. There is no adoption, says the great Charnock, without regeneration. A state of adoption is never without a separation from defilement, 2 Cor.
The new name in adoption is never given till the new creature be formed. Yet these are to be distinguished. Regeneration, as a physical act, gives us a likeness to God in our nature; adoption, as a legal act, gives us a right to an inheritance. Regeneration makes us formally his sons, by conveying a principle, 1 Pet. By the one we are instated in the divine affection; by the other we are partakers of the divine nature.
It implies great honour. They have God's name put upon them, and are described as "his people, called by his name," 2 Chron. They are no longer slaves to sin and the world; but, emancipated from its dreadful bondage, are raised to dignity and honour, Gal. Inexhaustible provision and riches. They inherit all things, Rev. All the blessings of a temporal kind that are for their good shall be given them.
Psalm lxxxiv. All the blessings of grace are treasured up in Jesus Christ for them, Eph. All the blessings of glory shall be enjoyed by them, Col. Divine protection. As the master of a family is engaged to defend and secure all under his roof, and committed to his care, so Jesus Christ is engaged to protect and defend his people. Unspeakable felicity. They enjoy the most intimate communion with the Father, and with his Son Jesus Christ. They have access to his throne at all times, and under all circumstances.
They see divine wisdom regulating every affair, and rendering every thing subservient to their good. The laws, the liberties, the privileges, the relations, the provisions, and the security of this family are all sources of happiness; but especially the presence, the approbation, and the goodness of God, as the governor thereof, afford joy unspeakable and full of glory, 1 Pet. Eternal glory. In some cases, civil adoption might be made null and void, as among the Romans, when against the right of the pontifex, and without the decree of the college; but spiritual adoption, as it is divine as to its origin, so it is perpetual as to its duration.
In the present state we are as children at school; but in heaven we shall be as children at home, where we shall always behold the face of our heavenly Father, for ever celebrating his praises, admiring his perfections, and enjoying his presence. The evidences of adoption are, 1.
Renunciation of all former dependencies. When a child is adopted, he relinquishes the object of his past confidence, and submits himself to the will and pleasure of the adopter; so they who are brought into the family of God, will evidence it by giving up every other object so far as it interferes with the will and glory of their heavenly Father. This may not always apply to civil adoption, but it always does to spiritual.
The children of God feel a regard for him above every other object. His own excellency, his unspeakable goodness to them, his promises of future blessings, are all grounds of the strongest love. Luke vii. Access to God with a holy boldness. They who are the children by adoption are supposed to have the same liberty of access as those who are partakers of the blessings of spiritual adoption will prove it, by a reverential, yet familiar address to the Father of spirits: they will confess their unworthiness, acknowledge their dependence, and implore the mercy and favour of God.
Having such a privilege, they "come boldly to the throne of grace, that they may obtain mercy and find grace to help in time of need. Those who are adopted into a family must obey the laws of that family; so believers prove themselves adopted by their obedience to the word and ordinances of God. He that saith he abideth in him, ought himself also to walk even as he walked.
Patient yet joyful expectation of the inheritance. In civil adoption, indeed, an inheritance is not always certain; but in spiritual adoption it is. From the consideration of the whole of this doctrine, we may learn that adoption is an act of free grace through Jesus Christ. Applied to believers by the Holy Spirit, Gal. A blessing of the greatest importance, 1 John iii. See Ridgley's and Gill's Body of Div. Adoption; Charnock's Works, vol. Religion, p. Fed, o, ,.
The act of rendering divine honours, including in it reverence, esteem, and love: this is called supreme, or absolute. The word is compounded or absolute. The word is compounded, of ad, "to," and os oris, "mouth;" and literally signifies to apply the hand to the mouth, "to kiss the hand;" this being in the eastern countries, one of the great marks of respect and submission. See Job xxxi. The attitude of adoration, however, we find has not been confined to this mode; standing, kneeling, uncovering the head, prostration, bowing, lifting up the eyes to heaven, or sometimes fixing them upon the earth with the body bending forward; sitting with the under parts of the thighs resting on the heels, have all been used, as expressive of veneration and esteem.
