1900-1909 – Life After Victoria (Decade (Pen & Sword))
Focusing on the after-effects of Victoria's death, the riots after Edward VII's cancelled Coronation and the glories of the Edwardian age, the book will appeal to all ages with its factboxes, accessible copy and period pictures, including vintage advertising. Perfect for learning more about the events which shaped the world.
There are no reviews for this book. Register or Login now and you can be the first to post a review! Products Authors Categories Series. Toggle navigation. All By Date Books All Reference Books Politics. Latest Releases Coming Soon Blog. Your basket is empty. A member of an old Cossack family, Vladimir Borovikovsky was the son of an icon painter. He lived in Mirgorod until , where he painted icons and portraits in the Ukrainian tradition.
In , after Catherine the Great expressed her delight at the allegorical decorations which he had been commissioned to paint in honour of her triumphal tour of the Crimea, Borovikovsky moved to Saint Petersburg, where he studied with Levitsky and the Austrian portrait painter Johann-Baptist Lampi. That same year he painted a portrait of Catherine the Great, looking more grandmotherly than regal, walking her favourite dog in the park at Tsarskoe Selo. In many of them, the sitter is portrayed with the fingers of one hand delicately curled round an apple.
Then at the beginning of the nineteenth century he adopted a more classical style, producing works like the Portrait of Prince Alexander Kurakin that he completed in This classical style adopted by Borovikovsky at the start of the nineteenth century led to Romanticism which was beginning to influence Russian portraiture.
Painters began to express themselves more freely, and self-portraits became increasingly common. With its accent on individuality, Romanticism was a perfect match for the self-portrait — which was, after all, a vehicle for psychological probing and spiritual revelation. It also led to important changes of form. Orest Kiprensky, Portrait of Alexander Pushkin, Oil on canvas, 63 x 54 cm, Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow.
Vassily Perov, Portrait of Fyodor Dostoyevsky, Oil on canvas, 99 x Then in , he was awarded a travelling scholarship, and as soon as the Napoleonic Wars ended he departed for Rome. There he led a fairly bohemian life, and found himself the subject of scandal when an Italian model and a manservant died as a result of a fire at his house. At the Academy, Kiprensky had learned to paint so flawlessly that his brush strokes are practically invisible and his pictures have an ivory-smooth finish. They also display an exceptional ability to convey character and to achieve subtle effects of colour and light.
In them it is possible to see something of the spirit of the great Russian poets and novelists of the nineteenth century. Among his best-known works are the portrait of Pushkin that he painted in and the one of Colonel Yevgraf Davydov, an aristocratically nonchalant cavalry officer and poet , who seems to have stepped straight out of the pages of War and Peace. When in Paris in , Kiprensky was invited to exhibit at the Salon.
He also had the distinction of being asked to provide the Uffizi Gallery with a self-portrait for their permanent collection. When Morkov discovered that Tropinin possessed artistic ability, he used him to make copies of famous works of art and also to paint portraits of his family. In Morkov sent Tropinin to Saint Petersburg to train as a pastry-cook.
But in , Morkov recalled him to the Ukraine to continue working on his estate, both as a servant and as an artist. Eventually, in — when he was nearly forty-eight — Morkov granted Tropinin his freedom. The following year Tropinin received the title of academician and moved to Moscow, where he painted portraits of celebrities including Pushkin and Karamzin and numerous foreign visitors.
Masterpieces from the later part of his life include his refreshingly unaffected portrait of the writer Varvara Lizogub, and one of his most memorable works is Until the age of thirtynine, Venetsianov worked as a draughtsman and land surveyor in the civil service. Ilya Repin, Portrait of Leo Tolstoy, Oil on canvas, x 88 cm, Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow.
Ilya Repin, Portrait of Modest Moussorgski, Oil on canvas, 69 x 57 cm, Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow. With, Venetsianov, however, the distinction between portraiture and genre painting is often blurred, as can be seen from his Girl with a Birch-Bark Jar and Reaper, both painted after In he painted a portrait of Gogol, whose progressive ideas he greatly admired. In he resigned from the civil service and went to live at Safonkovo, the country estate to the east of Moscow that he had bought a few years earlier.
At Safonkovo, he started teaching some of his neighbours and their serfs to paint. In the end, more than seventy pupils had absorbed his approach to art, including several who became popular teachers and transmitted his ideas to the next generation. Briullov was taught to paint by his father, a Huguenot woodcarver, before going to the preparatory school of the Academy at the age of ten. Then in he was awarded a grant which enabled him to travel to Italy, where he stayed until In he painted one of his most delightful and best known works, a picture of a girl gathering grapes intended as part of a series of genre portraits , to which he gave the title Italian Midday.
