Nouvelle Revue de lInde 4 (French Edition)
NCSU D. Dates of publication were obtained from the works themselves or from secondary sources, such as published contemporary notices or reviews, advertisements in recording journals or other books, and published lists of works received by societies or institutions. Dates found from secondary sources are followed by the abbreviated title of the journal or the society name.
The abbreviations used are:. Academy : The Academy. Allg Bibl : Allgemeine Bibliographie. Title varies over years. Athenaeum : The Athenaeum. Athenaeum—Prague : Athenaeum. Author : The Author. Bibl Deutsch : Bibliographie von Deutschland [Leipzig: —]. Bibl Univers : Bibliographie Universelle. Muquardt [Bruxelles: —]. Title varies over time.
A retrospective volume published in by Peddie and Waddington covers the years — The first volume covers the years — Humboldt : Humboldt. Intell Serapeum : Intelligenz-Blatt zum Serapeum. Isis : Isis von Oken 7 [Leipzig: —]. Isis Lieb : Isis. Isis Natuur : Isis. Tijdschrift voor Natuurwetenschap [Haarlem: —]. Landes-Industrie-Comptoirs [Weimer: —]. Muquardt [London: —]. Nation : The Nation. Nature : Nature. Neue Helvetia : Neue Helvetia. Poligrafo : Poligrafo. Giornale di Scienze, Lettere ed Arti [Verona: —]. Polybiblion : Polybiblion.
Rev Bibl-Par : Revue Bibliographique. Rev Zool : Revue Zoologique [Paris: —]. Salzb Intell : Salzburger Intelligenzblatt [Salzburg: —]. The search for publication dates through these journals was done mainly using Google Books. This process has its limitations. For example, some pages are poorly scanned and unreadable, others are simply missing, and sometimes whole issues of the journal are missing.
Nevertheless, this digital database has many rare or difficult-to-find journals useful for dating books. I thank Neal L. Evenhuis, Miguel A. Low for providing information relevant to this project and for reviewing the manuscript. This book was published anonymously. Bertau : credited it to Johann Samuel Halle [—], a Prussian historian and toxicologist, professor of history at the Royal Prussian Corps des Cadets in Berlin.
The Coleoptera are on pages — Marius Olive, Marseille. Camoin, Marseille.
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In two volumes. Illustrated with seventeen elegant engravings. Joseph Mawman, London. Section XV of the second volume pp. Von Joseph Acerbi. Die Kaefer. Zum Gebrauche beim Unterrichte und zum Selbstbestimmen. The section on Pentamera and Heteromera pp. Avec figures. The entire series consists of four volumes, —, treating the vertebrates and the Insecta.
Despite the title, it is evident from the avant-propos that Acloque did not mean to designate type species for the genus-group taxa treated in the sense of the Code. The following genus-group names are made available in this work: Eudromius p. The new family-group names Ilybii p. Notes from a journal of research into the natural history of the countries visited during the voyage of H. Samarang , under the command of Captain Sir E.
Belcher, C. Samarang, during the years —46; employed surveying the islands of the eastern archipelago; accompanied by a brief vocabulary of the principal languages. Published under the authority of the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty. With notes on the natural history of the islands, by Arthur Adams, assistant-surgeon, R. Reeve, Benham, and Reeve, London.
The entire work was published in two volumes, issued simultaneously. Two new species of beetles are described in the second volume, Bolboceras koreensis p. As noted by Petit : 91—92 there was a lengthly review of this book in The Athenaeum for 25 December by W. Clearly Dixon was furnished with a review copy.
To which are appended directions for collecting and preserving. John van Voorst, London. Nomenclator zoologicus, continens nomina systematica generum animalium tam viventium quam fossilium, secundum ordinem alphabeticum disposita, adjectis auctoribus, libris in quibus reperiuntur, anno editionis, etymologia et familiis, ad quas pertinent, in variis classibus. Fasciculus XI. Continens Coleoptera. Recognovit permultisque nominibus locupletavit Guil. The entire series consists of 12 fascicles, — The first 11 pertain to classes or orders, the 11th being on Coleoptera ; the 12th is the Index Universalis see next entry.