Whatever be the form, however, it must be remembered, that adoration, as an act of worship, is due to God alone, Matt. Acts x. There is, 2. This has been performed by bowing, bending the knee, falling on the face. The practice of adoration may be said to be still subsisting in England, in the ceremony of kissing the king's or queen's hand, and in serving them at table, both being performed kneeling on one knee.
There is also 3.
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In this sense the Romanists profess to adore the cross not simply or immediately, but in respect of Jesus Christ, whom they suppose to be on it. This is generally, however, considered by protestants, as coming little short of idolatry. One who sets himself in opposition to another: one of the names of Satan.
A state which is opposite to our wishes, and the cause of sorrow. It stands opposed to prosperity. An unlawful commerce between one married person and another, or between a married and an unmarried person. It is also used in Scripture for idolatry, or departing from the true God. Also for any species of impurity or crime against the virtue of chastity. It is also used in ecclesiastical writer's for a person's invading or intruding into a bishoprick during the former bishop's life.
The word is also used in ancient customs for the punishment or fine imposed for that offence, or the privilege of prosecuting for it. The infidelity of the woman is aggravated by cruelty to her children, who are generally involved in their parents' shame, and always made unhappy by their quarrel. The marriage vow is witnessed before God, and accompanied with circumstances of solemnity and religion, which approach to the nature of an oath.
The married offender, therefore, incurs a crime little short of perjury, and the seduction of a married woman is little less than subornation of perjury. But the strongest apology for adultery is, the prior transgression of the other party; and so far, indeed, as the bad effects of adultery are anticipated by the conduct of the husband or wife who offends first, the guilt of the second offender is extenuated. But this can never amount to a justification, unless it could be shown that the obligation of the marriage vow depends upon the condition of reciprocal fidelity; a construction which appears founded neither in expediency, nor in terms of the vow, nor in the design of the legislature, which prescribed the marriage rite.
To consider the offence upon the footing of provocation, therefore, can by no means vindicate retaliation. This crime has been punished in almost all ages and nations. By the Jewish law it was punished with death in both parties, where either the woman was married, or both. Among the Egyptians, adultery in the man was punished by a thousand lashes with rods, and in the woman by the loss of her nose.
The Greeks put out the eyes of the adulterers. In Spain and Poland they were almost as severe. The Saxons formerly burnt the adulteress, and over her ashes erected a gibbet, whereon the adulterer was hanged. King Edmund in this kingdom, ordered adultery to be punished in the same manner as homicide. Canute ordered the man to be banished, and the woman to have her nose and ears cut off. Modern punishments, in different nations, do not seem to be so severe. In Britain it is reckoned a spiritual offence, and is cognizable by the spiritual courts, where it is punished by fine and penance.
See Paley's Moral and Political Philosophy, p. A branch of Arians in the reign of Constantine, who held that there was no difference between bishops and priests; a doctrine maintained by many modern divines, particularly of the presbyterian and reformed churches. The sect received its denomination from Aerius, who founded his doctrine on 1 Tim. Those who maintained that the Son and Holy Ghost were in all things dissimilar to the Father. They received their name, from Aetius, one of the most zealous defenders of Arianism, who was born in Syria, and flourished about the year Besides the opinions which the Aetians held in common with the Arians, they maintained that faith without works was sufficient to salvation; and that no sin however grievous, would be imputed to the faithful.
Aetius, moreover, affirmed that what God had concealed from the apostles, he had revealed to him. In a philosophical sense, refers to the manner in which we are affected by any thing for a continuance, whether painful or pleasant: but in the most common sense, it may be defined to be a settled bent of mind towards a particular being or thing. It holds a middle place between disposition on the one hand, and passion on the other. It is distinguishable from disposition, which being a branch of one's nature originally, must exist before there can be an opportunity to exert it upon any particular object; whereas affection can never be original, because having a special relation to a particular object, it cannot exist till the object have once, at least, been presented.
It is also distinguishable from passion, which, depending on the real or ideal presence of its object, vanishes with its object; whereas affection is a lasting connexion, and, like other connexions, subsists, even when we do not think of the objects. The affections, as they respect religion, deserve in this a little attention. They may be defined to be the "vigorous and sensible exercises of the inclination and will of the soul towards religious objects.
