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This enables you to compete with fewer frequent flyers. Whatever you do, avoid flying Sunday night, Monday morning and pretty much all day Friday if you want to sidestep top-tier business travelers. Upgrade Certificates have a higher priority than Medallion Complimentary Upgrades and may be requested and, subject to availability, cleared when you book your ticket. As a Choice Benefit selection, Diamond Medallion Members may choose any of the following three options as one of their selected benefits:. Of course, these certificates have a number of quirks and nuances of which you need to be aware.
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Based on anecdotal evidence, you should expect one-way upgrades to start at 15, SkyMiles per passenger and climb to upwards of 80, depending on how cheap your original fare was and how exclusive the upgrade. These can clear up to three hours prior to departure, so be sure to keep a healthy balance of SkyMiles in your account in the event that it does clear. Be sure to check out our guide to choosing the best credit card for Delta loyalists. For rates and fees of the Delta Reserve Card, please click here. For rates and fees of the Delta Reserve Business Card, please click here.
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Two key networks underlie alpha desynchronisation. First, activation of the visual system, mediated by the reticular activating system 46 , 47 , as is seen from REC to REO where there is a mass desynchronisation of alpha. Second, desynchronisation of alpha activity is purported to reflect diverse changes in thalamo-cortical and cortical network communication 45 , 48 — The exaggerated desynchronisation of alpha activity in psychotic disorders has been suggested to represent inappropriate arousal and readiness to attend to information, whether internal or external The investigation was a case-controlled study involving recruitment of clinically stable outpatients from the Western Cape Province, South Africa.
CON participants were recruited from similar socio-economic backgrounds as patient participants. Western Cape Provincial and Hospital approval was also obtained. All research activities were conducted in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki All research participants provided voluntary informed consent. Participants visited the laboratory twice.
Control participants were excluded if there was a history of psychotic symptoms or family history of psychotic disorder. Participants with a psychotic disorder were excluded if they did not meet the diagnostic criteria for the study conditions: for example, participants with schizoaffective disorder were excluded. Female participants were excluded if they were pregnant or lactating.
Patients with SCZ or BPD were excluded if any of their episodes were considered to be related to the use of a substance.
Evidence that the symptoms are better accounted for by a psychotic disorder that is not methamphetamine induced included the following: the symptoms precede the onset of the methamphetamine use; the symptoms persist for a substantial period of time e. Patients with MPD were excluded if it was unclear if methamphetamine was causal to their symptoms or diagnosis, and if any of their psychotic episodes may have been related to another substance of abuse. The second visit included a full morning of brain imaging.
All clinical scales were performed on the same day and after the morning of brain imaging by trained clinical personnel.
For the CPT the researcher explained the task requirements and participants completed a s practice session, repeated if necessary until the participant was clear about task requirements. Sixty trials of S-S-S were presented with non-vowel inter-stimuli, no Xs or vowels were used. The total number of stimuli presented, including S-S-S, trick-Ss and inter-stimuli, was Behavioural data were extracted using E-prime 53 and cross-checked with analogue inputs to EEG data file, Acknowledge 4.
Behavioural data extracted included the number of correct responses, response time duration and errors of omission and commission. Participants were grounded peripherally, linked earlobe reference was applied, and electrooculography EOG was recorded. Chlorpromazine equivalents were calculated from current medication regimes The data were largely non-parametric, as per Shapiro—Wilks distribution testing, and all EEG data parameters were skewed with significant group variance.
To investigate the association of prescribed medications within the psychotic groups 3 , Mann—Whitney U tests were applied and grouped by either on or off the respective medication being investigated. In BPD increased delta synchronisation 4 , 23 , 24 and decreased alpha synchronisation has previously been reported 4 , 23 , 40 , 41 , although not all data are consistent Then abstinent previously dependent methamphetamine users without psychosis have been shown to lack EEG complexity 63 , suggesting higher delta synchronisation during REC for MPD, while no differences in alpha activity were reported 64 , While alpha desynchronisation is reproducibly reported for SCZ 13 , 14 , 17 , 18 , 20 , 23 , 33 — 39 and BPD 4 , 23 , 40 , There is limited research on EEG frequency activity during cognitive activation in psychotic disorders.
Reduced alpha frequency activity has been associated with reduced cognitive resource availability Previous work in this area is inconsistent; second-generation antipsychotics have been reported to decrease 73 or increase 10 , 74 — 77 delta activity, to increase 73 , 78 and decrease 10 , 75 alpha activity. One study in SCZ found that haloperidol acutely decreased delta, and then after 28 days of treatment, a similar effect was seen in delta, then alpha increased A study in CON found that acute dosing of haloperidol increased delta activity The study has several limitations. Studies in abstinent previously dependent methamphetamine users report reduced complexity of EEG activity, for example, increased delta with no change in alpha 64 , Then duration of psychotic illness has been associated with increased delta 12 and to hold no association with delta 17 , 18 or alpha activity 12 , and increased delta has also been shown to serve as a good predictor for developing psychosis 79 — In future studies, a more sensitive measure should be employed, such as the Kreek—McHugh—Schuluger—Kellogg scale, which better quantifies subjective substances of abuse, including duration of substance abstinence First, the current cohorts were comprised of stable outpatients, and the findings may not be generalisable to patients with active psychosis.
Second, the sensitivity and specificity of findings here need to be validated in larger patient samples, including other psychotic 83 , 84 and more common mental disorders 36 , 85 — These findings support the involvement of thalamo-cortical mechanisms in the psychotic disorders. We wish to thank the research participants for their time and willingness to participate in the current study.
Publisher's note: Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Transl Psychiatry v. Transl Psychiatry. Published online Apr Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Corresponding author.
Abstract Electroencephalography EEG has been proposed as a neurophysiological biomarker to delineate psychotic disorders. Subjects and methods The investigation was a case-controlled study involving recruitment of clinically stable outpatients from the Western Cape Province, South Africa.
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Statistical analysis The data were largely non-parametric, as per Shapiro—Wilks distribution testing, and all EEG data parameters were skewed with significant group variance. Table 1 Research participant groups ages, education, and behavioural performance. Open in a separate window. Table 2 Psychotic groups duration of illness, medications, and clinical scale scores.
Notes Conflict of interest The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest. Footnotes Publisher's note: Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. References 1. Evidence-based medicine and electrophysiology in schizophrenia.
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