Nomenclatoris zoologici. Index universalis, continens nomina systematica classium, ordinum, familiarum et generum animalium omnium, tam viventium quam fossilium, secundum ordinem alphabeticum unicum disposita, adjectis homonymiis plantarum, nec non variis adnotationibus et emendationibus. Another edition, 12mo, was published in and contains pages.
According to Evenhuis a : 52 , there are no apparent differences between the two editions other than page size and pagination. The work includes numerous unjustified emendations of generic names. Fauna Insectorum Europae. Fasciculus primus. Ahrens published the first fascicle, Germar and Kaulfuss the third one, [ q.
Rautenberg : — gave a list of all species illustrated on the plates for the 24 fascicles. The publisher and place of publication are not listed on this booklet and the pages not numbered. The species described, all Tenebrionidae , are: Trigonoscelis elegans Turkestan [p. Volume XXI. Tome I — Texte — 1 re partie. Imprimerie Nationale, Paris.
The entire Histoire physique, naturelle et politique de Madagascar was issued in 57 fascicles, forming 39 volumes, —, first under the direction of Alfred Grandidier, —, then Alfred and Guillaume Grandidier, —, and finally Guillaume Grandidier, — This work contains a list of beetles, with localities, known from Madagascar and nearby islands. One new replacement name, Eutelonotus p.
Kayser, Leipzig. Zweite verbesserte und vermehrte Auflage. Mit 55 meist Original-Figuren in Holzschnitt. Julius Springer, Berlin. The series was issued in three volumes, —, the third one in two parts Abtheilungen. The first edition was published — [GB] and the first part of the third volume, containing the beetles, was recorded on October Allg Bibl. Prospetto delle specie zoologiche conosciute nel Trentino.
Volume I. Fratelli Perini, Trento. Despite the date on the title page, this volume may have been issued only in Manuel Alvarez, Madrid. Entomologische Bemerkungen. Herausgegeben von David Heinrich Hoppe. Montag und Weiss, Regensburg. The new beetle species Cetonia affinis p. South Australia illustrated. Thomas McLean, London. Folio AMNH. This book was published in ten parts, — Sherborn a : xviii. It was completed by 11 December Monthly Lit Adv. The cover is dated and the preface 1 July ; however, the title page of the book and the wrappers are dated Collation and dates of publication for each part are needed.
The Coleoptera are illustrated on plate 50 as follows: 1. Stigmodera fortnumii ; 2. Stigmodera variabilis ; 3. Stigmodera variabilis ; 4. New species. Port Lincoln; 5. Buprestis scalaris ; 6. New species; 7. Cyria imperialis ; 8. Stigmodera suturalis ; 9. Stigmodera macularia ; New species, inhabiting the grass-tree Xanthorrhaea ; Stigmodera erythrura ; New species; New species; very similar to the African one; Diaphonia frontalis ; Rhipicera mystacina. From the stringy bark forests; Purpuricenus Cyclodera. Orthorinus cylindrirostris ; Chrysolopus spectabilis ; Phoracantha gigas.
Prionus ; Catadromus lacordairei. Rapid Bay; Scarites silenus ; Anoplognathus viridi-aeneus ; Helaeus gigas ; Ptomaphila lachrymosa ; Mordella ; Although several new species are illustrated, a single one is named, Phoracantha gigas. Sherborn b : gave the date of for this species. A facsimile edition, limited to copies, was published in Sydney, , by A. Reed [BOT]. De coleopteris, quae Oscarus et Alfredus Brehm in Africa legerunt. Typographeo Aulico, Altenburgi. Als Einladungsschrift zu den vom 3. Heinrich Eduard Foss, Director. Several new species are described.
De quibusdam coleopteris Italiae novis aut rarioribus tentamen inaugurale quod annuentibus magnifico domino rectore illustrissimo facultatis directore spectabili d. Zendrini historiae naturalis spec. Archigymnasio Ticinensi publicae disquisitioni submittit. This thesis includes notes on some species of Coleoptera and descriptions of several new species from Italy. Orange insects. A treatise on the injurious and beneficial insects found on the orange trees of Florida. Ashmead Bros. One new beetle species, the coccinellid Hyperaspidius coccidivora pp.