It is true, indeed, "that all affectionate devotion is not wise and rational; but it is no less true, that all wise and rational devotion must be affectionate. They have considerable influence on men in the common concerns of life; how much more, then, should they operate in those important objects that relate to the Divine Being, the immortality of the soul, and the happiness or misery of a future state!
The religion of the most eminent saints has always consisted in the exercise of holy affections. Jesus Christ himself affords us an example of the most lively and vigorous affections; and we have every reason to believe that the employment of heaven consists in the exercise of them. In addition to all which the scriptures of truth teach us, that religion is nothing, if it occupy not the affections. A distinction however, must be made between what may be merely natural, and what is truly spiritual.
The affections may be excited in a natural way under ordinances by a natural impression, Ezek. These things are often found in those who are only mere professors of religion, Matt. Now, in order to ascertain whether our affections are excited in a spiritual manner, we must enquire whether that which moves our affections be truly spiritual, whether our consciences be alarmed, and our hearts impressed; whether the judgment be enlightened, and we have a perception of the moral excellency of divine things; and lastly, whether our affections have a holy tendency and produce the happy effects of obedience to God, humility in ourselves, and justice to our fellow creatures.
As this is a subject worthy of close attention, the reader may commit. Lord Kaim's Elements of Criticism, vol. That which causes a sensation of pain. Calamity or distress of any kind. The afflictions of the saints are represented in the scripture, as appointed, 1 Thess. Job v. They wean from the world; work submission; produce humility; excite to diligence; stir up to prayer; and conform us to the divine image.
To bear them with patience, we should consider our own unworthiness; the design of God in sending them; the promises of support under them; and the real good they are productive of. The afflictions of a good man, says an elegant writer, never befall without a cause, nor are sent but upon a proper errand. These storms are never allowed to rise but in order to dispel some noxious vapours, and restore salubrity to the moral atmosphere. Who that for the first time beheld the earth in the midst of winter, bound up with frost, or drenched in floods of rain, or covered with snow, would have imagined that Nature, in this dreary and torpid state, was working towards its own renovation in the spring?
Yet we by experience know that those vicissitudes of winter are necessary for fertilizing the earth; and that under wintry rains and snows lies concealed the seeds of those roses that are to blossom in the spring; of those fruits that are to ripen in the summer; and of the corn and wine which are in harvest to make glad the heart of man. It would be more agreeable to us to be always entertained with a fair and clear atmosphere, with cloudless skies, and perpetual sunshine: yet in such climates as we have most knowledge of, the earth, were it always to remain in such a state, would refuse to yield its fruits; and, in the midst of our imagined scenes of beauty, the starved inhabitants would perish for want of food.
Let us, therefore, quietly submit to Providence. Let us conceive this life to be the winter of our existence. Now the rains must fall, and the winds must roar around us; but, sheltering ourselves under him who is the "covert from the tempest," let us wait with patience till the storms of life shall terminate in an everlasting calm.
Blair's Ser. Or Love feasts from "love," feasts of charity among the ancient christians, when liberal contributions were made by the rich to the poor. Chrysostom gives the following account of this feast, which he derives from the apostolic practice. He says, "The first Christians had all things in common, as we read in the Acts of the apostles; but when that equality of possessions ceased, as it did even in the apostles' time, the Agape or love feast was substituted in the room of it. Upon certain days, after partaking of the Lord's supper, they met at a common feast; the rich bringing provisions, and the poor, who had nothing, being invited.
Chrysostom is of the latter opinion; the learned Dr. Cave of the former. These love feasts, during the first three centuries, were held in the church without scandal or offence; but in after-times the heathens began to tax them with impurity. This gave occasion to a reformation of these Agapes. The kiss of charity, with which the ceremony used to end, was no longer given between different sexes; and it was expressly forbidden to have any beds or couches for the conveniency of those who should be disposed to eat more at their ease.