Towards the end of the s and during the s he produced increasingly large and Oil on canvas, x 65 cm, Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow. His portraits began to exhibit more psychological preoccupations, often giving the impression of being unaffected. Ilya Repin, Archidiacre, Oil on canvas, x 96 cm, Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow. Ilya Repin, Portrait of Pavel Tretyakov, Oil on canvas, 98 x Although initially drawn to historical and genre painting, he found his fullest expression as a portrait painter.
Among the gallery of celebrities who appear in his paintings are fellow-Itinerant Ivan Shishkin — pictured against a backdrop of trees surveying the landscape before setting up his easel — and the singer Elizaveta Lavrovskaya on the stage of a concert hall, receiving an ovation. Even more heart-rending is his painting entitled Inconsolable Grief , depicting a grieving woman standing beside a wreath of flowers, painted when his own wife was mourning the death of their son.
Vassily Perov, a warm-hearted man whose views commanded respect among his fellow Itinerants, almost invariably shows his models sitting in a quiet and dignified pose. With great subtlety, he conveys the haunted sensitivity of Dostoyevsky, the mental energy of the dramatist Alexander Ostrovsky, and the shrewdness of the merchant Ivan Kamynin — whose family refused to allow this portrait to be exhibited at the World Fair in Paris in because it did not present a sufficiently congenial image of him.
Ilya Repin has a style of portraiture that remains very much his own, despite being influenced by both Manet and Velazquez. Among his most enchanting portraits are the ones of his daughters Vera and Nadezhda and the idyllic group portrait On a Turf Bench , all painted en plein air. Tempera on panel, 80 x 67 cm,.
The most demanding official commission undertaken by Repin was a painting of the formal session of the State Council held on 7 May In order to complete this gigantic group portrait, he prepared dozens of studies so he could accurately capture the character. Tempera on canvas, x cm, Bakhrushin Theatre Museum, Moscow. Tempera and gouache on cardboard, The portraiture of two of the most brilliant of the Itinerants, Serov and Surikov, will be discussed in the third part of this book. From the s to the Post-Revolutionary Period Although the World of Art movement attracted many of the best artists, it did not have a monopoly on talent and had little appeal to the older Itinerants, many of whom were still producing interesting and innovative paintings.
Like many of his contemporaries, he delighted in painting out of doors, and some of his most appealing portraits — such as Girl with Peaches, Girl in Sunlight and In Summer — owe their naturalness to their setting or to the interplay of sunlight and shadows. When only six years old, Serov began to display signs of artistic talent.
Repin acted as his teacher and mentor, giving him lessons in his studio in Paris, at the age of nine, then letting Valentin Serov, Portrait of Savva Mamontov, Konstantin Korovin, Chorus Girl, Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow. Oil on canvas, 51 x 44 cm, Russian Museum, St. Utterly different from any of these is the famous nude study of the dancer Ida Rubinstein, in tempera and charcoal on canvas, which he painted towards the end of his life. In contrast, Konstantin Korovin was deeply influenced by the French Impressionists almost from the outset of his career, as can be seen from his Chorus Girl, which is regarded as one of the first Impressionist works by a Russian painter.
Two of his most powerful paintings arose from his interest in the performing arts, namely his Portrait of the theatrical director Vsevolod Meyerhold and. Watercolor, gouache and graphite on paper mounted on cardboard, 61 x 64 cm, Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow. Valentin Serov, Portrait of Ida Rubinstein, Tempera and charcoal on paper, x cm, Russian Museum, St. Leon Bakst, The Supper, Leon Bakst, Portrait of Zinaida Hippius, Pencil and red and white chalk on paper mounted on cardboard, 54 x 44 cm, Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow.
Oil on canvas, x 68 cm, Museum of Russian Art, Kiev. Chaliapin was the subject of a number of other portraits, including one when young by Serov and one by Boris Kustodiev, who depicted him standing like a fur-coated colossus on a snow-covered hillock, while in the background there is a fairgound scene busy with tiny brightly coloured figures.
This accuracy was also evident in Lady in Blue, on which Konstantin Somov worked from to He achieves its effects by an unexpected synthesis of realism and stylization. The delicate beauty of the model — the artist Elizaveta Martynova, who died soon after this portrait was painted — appears all the more lifelike because of the artificial pose and scenery, and the old-fashioned dress that Somov asked her to wear.
In contrast, the sketch of the poet Zinaida Hippius by Leon Bakst — who produced spectacular costume designs — is uncontrived and naturalistic. Philip Maliavin painted portraits of several of the World of Art painters, such as Somov and Grabar, that convey their character and characteristics with great insight and sensitivity.
They range from the sober and conventional — for example, the portrait of Konstantin Artsybushev that he painted in — to highly decorative works such as Girl Against a Persian Carpet, which is both a sensitive portrait of a child and an inspired exploration of pattern and colour. During the s, the ballet and dancers featured prominently in her work, while many of her other.