Introductio in oryctographiam, et zoologiam Aragoniae. Accedit enumeratio stirpium in eadem regione noviter detectarum. The publisher and place of publication are not indicated. It contains an annotated list of the animals of Aragon in northeast Spain. The Coleoptera are on pages 96—; the known species are named but those not recognized by the author are described but not named. This work was published in ten livraisons, corresponding to livraisons 47—56 of the entire series started by Dejean and Boisduval, — [ q. I have not been able to find any dates of publication regarding the other livraisons.
The title page is dated , the preface 12 November Guignot : researched the dates of publication and indicated that pages 1—64 were distributed in November or early December , pages 65— between April and December , and pages — in At the request of Frank Balfour-Browne, F. Griffin, then registrar of the Royal Entomological Society of London, found that pages 1—48 of this work were issued between 1 October and 1 December Balfour-Browne : This corroborates the Bibliographie de la France entry which noticed three feuilles of text 48 pp. At this time, the dates of publication that should be retained are: pp.
Boehm et Fils, Montpellier. Aucher-Eloy et Comp ie , Paris. Levrault, Paris. There is no date on the cover of the copy I have seen but Bedel : lxxxvi , who commented on all new species described in these two livraisons, mentioned that it was published in This is corroborated by the entry in the Bibliographie de la France. A new edition of these two livraisons was issued in [ q.
Plassan, Paris. Pages 1—80 constitute a new edition of the version Sherborn and Woodward b : Avec un atlas. Texte [I]. Fortin, Masson et C ie , Paris. It was published in livraisons, each containing a mixture of text and plates for each class. Completed sets of livraisons were subsequently bound into 20 volumes divided into sections.
The insect section comprised two volumes, each with two parts text and atlas [ vide infra ]. The Coleoptera are on pages 81— of the first volume, issued in the following livraisons: : pp. The dates of publication are from Cowan : 55—56 unless otherwise noted. Atlas [I]. The Coleoptera are on plates 15—75 including 22 bis , 39 bis , 40 bis , 44 bis , 53 bis , 66 bis , and 74 bis. The names of the insects depicted on the plates are considered type-species designations as indicated in the title of the work.
Plate 15 shows beetle larvae and a pupa of various families. The species depicted on plates 16—75 are listed in Appendix 1. Supplement to the check list of the Coleoptera of America, north of Mexico. Cassino, Boston. Erster Band. This volume was published in two Lieferungen : 1 : pp. Zweiter Band. This volume was published in two Lieferungen : 3 : pp.
Dritter Band. This volume was published in two Lieferungen : 5 : pp. Vierter Band. Reise durch einen Theil Preussens. Gottfried Vollmer, Hamburg und Altona. Storia naturale degli animali invertebrati del Sig. Cavaliere de Lamarck compendiata ed arricchita di note. Annesio Nobili, Pesaro.
Catalogue of Hispidae in the collection of the British Museum. Part I. Printed by order of the Trustees, London. Descriptions of new genera and species of Phytophaga. Part 2. Phytophaga part. Hispidae by J. Baly, with an appendix by G. Cassididae by C. Taylor and Francis, London. This section was published in eight parts as follows see Lyal : 88 : pp. Office of Superintendent of Government printing, Calcutta. The genera insectorum of Linnaeus exemplified by various specimens of English insects drawn from nature. Sewell, London. The text is written in English and French, mostly in parallel columns.
Engelmann : , Graesse : and other bibliographers mentioned a second edition, essentially a reissue of the first edition with a change of title page Evenhuis a : 70 , published in n. Published by order of the government of India. Tribe Longicornia. Longicornia by Henry Walter Bates, F. Bruchides by David Sharp, M.
This work was issued in several parts. The dates listed at the bottom of the first page of each sheet are: pp. The collation for the plates is from Lyal : Biologia Centrali-Americana. Part 1. This work was published in several parts. The volume covers the Cicindelidae and Carabidae. The title page is dated — Pectinicornia and Lamellicornia. The volume covers the families Lucanidae pp. It also includes a supplement pp. Geodephaga and Longicornia. List of Coleoptera collected by Mr. Jameson on the Aruwimi.
By the late James S. Jameson, naturalist to the expedition. Edited by Mrs.