Notwithstanding these precautions, the abuses committed in them became so notorious, that the holding them in churches at least was solemnly condemned at the council of Carthage, in the year Attempts have been made of late years, to revive these feasts; but in a different manner from the primitive custom, and, perhaps, with little edification. They are, however, not very general. A name given to certain virgins and widows, who in the ancient church associated themselves with and attended on ecclesiastics, out of a motive of piety and charity.
Among divines and philosophers, signifies the duties which a man lies under an obligation to perform: thus we meet with the agenda of a christian, or the duties he ought to perform, in opposition to the credenda, or the things he is to believe. They called in question the omniscience of God; alleging that he knew things past only by memory, and things future only by an uncertain prescience. There arose another sect of the same name in the sixth century, who followed Themistius, deacon of Alexandria. They maintained that Christ was ignorant of certain things, and particularly of the time of the day of judgment.
It is supposed they built their hypothesis on that passage in Mark xiii. In the church of Rome, a cake of was, stamped with the figure of a lamb supporting the banner of the cross. The name literally signifies "Lamb of God. They cover them with a piece of stuff cut in the form of a heart, and carry them very devoutly in their processions. The Romish priests and religious derive considerable pecuniary advantage from selling them to some, and presenting them to others.
A name given by Donatus to such of his disciples as he sent to fairs, markets, and other public places, to propagate his doctrine. They were called Agonistici from the Greek "combat," because they were sent, as it were, to fight and subdue the people to their opinions. A sect of Christians in the seventh century, who prayed always standing, as thinking it unlawful to kneel. A sect which appeared about They condemned all use of flesh and marriage as not instituted by God, but introduced at the instigation of the devil. A sect of Anti-lutherans in the sixteenth century, whose distinguished tenet, besides their denying baptism, is said to have been this, that the words, "This is my body," in the institution of the eucharist, are not to be understood of the bread, but of the whole action or celebration of the supper.
A denomination which commenced about the year They held with the Gnostics and Manicheans, two principles, the one of good and the other of evil. They denied the divinity, and even the humanity of Jesus Christ, asserting that he was not truly man, did not suffer on the cross, die, rise again, nor really ascend into heaven. They rejected the doctrine of the resurrection, affirmed that the general judgment was past, and that hell torments were no other than the evils we feel and suffer in this life. They denied free will, did not admit original sin, and never administered baptism to infants.
They held that a man can give the Holy Spirit of himself, and that it is unlawful for a Christian to take an oath. This denomination derived their name from the place where their spiritual ruler resided. A denomination which sprung up in the eighth century, and renewed the greatest part of the Manichean principles. They also maintained that the world was from eternity. A party of reformers about Toulouse and the Albigeois in Languedec, who sprung up in the twelfth century, and distinguished themselves by their opposition to the church of Rome.
They were charged with many errors by the monks of those days; but from these charges they are generally acquitted by the Protestants, who consider them only as the inventions of the Romish church to blacken their character. The Albigenses grew so formidable, that the Catholics agreed upon a holy league or crusade against them. Pope Innocent III. After suffering from their persecutors, they dwindled by little and little, till the time of the reformation; when such of them as were left, fell in with the Vandois, and conformed to the doctrine of Zuinglius, and the disciples of Geneva.
The Albigenses have been frequently confounded with the Waldenses; from whom it is said they differ in many respects, both as being prior to them in point of time, as having their origin in a different country, and as being charged with divers heresies, particularly Manicheism, from which the Waldenses were exempt. A famous copy of the Scriptures, in four volumes quarto. It contains the whole bible in Greek, including the Old and New Testament, with the Apocrypha, and some smaller pieces, but not quite complete.
It is preserved in the British Museum: it was sent as a present to king Charles I. Cyrillus brought it with him from Alexandria, where probably it was written. In a schedule annexed to it, he gives this accountThat it was written as tradition informed them, by Thecla, a noble Egyptian lady, about years ago, not long after the council of Nice. But this high antiquity, and the authority of the tradition to which the patriarch refers, have been disputed; nor are the most accurate biblical writers agreed about its age.
