Le Général de pierre - Livre II - Deux-Rivières (French Edition)
Iuvenci, Coelii Sedulii, Aratoris sacra poesis. Memento mori.
Figures de la Mort. Many were remade. And remade. Deux hommes identiques. Un de mes livres anciens favoris est Thuys der fortunen ende dat huys der doot [La maison de fortune et la maison de la mort] 4. Un canard en train de plonger. Diderot et Isabelle Vouilloux conservatrice du fonds ancien, Bibl. Dans le cas de ce recueil, la question se pose des buts de sa constitution.
Il a ainsi mis en contraste deux exemples. Elle venait de la veuve de Hyman Reissler, un fabricant de boutons, musicien amateur et fervent collectionneur de livres anciens. Quelle est la place du livre rare dans votre institution? Pouvez-vous nous expliquer la provenance des livres de votre fonds? Est-ce que vous pouvez nous montrer quelques livres qui vous semblent typiques de votre collection? Pagnerre, Illustration 4 : Colophon de La description de la quarte galicane. Posez-leur cette question : annotent-ils, annotent-elles leurs livres papier? Des marques de lecture non verbales.
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Paul-Pierre Lemercier de la Rivière ()
Un portrait de la Vierge? Cependant, ils produisirent des livres joyeux de facture plus rudimentaire, de type plaquettes gothiques. Mon travail sur ces pistes se poursuit donc. It should be noted however that Crassons states that the capitation tax was only piastres 24 cruzados Still the Sultan of Kilwa who was probably the same Hasan bin Ibrahim who had welcomed Morice had increased his share in this trade consider ably.
Having completed their cargoes he continued they at once departed from Kilwa without single Frenchman remaining there leaving evacuated house in which they usually stayed on land which is perhaps what has given place to it being said that the French have an establishment and factory there.
French domination of the slave trade in East Africa reached its zenith between and During the brief period of peace following the conclusion of the American War for Independence up to the beginning of the Napoleonic Wars an unprecedented number of French merchantmen called at the ports of the coast While it was time of outstanding prosperity for Ile de France and Bourbon whose traders did an increasingly large trade in slaves from the conti nent the greatest activity was the noticeably expanded slave trade between French America and these ports The re-establishment of the Compagnie des Indes on 14 April was bitterly opposed by those who favored the system of free trade which had prevailed since but it did not inhibit the remarkable expansion of the trans-Atlantic trade from East Africa Before the termination of its monopoly.
Gold and ivory which had formerly been the most important exports of the colony were now faded and in precipitate decadency. Melo Castro related that whereas gold and ivory had once paid for virtually all the imports of Mo ambique from India and Portugal they now barely accounted for third of these Furthermore the volume of. EDWARD ALPERS furnishes prices current at this time for eight classifications of slaves the highest of which are somewhat lower than the contemporary Portuguese figures They are especially valuable however in that they suggest the limitations one faces in relying on officiai Portuguese figures for the slave trade based as these appear to be on the pre sumption that each slave exported was an adult figures read.
Although the increased demand for slaves at Mo ambique was matched by rising prices French traders continued to frequent that port in strength until March Thereafter until early in no French vessels entered Mo ambique harbor as result of the war although friendly relations were maintained between Sousa and the French Governor-General Malartic.
Pierre Joseph Habert
Il8 EDWARD ALPERS continued to flourish for as long as there was market for slaves at Kilwa and only minimal demand at lbo As they had since day French slavers to the north of Cape Delgado concentrated their activities at Kilwa At the same time however concerted effort was made by the French to open up trade with Mongalo Mgau Mwanya to the south of Kilwa Morice had noted Mongalo only as place with small harbor where one could buy smaller cowries than at the Kerimba Islands It was scarcely better known to Crassons in By late men had constructed warehouse on the mainland at Mongalo under the protection of small vessel armed with four cannons and with about twelve men crew The Governor-General and the Intendant of Ile de France reported that Commarmond had doubled his staff there so that observations could be verified and the rivers which entered the bay could be ascended All three men strongly urged the Minister of the Navy to found an official French establishment at Mongalo but their request must have fallen on deaf ears in Paris for the Revolutionary Government was violently opposed to slavery.
THE FRENCH SLAVE TRADE IN EAST AFRICA relative position within context of increasingly important Brazilian and Arab trading along the coast It should be pointed out however that the only firm evidence we have for French domination of the East African slave trade pertains to the Portuguese ports below Cape Del gado To the north in the Omani sphere of influence Arabs were trading for slaves at Kilwa and its associated ports throughout the later eighteenth century Moreover despite the obvious lack of sub stantiating documentation it would appear that this trade was steadily increasing as suggested previously Consequently the pre cise significance which we should attach to French involvement in slaving on the Kilwa coast must remain matter for speculation At the very least however the existing documentation suggests that it was of comparable importance to the Arab trade.
Little is known of the French slave trade at Kilwa in the late i79os and i8oos In relations were strained between the French and the people of Kilwa as result of an act of piracy by Labadie against boat from that port Seven years later British cruiser captured French corsair about those waters in there is another brief reference to the French slaving at Kilwa.
The same pace of trade between Mo ambique and Rio de Janeiro where the Portuguese Court had been removed in apparently continued in i8io.
Pierre Joseph Habert
An earlier version of this paper was presented in February to the research seminar in African History at the University of California Los Angeles am grateful to Professor Robert Griffeth and the members of the seminar for their comments on that draft The greater part of the material in this essay was originally included in my doctoral dissertation The role of the Yao in the development of trade in East-Central Africa See e. New York III pp Port Louis 17 and 29 August -ibid. May ibid. Breves reflexoens sobre commercio de Azia Africa n. Os Francezes extraem n. AHU CM 13 anon. Os Francezes extraem..
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