Porter, London. Simpson, who has paid especial attention to this family. The only new species described by Bates is Tefflus jamesoni Bates, n. Peter Cameron. Eaton, F. Martin Jacoby. Sidney Olliff. David Sharp. John Murray, London. According to Sharp : 61 , the printing was done in but the work was not available for purchase until 2 March By John Whitehead. With coloured plates and original illustrations. Gurney and Jackson, London. Zweyter Theil. Mit zwey Kupfertafeln. The entire work was issued in two volumes, —, continuously paginated.
The Coleoptera are on pages — of the second volume. Mit naturgetreuen Zeichnungen im Text. Creutz, Magdeburg. Monographie des lamelli-antennes. Landriot, Clermont. Thibaud-Landriot, Clermont-Ferrand. Despite the date on the title page, this work may have been published late or early Rassegna delle specie della famiglia dei Milabridi Bruchidi degli autori viventi in Europa e regioni finitime. Virzi, Palermo. This work was issued, with separate pagination, in Il Naturalista Siciliano 5 : 1—?
Catalogo dei coleotteri del Piemonte. Camilla e Bertolero, Torino. This work was also issued in Annali della R. A few new taxa are described in this work. Avec 34 planches en lithographie hors texte et 44 figures dans le texte. Ersten Bandes zweyte Abtheilung. Mit einer Kupfertafel. Siegfried Leberecht Crusius, Leipzig. Mit Kupfern. The entire work was issued in two Bande , each consisting of two Abtheilungen , — The Coleoptera are on pages — of the second Abtheilung of the first Band. Carl Friedrich Knoch Richter, Leipzig.
Erster Theil. Mit drey illuminirten Kupfertafeln. Gaedike and Smetana : and Evenhuis a : 73 listed the publication date of this part as I have found no indication to corroborate this date. Hagen : 36 , Horn and Schenkling a : 55 , Sherborn a : xxii and Nissen : 36 dated this part Mit illuminirten Kupfertafeln. Evenhuis a : 73 dated this part but the title page on the copy in BHL is dated I have seen an advertisement in the 2 March issue of Intelligenzblatt der Allgemeinen Literatur-Zeitung stating that the book will be presented at the Leipzig Easter Book Fairs, which was held in on 5 May Evenhuis a : 4.
Dritter Theil. Dritte und letzte Abtheilung. This entire work was published in three Theilen. The Coleoptera are in the first pp. Two new species, Bostrichus pinastri Bechstein p. In drey Theilen. Mit xiii fein illuminirten Quartkupfern von J. Sturm gezeichnet und gestochen. Mit vier illuminirten Kupfertafeln. Hennings, Gotha. Vierter Theil.
Zweyter Band. Desberger [ q. The Coleoptera are on pages 69—93, — and — One new species of beetle, Bostrichus abietiperda p. Sein Gutsgebiet und das Land im weiteren Umkreise. Bearbeitet von Dr. Alexander Bittner. Flora des Gebietes.
Fauna des Gebietes. Unter Mitwirkung von D r. Becher, D r. Brauer, L. Ganglbauer, Fr. Kohl, C. Koelbel, D r. Latzel, D r. Loew, J. Mann, D r. Mayr, J. Mik und A. Rogenhofer zusammengestellt von D r. Mit 5 Karten, 11 Tafeln und 37 Illustrationen im Texte. The entire work consists of three volumes, — Wolff, Augsburg. This work was published anonymously. It includes the descriptions of 40 new species of beetles pp. The Coleoptera are on pages 89— A second edition was issued in in Frankfurt and Leipzig n. Hagen : 37 mentioned that a new, improved edition by S. Scholz was published in Breslau, n.
Tomus I. Regnum animale. Vandenhoeck, Gottingae. There are no new species in this work Sherborn : xiii. The entire work consists of two volumes Regnum animale and Regnum vegetabile issued in Tome 1er avec planche. This volume was issued in 11 parts, —, as follows: 1 : pp. The preface is dated November p. On page xxiii, Bedel lists the genera and species described in the volume and gives, for the first time, the type species of his new genus-group taxa as follows: Bembidion subg.
Bracteon type: Bracteon littorale Ol. Tome V. This volume was issued in 16 parts, —, as follows: pp. This volume treats the Cerambycidae and Chrysomelidae. Tome VI. This volume was issued in 20 parts, —, as follows: pp. This volume deals with the Curculionidae Rhynchophora.