Grabe thinks that it might have been written before the end of the fourth century; others are of opinion that it was not written till near the end of the fifth century, or somewhat later. See Dr. Woide's edition of it. Is that power or attribute of his nature whereby he is able to communicate as much blessedness to his creatures as he is pleased to make them capable of receiving. As his self-sufficiency is that whereby he has enough in himself to denominate him completely blessed, as a God of infinite perfection; so his all-sufficiency is that by which he hath enough in himself to satisfy the most enlarged desires of his creatures, and to make them completely blessed.
We practically deny this perfection, when we are discontented with our present condition, and desire more than God has allotted for us, Gen. When we seek blessings of what kind soever in an indirect way, as though God were not able to bestow them upon us in his own way, or in the use of lawful means, Gen. When we use unlawful means to escape imminent dangers, 1 Sam.
When we distrust his providence, though we had large experience of his appearing for us in various instances, 1 Sam. When we doubt of the truth or certain accomplishment of the promises, Gen. When we decline great services though called to them by God, under a pretence of our unfitness for them, Jer.
The consideration of this doctrine should lead us, 1. To seek happiness in God alone, and not in human things, Jer. To commit all our wants and trials to him, 1 Sam. To be courageous in the midst of danger and opposition, Ps. To be satisfied with his dispensations, Rom. To persevere in the path of duty, however difficult, Gen. Ridgley's Body of Div. Saurin's Ser. A denomination that arose in the thirteenth century. They derived their origin from Almaric, professor of logic and theology at Paris.
His adversaries charged him with having taught that every Christian was obliged to believe himself a member of Jesus Christ, and that without this belief none could be saved. His followers asserted that the power of the Father had continued only during the Mosaic dispensation, that of the Son twelve hundred years after his entrance upon earth; and that in the thirteenth century the age of the Holy Spirit commenced, in which the sacraments and all external worship were to be abolished; and that every one was to be saved by the internal operations of the Holy Spirit alone, without any external act of religion.
A person employed by another, in the distribution on charity. In its primitive sense it denoted an officer in religious houses, to whom belonged the management and distribution of the alms of the house. What is given gratuitously for the relief of the poor, and in repairing the churches. That alms-giving is a duty is every way evident from the variety of passages which enjoin it in the sacred scriptures. It is observable, however, what a number of excuses are made by those who are not found in the exercise of the duty: 1. That they have nothing to spare; 2. That charity begins at home; 3.
That giving to the poor is not mentioned in St. Paul's description of charity, 1 Cor. That they pay the poor rates; 6. That they employ many poor persons; 7. That the poor do not suffer so much as we imagine; 8.
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That these people, give them what you will, will never by thankful; 9. That we are liable to be imposed upon; That they should apply to their parishes; That giving money encourages idleness; That we have too many objects of charity at home, O the love of money how fruitful is it in apologies for a contracted mercenary spirit! In giving of alms, however, the following rules should be observed: first, They should be given with justice; only our own, to which we have a just right, should be given.
With cheerfulness, Deut. With simplicity and sincerity, Rom. With compassion and affection, Isa. Seasonably, Gal. Bountifully, Deut. Prudently, according to every one's need, 1 Tim. Acts iv. Barrow's admirable Sermon on Bounty to the Poor, which took him up to three hours and a half in preaching; Saurin's Ser.
Paley's Mor. A sect of ancient heretics who denied that Jesus Christ was the Logos, and consequently rejected the Gospel of St. The word is compounded of the primitive Greek; q. They made their appearance toward the close of the second century. A kind of table or raised place whereon the ancient sacrifices were offered.
The table, in Christian churches, where the Lord's supper is administered. Altars are, doubtless, of great antiquity; some suppose they were as early as Adam; but there is no mention made of them till after the flood, when Noah built one, and offered burnt offerings on it. The Jews had two altars in and about their temple; 1. The altar of burnt offerings; 2. The altar of incense; some also call the table for shew bread an altar, but improperly, Exod. The followers of Amauri, a clergyman of Bonne, in the thirteenth century. He acknowledged the divine Three, to whom he attributed the empire of the world.