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The dates of publication are those of the issues of the Annales where the corresponding pages were included. The following volumes were published: 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 6 bis. Volume 2 on Staphylinoidea was authored by J. Sainte-Claire Deville, — Volume 4 dealing with Scarabaeidae , Buprestidae, and Elateridae , —, was authored by Bedel. The dates listed at the bottom of first page of each sheet are: pp. The last part pp. Exploration scientifique de la Tunisie. Cicindelidae — Staphylinidae. Famille des lathridiens. Storck [vol. Veertiende deel. Loosjes, Te Haarlem. The author names are not listed on the title page.
The first six volumes of the series were issued under different titles. Julio A. Entrega I. Ostwald y Martinez, Buenos Aires. The report of the Commission was published in three parts entregas , — Nebst der Anweisung, sie zu sammeln, zuzubereiten und aufzubewahren. Mit colorirten Abbildungen. Hoffmann, Stuttgart. This work was issued in ten Lieferungen Engelmann : : 1 : pp. The title page is dated The work comprises a systematic list of the European Coleoptera including a list of non-european genera with number of species pp.
Erster Jahrgang. This work was issued in parts. I have seen the following notices: pp.
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By 21 August Jena Ztg the first Jahrgang was completed. The title page is dated and the Vorrede 5 February A few new species of beetles, such as Dytiscus bistriatus p. Outlines of the natural history of Great Britain and Ireland. Containing a systematic arrangement and concise description of all the animals, vegetables, and fossiles which have hitherto been discovered in these kingdoms.
In three volumes. Comprehending the animal kingdom. Elmsly, London. The beetles are on pages 85— of the first volume. Second and third editions were published in [ q. Synopsis of the natural history of Great-Britain and Ireland. Containing a systematic arrangement and concise description of all the animals, vegetables, and fossils, which have hitherto been discovered in these kingdoms.
Corrected and considerably enlarged. Comprehending the animal and fossil kingdoms. Cadell, London. The Coleoptera are on pages 86— of the first volume. A third edition was published in [GB] with no change in pagination to the first volume of this edition. Tome II. The entire work consists of two volumes issued simultaneously. Two well-known beetle pests are made available in the second volume, Byrrhus taranio p.
A preliminary version of the natural history part without Latin names for the taxa appeared in Miguel A. Mit 72 illuminirten Abbildungen auf 6 Tafeln. Vierte verbesserte Auflage. Otto Hendel, Halle. Five subsequent editions were issued between and The second edition n. No information was found for the original edition. Landes-Industrie-Comptoirs, Weimar. Authorship of these names should be credited to Berthold Evenhuis a : Lehrbuch der Zoologie. Cenniniana, Firenze. The title page is dated and the preliminaries December De quibusdam coleopteris agri Ticinensis. Dissertatio inauguralis quam annuentibus perillustri d.
Bartholomaeo Panizza anatom. Universitate Ticinensi Mense Martii publicae disquisitioni offerebat una cum thesibus defendendis Betta Virginius Tirolensis e Cles. This thesis treats some of the Coleoptera found in the fields of Pavia. The new species described are: Clivina binotata p.
None of these species were recorded by Sherborn in his Index Animalium. Filtsch, Hermannstadt. The work contains a section on the fauna of Transylvania; a list of beetle species pp. Monographia mylabridum. Percheron : 30 and Engelmann : mentioned another edition, issued in , but according to Sherborn a : xxiv the edition does not exist. Agassiz : listed the publication date of this booklet as Enumeratio insectorum in museo Gust. Gadelianis, [Stockholm].
A number of new family-group names of Coleoptera and several new genus-group names are made available by the inclusion of one or more available specific names under them. Coleoptera exclusive of the Carabidae. Part II. Edited by Baldwin Spencer. Dulau and Co. This expedition, fitted by William Austin Horn, was set in to investigate the part of Australia between Oodnadatta and Macdonnell Ranges Musgrave : The entire report was published in four parts.
The Carabidae of the expedition were treated by Sloane [ q. One new beetle fossil, Buprestites bractoides , is made available by an illustration. Levrault, Strasbourg. The text of this volume and the associated plates were issued in 32 livraisons from to Evenhuis b : although the title page of the text volume is dated — The Coleoptera are on pages 1— and plates 1— Pages 57— were issued in the following livraisons: 56 : pp. The dates of the Coleoptera plates are as follows: Plate 1 [livr. The collation is from Sherborn and Griffin who had access to a copy with original wrappers.
The list of species illustrated on the plates is given in Appendix 5. The entire expedition report was published in seven volumes of text and two volumes of plates 17 , —, issued in 90 livraisons Dickinson et al. A facsimile edition was published by Junk, in Lochem, Graesse : 35 mentioned that a new edition was published in , Paris. Poussielgue, Paris. There is no title page on this booklet and the author is not listed. Zoologie Atlas. Folio McG. The Zoologie Atlas contains colored plates, published in 28 livraisons between 25 March and 24 February The Coleoptera are depicted on 19 plates numbered 1—19 representing species of which were considered to be new and indicated by Nob[is].
Furthermore a number of new genera were made available from the plates. The dates of publication of these 19 plates, as discussed by Emberson see also Clark and Crosnier unless otherwise noted, are: Plate 1 [livr. A list of the Coleoptera depicted on the plates is given in Appendix 2. The text was published in [ q. Most of the zoological material of this expedition was collected around the Straits of Magellan, on various southern Pacific Islands, including New Zealand, in Tasmania, along the north coast of Australia and in the Indo-Malaysian archipelago from New Guinea to Singapore Emberson : Description des collections par MM.
Isidore Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire. The date of listed on the title page of volume 4 probably refers to the completion of the volume. Collation and dates of publication of each livraison are desired. Overall, the atlases contain plates and four maps. Three of these plates refer to entomology and all of them pertain to Lepidoptera only. The Coleoptera are on pages 25—28 of the crustacea and insects section and the new species described are Mylabris jacquemontii p. These volumes were also issued the same year by the publisher F.
Tomo quinto. The entire Historia fisica y politica de Chile of Claude Gay [—] consists of 28 text-volumes and two atlas-volumes, — The Zoologia section forms eight volumes published between and based on the title-page dates. The text and plates were issued in 87 parts Evenhuis c : Collation and dates of publication for the parts are desired. The Coleoptera are in volumes 4 and 5.
There are 32 plates depicting beetles, with scientific names listed at the bottom. Stuardo Ortiz provided a list of all botanical and zoological taxa illustrated on the plates. The remaining pages of volume 5 related to Coleoptera were authored by Solier, [ q. Zoologie par MM. Hombron et Jacquinot. Gide et J. Baudry, Paris.
The entire expedition report was published in 22 volumes and several atlases totaling about plates. The zoology section appeared in three volumes vol. III: ; vol. IV: ; vol. V: and one atlas of colored plates Clark and Crosnier Most of the plates were published before the text see Blanchard, — and the new taxa depicted on them date from the plates. Part 6. By David Sharp; W. Blandford; and Karl Jordan. This work was published in several parts, — Herausgegeben von W. Zweiter Teil. The first one was authored by Wilhelm Gottlieb Becker alone. The second one was authored by several persons.
There are 25 plates overall. A few new species are also described in the list of species pp. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte. This work was published in two volumes, — The Coleoptera are on pages — of the first volume. Twelve editions of this work, some of them updated, were issued between and see Kroke : 25— Quer durch Klein-Asien in den Bulghar-Dagh. Eine naturwissenschaftliche Studien-Reise. This work includes a section entitled Coleopterologisches pp. Insecta Caffraria annis — a J. This teleological coloring of the historiographical account was also closely interwoven with Catholic providentialism.
Jesuit historiography thus captured both the historical processes and the lives and itineraries of the historical actors, most of whom participated—willingly and self-consciously—in writing their own history. Jesuit history, in fact, had been simultaneously in the making and already in use as a template for action. The use of history was further divided, as was almost every Jesuit cultural practice, between internal and external. The history for the insiders, besides its apparent edifying and exhortative character, aimed primarily at the integration of an ever-growing and diversifying membership, and consequently at establishing an efficient conflict-solving strategies.