But according to him, religion had three epochas, which bore a similitude to the reign of the three persons in the Trinity. The reign of God had existed as long as the law of Moses. The reign of the Son would not always last. A time would come when the sacraments should cease, and then the religion of the Holy Ghost would begin, when men would render a spiritual worship to the Supreme Being. This reign Amauri thought would succeed to the Christian religion, as the Christian had succeeded to that of Moses.
A term sometimes employed to express our wonder; but it is rather to be considered as a medium between wonder and astonishment. It is manifestly borrowed from the extensive and complicated intricacies of a labyrinth, in which there are endless mazes, without the discovery of a clue. Hence an idea is conveyed of more than simple wonder; the mind is lost in wonder.
A desire of excelling, or at least of being thought to excel, our neighbours in any thing. It is generally used in a bad sense for an immoderate or illegal pursuit of power or honour. A congregation of religious in Italy; so called from their professing themselves amantes Deum, "lovers of God;" or rather amata Deo, "Beloved of God. They had twenty-eight convents, and were united by Pope Pius V.
A Hebrew word, which, when prefixed to an assertion, signifies assuredly, certainly, or emphatically, so it is; but when it concludes a prayer, so be it, or so let it be, is its manifest import. In the former case, it is assertive, or assures of a truth or a fact; and is an asseveration, and is properly translated verily, John iii. In the latter case, it is petitionary, and, as it were, epitomises all the requests with which it stands connected, Numb.
This emphatical term was not used among the Hebrews by detached individuals only, but on certain occasions, by an assembly at large, Deut. It was adopted also, in the public worship of the primitive churches, as appears by that passage, 1 Cor. Nor is the practice of some professors in our own time to be commended, who, with a low though audible voice, add their amen to almost every sentence, as it proceeds from the lips of him who is praying. As this has a tendency to interrupt the devotion of those that are near them, and may disconcert the thoughts of him who leads the worship, it would be better omitted, and a mental amen is sufficient.
The term, as used at the end of our prayers, suggests that we should pray with understanding,faith, fervour, and expectation. See Mr. Booth's Amen to social prayer. A sect, in the sixteenth century, who took their name from Amsdorf, their leader. They maintained that good works were not only unprofitable, but were obstacles to salvation. A name given by some writers to the doctrine of universal grace, as explained and asserted by Amyraldus or Moses. Amyrault, and others, his followers, among the reformed in France, towards the middle of the seventeenth century. This doctrine principally consisted of the following particulars, viz.
Those who embraced this doctrine were called Universalists; though it is evident they rendered grace universal in words, but partial in reality. Those who maintain that baptism ought always to be performed by immersion. The word is compounded of "new," and "a Baptist," signifying that those who have been baptized in their infancy, ought to be baptized anew. It is a word which has been indiscriminately applied to Christians of very different principles and practices. The English and Dutch Baptists do not consider the word as at all applicable to their sect; because those persons whom they baptize they consider as never having been baptized before, although they have undergone what they term the ceremony of sprinkling in their infancy.
The Anabaptists of Germany, besides their notions concerning baptism, depended much upon certain ideas which they entertained concerning a perfect church establishment, pure in its members, and free from the institutions of human policy. The most prudent part of them considered it possible, by human industry and vigilance, to purify the church; and seeing the attempts of Luther to be successful, they hoped that the period was arrived in which the church was to be restored to this purity. Others, not satisfied with Luther's plan of reformation, undertook, a more perfect plan, or more properly, a visionary enterprise, to found a new church entirely spiritual and divine.
This sect was soon joined by great numbers, whose characters and capacities were very different. Their progress was rapid; for in a very short space of time, their discourses, visions, and predictions, excited great commotions in a great part of Europe. The most pernicious faction of all those which composed this motley multitude, was that which pretended that the founders of this new and perfect church were under a divine impulse, and were armed against all opposition by the power of working miracles.
These men taught that, among Christians, who had the precepts of the gospel to direct, and the Spirit of God to guide them, the office of magistracy was not only unnecessary, but an unlawful encroachment on their spiritual liberty; that the distinctions occasioned by birth, ran, or wealth should be abolished; that all Christians, throwing their possessions into one stock, should live together in that state of equality which becomes members of the same family; that, as neither the laws of nature, nor the precepts of the New Testament, had prohibited polygamy, they should use the same liberty as the patriarchs did in this respect.
They employed, at first, the various arts of persuasion, in order to propagate their doctrines, and related a number of visions and revelations, with which they pretended to have been favoured from above: but when they found that this would not avail, and that the ministry of Luther and other reformers was detrimental to their cause, they then madly attempted to propagate their sentiments by force of arms. Munzer and his associates, in the year put themselves at the head of a numerous army, and declared war against all laws, governments, and magistrates of every kind, under the chimerical pretext, that Christ himself was now to take the reins of all government into his hands: but this seditious crowd was routed and dispersed by the elector of Saxony and other princes, and Munzer, their leader, put to death.
Many of his followers, however, survived, and propagated their opinions through Germany, Switzerland, and Holland. In , a party of them settled at Munster, under two leaders of the names of Matthias and Bockholdt. Having made themselves masters of the city, they deposed the magistrates, confiscated the estates of such as had escaped, and deposited the wealth in a public treasury for common use.
They made preparations for the defence of the city; invited the Anabaptists in the low countries to assemble at Munster, which they called Mount Sion, that from thence they might reduce all the nations of the earth under their dominion. Matthias was soon cut off by the bishop of Munster's army, and was succeeded by Bockholdt, who was proclaimed by a special designation of heaven, as the pretended king of Sion, and invested with legislative powers like those of Moses.
The city of Munster, however, was taken, after a long siege, and Bockholdt was punished with death. It must be acknowledged that the true rise of the insurrections of this period ought not to be attributed to religious opinions. The first insurgents groaned under severe oppressions, and took up arms in defence of their civil liberties; and of these commotions the Anabaptists seem rather to have availed themselves, than to have been the prime movers.
That a great part were Anabaptists, seems indisputable; at the same time it appears from history, that a great part also were Roman catholics, and a still greater part of those who had scarcely any religious principles at all. Indeed, when we read of the vast numbers that were concerned in these insurrections, of whom it is reported that , fell by the sword, it appears reasonable to conclude that they were not all Anabaptists. It is but justice to observe also, that the Baptists in England and Holland are to be considered in a different light from those above-mentioned: they profess an equal aversion to all principles of rebellion on the one hand, and to enthusiasm on the other.
See Robertson's Hist. Is the proportion that the doctrines of the gospel bear to each other, or the close connexion between the truths of revealed religion, Rom. This is considered as a grand rule for understanding the true sense of scripture. It is evident that the Almighty doth not act without a design in the system of Christianity any more than he does in the works of nature. Now this design must be uniform; for as in the system of the universe every part is proportioned to the whole, and made subservient to it, so in the system of the Gospel all the various truths, doctrines, declarations, precepts, and promises, must correspond with and tend to the end designed.
Essays Towards a History of Spiritual Communication, 1100–1700
For instance, supposing the glory of God in the salvation of man by free grace be the grand design; then, whatever doctrine assertion, or hypothesis, agree not with this, it is to be considered as false. If we come to the scriptures with any pre-conceived opinions, and are more desirous to put that sense upon the text which quadrates with our sentiments rather than the truth, it becomes then the analogy of our faith, rather than that of the whole system.
This was the source of the error of the Jews, in our Saviour's time. They searched the scriptures: but, such were their favourite opinions, that they could not or would not discover that the sacred volume testified of Christ. And the reason was evident, for their great rule of interpretation was what they might call the analogy of faith; i.
Perhaps there is hardly any sect but what has more or less been guilty in this respect. It may, however, be of use to the serious and candid enquirer; for, as some texts may seem to contradict each other, and difficulties present themselves, by keeping the analogy of faith in view, he will the more easily resolve those difficulties, and collect the true sense of the sacred oracles. What "the aphorisms of Hippocrates are to a physician, the axioms in geometry to a mathematician, the adjudged cases in law to a counsellor, or the maxims or war to a general, such is the analogy of faith to a Christian.