Another particularity of the early Jesuit historiographical practices that remains its most important feature even today is that the texts were written in many different languages and supported by different patrons. Letters by the missionaries in India, working exclusively under the Portuguese padroado the royal patronage of the missions , appeared in print in the sixteenth century, often simultaneously in Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, German, French, and Latin.
Even those edited and translated remain precious documents since not all original autographs are extant. He found none, claiming that the missionaries in India prefer to work than to write. In this work, he exhorted the king of France, Henry IV r. Obviously, the history of a mission was considered all the more authentic if confirmed by a missionary in situ.
What the Portuguese publications called simply Cartas Letters , written mostly in Portuguese by the Jesuit missionaries with a first-hand knowledge, were renamed histories when translated. However, it would not be long before these letters were also appropriated by non- and anti-Jesuit press. The manuscript that Joseph Wicki dated to around is interestingly not simply a history of the Society of Jesus but a combination of a geography and an ethnography of Kerala.
It was also, of course, directed at the Jesuit missionaries, offering them information and instructions on how to respond to Indian idolatry and customs. These kinds of texts in which Jesuits used their history writing skills, although not necessarily for histories of the order, were many, and some were written in vernacular languages of the missions.
Peter, among other works. They were both local and global heroes for their Catholic audience. Their identities were also multiple, and they were appropriated in the historiography of different localities. Thus one and the same Jesuit would be registered in different historiographical projects. Jesuit historiography written by Jesuits, from the sixteenth to the eighteenth centuries century resembles a single composite body of cross-references, borrowings, and multiple translations.
Although it chronicles Portuguese success in conquering Sri Lanka and the reasons for its subsequent loss, it is a detailed history of the Jesuit and Franciscan missions on the island. The letters were not simply reproduced, but retailored by the editors in Paris. The publication of the LEC was a veritable machine de guerre of the French Jesuits against multiple enemies, both Catholic and Protestant. As the Propaganda Fide strove to replace the padroado in the missionary field in Asia, in particular, the Jesuits found themselves in a difficult position.
Another front opened by the LEC was to shut down reports by various and increasingly famous travelers in India, French libertines, and Protestants and coming from rival European nations such as Britain, the Netherlands, and Germany. In fact, it can almost be said that Jesuit historical writing was not as much in fashion as it used to be during the Iberian and Roman sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. This was probably due to the fact that missionary historical writing had been appropriated by secular institutions and political powers that looked at Jesuit intelligentsia with increasing suspicion.
The Society of Jesus in France was bracing for a fight against very articulate enemies at home, some of whom came straight from the Jesuit colleges and who were eventually associated with the Enlightenment. As the opposition to the Society of Jesus grew, everything the Jesuits wrote from the missions was used against them in Protestant historiography. Moreover, from the early years of the eighteenth century, a rival Christian mission in India, that of the German Pietists from Halle in Tranquebar, a Danish enclave on the Coromandel Coast, started producing, partly in imitation of the Jesuits, their own missionary historiography.
Their letters and reports were published from onwards as Hallesche Berichte and some of them were translated into English and published in Propagation of the Gospel in the East that started appearing in by the Society for the Propagation of Christian Knowledge and in various other histories.
He wrote Histoire du christianisme des Indes , a history in which Jesuits, Portuguese and French, figure very prominently side by side with other Portuguese ecclesiastical actors. Thomas Christians in Kerala, while he portrayed the Jesuits and the Portuguese as those who came to pervert and corrupt the pristine message and this ancient community that had originally resembled a Protestant sect. Briefly, up to the eighteenth century Jesuit historiography written by Jesuit authors and historiography of the Society of Jesus histories about the Jesuits meant mostly the same thing.
Only Jesuit authors wrote about their own history, although in the seventeenth century some Jesuits extended their contributions to other literary, scholarly, and historiographical projects. The apogee of negative assessments occurred in years leading to and after the suppression of the order.
The Jesuit historiography of the Indian Jesuit missions resumed after the restoration of the Society of Jesus and the first missionaries, who all came from France, first to Bengal and then to Tamil Nadu , and who had to deal with very different political situation in India, in France, and within the Catholic Church. The publication of this and other histories that followed were to fill in the gap of absences, quarrels and ongoing controversies among the Catholic ecclesiastics and with those who were their traditional enemies, such as Protestants.
In the meantime, between the suppression and restoration, the MEP , an institution that in many ways emulated, even if reluctantly, the French Jesuits, especially in using historiography and printing for self-promotion, gained visibility and credibility among the French Catholics. It was precisely in competition with the MEP that Bertrand started his own Jesuit missionary historiography. Of the four volumes, three are compilations of published and unpublished missionary letters and documents from the Jesuit archives, all related to the Madurai and Carnatic missions, from their inception until the suppression.
What was overlooked in the process is that all the letters that were selected for publication were expurgated of all information considered unedifying, disturbing, or superfluous. The life of the Jesuit Costanzo Giuseppe Beschi — had been written in Tamil before being translated into English and published in The five volumes by Adrian Launay, Histoire de christianisme en Inde is organized by regions and towns and by chronological events, and it narrates and celebrates the history of the MEP from onwards.
It includes Jesuit missionaries only when it is impossible not to mention their contributions to the earlier history and in the nineteenth century. Not long afterwards, in the early twentieth century, Jesuit historiography experienced waves of revival, some of which were related to specific occasions, such as the anniversary of the restoration of the Society of Jesus. With this framework, he was able to intertwine the past and the present. In fact, his approach echoes a general colonial obsession of census-taking that the British were in process of imposing on India.
Some of these historians were also missionaries at one point of their lives. Although they collected primary sources and conducted thorough research, their printed books were mostly hagiographies without precise references and they all practiced auto-censure of anything that might disturb an edifying narrative. Bachmann d. The distinction between pious fiction and history had been discussed, at times to the point of furious verbal altercations, even among the Jesuit writers. These unedifying stories are revealed only sporadically and in sugar-coated language in prefaces of other books.
This kind of specialization, directed towards the goal of beatification and canonization of the chosen Jesuit hero, was quite common. In addition to French Jesuit scholarship focusing mainly on South India, which was also their missionary base, in other parts of India Jesuit historians specialized in other missions and in other historical topics having to do with Indian history.
A Catalan, Enric Heras de Sicars — , or under his better known anglicized name of Henry Heras, became a famous historian and archeologist, and professor of history at the St. Xavier's College in Bombay. His work still remains in good part unknown since his publications were scattered in different historical journals in British India, such as Journal of Asiatic Society of Bengal. In the period after Indian independence, Indian Jesuit historiography had been Indianized with the first generation of Indian-born Jesuit historians such as a Goan, John Correia-Afonso, the author of—among many other published works—the book Jesuit Letters and Indian History.
In fact, Jesuit theologians, writers, and scholars who worked in other fields such as Sanskrit or Tamil literary culture, in particular Anand Amaladass and Francis X. Clooney, contributed also to Jesuit historiography. On the contrary, they were and continue to be inspired by different historical schools and they choose topics according to their own social convictions.
Some were in particular engaged in denouncing Eurocentrism and colonial attitudes in the Old Society, while others denounced social policies that accepted Brahmanical and high-caste attitudes to Dalits and the Jesuit complicity in promoting caste divisions. Indian Jesuit history thus became a contested field among the Jesuits and it also fed into larger discussions among Christian theologians on inculturation. While most of these discussions were important, especially in the Indian public arena, they were often based on theological arguments, cultural explanations, and internal personal quarrels.
As a consequence they did not always produce rigorous and acceptable historiography and they rarely cared to use sources and archives critically and philologically. Two unsurpassed historians whose critical editions of original documents opened Jesuit history to non-Jesuit historians, and who set the highest standards of the discipline were Georg Otto Schurhammer — and Josef Wicki — Francisci Xaverii aliaque eius scripta —45 co-edited with Josef Wicki.
These volumes were published within the span of forty years between and and covered the period between and Each volume contains up to hundred pages of introduction, bibliography, detailed archival and prosopographical notes, as well as a detailed index. All historians, Jesuit and non-Jesuit of the second half of the twentieth century started their research by first checking their works and bibliography for references and sources.
There are a number of historians such a Charles Boxer — , an erudite interested in Portuguese empire, who used Jesuit sources and even edited some of them. Other historians primarily interested in intellectual history and the history of Orientalism also employed and sometimes edited Jesuit sources.