Signifies mysterious, transporting; and is used to express whatever elevates the mind, not only to the knowledge of divine things, but of divine things in the next life. The word is seldom used, but with regard to the different senses of Scripture. The anagogical sense is when the sacred text is explained with regard to eternal life, the point which Christians should have in view; for example, the rest of the sabbath, in the anagogical sense, signifies the repose of everlasting happiness.
Imports whatever is set apart, separated, or divided; but is most usually meant to express the cutting off of a person from the communion of the faithful. It was practised in the primitive church against notorious offenders. Several councils also have pronounced anathemas against such as they thought corrupted the purity of the faith. Anathema Maranatha, mentioned by Paul, 1 Cor. Anathema signifies a thing devoted to destruction, and Maranatha is a Syriac word, signifying the Lord comes.
It is probable in this passage there is an allusion to the form of the Jews, who when unable to inflict so great a punishment as the crime deserved, devoted the culprit to the immediate vindictive retribution of divine vengeance, both in this life and in a future state. A term used for that part in churches which was destined for the men. Anciently it was the custom for the men and women to have separate apartments in places of worship, where they performed their devotions asunder, which method is still religiously observed in the Greek church.
A spiritual intelligent substance, the first in rank and dignity among created beings. The word angel is Greek, and signifies a messenger. The Hebrew word signifies the same. Angels, therefore in the proper signification of the word, do not import the nature of any being, but only the office to which they are appointed especially by way of message or intercourse between God and his creatures.
Hence the word is used differently in various parts of the scripture, and signifies, 1. Human messengers, or agents for other, 2 Sam. Mark i. James ii. Officers of the churches, whether prophets or ordinary ministers, Hag. Jesus Christ, Mal. Some add the dispensations of God's providence, either beneficial or calamitous, Gen. Acts xii.
Created intelligences, both good and bad, Heb. Jude 6. Some wonder that Moses, in his account of the creation, should pass over this in silence. Others suppose that he did this because of the proneness of the Gentile world, and even the Jews, to idolatry; but a better reason has been assigned by others, viz. Some think that the idea of God's not creating them before this world was made, is very contracted.
To suppose, say they, that no creatures whatever, neither angels nor other worlds, had been created previous to the creation of our world, is to suppose that a Being of infinite power, wisdom, and goodness, had remained totally inactive from all eternity, and had permitted the infinity of space to continue a perfect vacuum till within these years; that such an idea only tends to discredit revelation, instead of serving it.
On the other hand it is alleged, that they must have been created within the six days; because it is said, that within this space God made heaven and earth, and all things that are therein. It is, however, a needless speculation, and we dare not indulge a spirit of conjecture. It is our happiness to know that they are all ministering spirits, sent forth to minister to them who are heirs of salvation. As to the nature of these beings, we are told that they are spirits; but whether pure spirits divested of all matter, or united to some thin bodies, or corporeal vehicles, has been a controversy of long standing: the more general opinion is, that they are substances entirely spiritual, though they can at any time assume bodies, and appear in human shape, Gen.
Luke i. The scriptures represent them as endued with extraordinary wisdom and power, 2 Sam. Their number seems to be great, Ps. They are delighted with the grand scheme of redemption, and the conversion of sinners to God, Luke ii. Luke xv. They not only worship God, and execute his commands at large, but are attendant on the saints of God while here below, Ps. Luke xvi Some conjecture that every good man has his particular guardian angel, Matt. Although the angels were originally created perfect, yet they were mutable: some of them sinned, and kept not their first estate; and so, of the most blessed and glorious, became the most vile and miserable of all God's creatures.
They were expelled the regions of light, and with heaven lost their heavenly disposition, and fell into a settled rancour against God, and malice against men. What their offence was is difficult to determine, the scripture being silent about it. Some think envy, others unbelief; but most suppose it was pride. As to the time of their fall, we are certain it could not be before the sixth day of the creation, because on that day it is said, "God saw every thing that he had mad, and behold it was very good;" but that it was not long after, is very probable, as it must have preceded the fall of our first parents.
The number of the fallen angels seems to be great, and, like the holy angels, perhaps have various orders among them, Matt. Eph ii.