Martiros Saryan, Self-portrait: Three Ages, Oil on canvas, 97 x cm, Martiros Saryan Museum, Yerevan. Martiros Saryan, Portrait of Victoria Alabian, Oil on canvas, 46 x 61 cm, Martiros Saryan Museum, Yerevan. Historical Painting From the Eigteenth Century to the s Early Russian history painting was closely linked to religious painting, and only freed itself from the canons of icon painting at the start of the eighteenth century.
History painting in Russia, however, did not come into its own until the founding of the Academy. As of then, was regarded as superior to other art forms such as religious art and the depiction of mythological themes, which became subcategories of history painting. Lomonosov between and One constraint on the development of realistic history painting was the lack of reliable historical and archaeological sources, which deterred many artists from attempting accurate representations of places, people and events. Even when events from Russian history were chosen, Russians were often represented in classical mode — in Greek or Roman costume, or forced into heroic poses imitating those of Antiquity.
Painted between and , while he was. The painting earned Briullov all sorts of honours, including the prestigious Grand Prix at the Paris Salon,. Bruni laboured at it for fifteen years from to , but much to his chagrin, it failed to bring forth the same acclaim. Later, in , the downfall of their coup was recalled in a painting by Vassily Timm , showing Nicholas receiving the news that the rebel troops had been overwhelmed by the Imperial guards, whose presence is a visible reminder of tsarist power.
From the s to the s Among the Itinerants, the undisputed master of history painting was Vassily Surikov. Born in a remote Siberian town, Krasnoyarsk, of Cossack ancestry, he felt strong personal links to the people and history of Russia. Like many other Russian artists in the s and s, he was particularly fascinated by the Petrine era — the reigns of both Peter the Great and Alexander II from to were periods of national development and liberal reforms, yet both rulers behaved autocratically and dealt ruthlessly with their opponents.
Vassily Surikov,. Unlike Surikov, for Repin history painting was not a prolific area of artistic endeavour. Nevertheless, he made an enormous contribution to it. Several of his paintings probe the psychological truth of historical situations and show an empathy with those whose lives are touched by history. His painting showing Ivan the Terrible, grief-crazed, hugging the body of his son, whom he has just killed in a fit of rage, vividly depicts the obscene consequences of tyranny.
Like Surikov and Repin, most history painters of this period were intent on expressing libertarian ideas. In Princess Tarakanova , which shows the beautiful princess forgotten and about to drown as flood waters invade her prison cell, Konstantin Flavitsky dramatised historical events to make a more pointed protest against the callous despotism of the tsars.
Nevrev, Polenov and many of their Ilya Repin, Tsarina Sophia in , a Year after her. During the same year, Vassily Vereshchagin painted his grim masterpiece The Apotheosis of War. A seasoned soldier, he strove through his art to make the world aware of the horrors of the battlefield and the cruelties of colonialism and tsarist terror. Internationally, Vereshchagin was the most widely known of the major Russian painters of his day. He was also one of the few who did not join the Society for Itinerant Art Exhibitions.
After spending much of his life observing war at first hand, he died aboard a battleship that exploded during the Russo-Japanese war. Both painted numerous pictures of naval engagements involving the Russian fleet. Many of his paintings — such as his portrayal of Ivan the Terrible, tormented but still every inch a tsar — have a decorative quality reminiscent of Art Nouveau. The monumental mural on the theme of the Stone Age that he painted for the History Museum in Moscow is a masterpiece of composition, brilliantly re-creating the infancy of mankind. Neither style, psychological probing nor social issues played any essential part in the creative thinking of Somov, Benois and their associates.
In their historical subjects they sought to convey the elusive flavour and charm of bygone eras, to express that disenchantment with reality, that nostalgic dream of the irretrievable past which assailed the minds and hearts of their. Many of them depicted places associated with Russian history, including royal palaces and parks, and the architectural and monumental splendours of the past.
Lanceray also produced paintings depicting historical events —such as his tension-charged painting showing Elizabeth Petrovna younger daughter of Peter the Great on the night she deposed the infant Ivan VI — and historical landscapes such as Saint Petersburg in the Early Eighteenth Century. Like Benois and Lanceray, Valentin Serov sought to convey the flavour of bygone eras, particularly the eighteenth century, but he was also intrigued by the character of historical personalities and the psychological nuances of historical scenes.
Ilya Repin, Barge Haulers on the Volga, Tempera on paper, 60 x 83 cm, Art Museum, Odessa. Tempera on paper, 64 x 86 cm, Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow. Two years later, in , Serov visited Greece together with Leon Bakst. Entitled Terror Antiquus, it depicts an ancient civilization at the moment of destruction. Watercolor heightened with white on. Valentin Serov, Peter the Great, Tempera on cardborad, War Roerich used his knowledge of history and legend to patriotic effect, creating works featuring Russian epic heroes and saints.
The two World Wars and the Soviet Revolution inspired numerous documentary and commemorative paintings. Many of these, especially after the promulgation of the dogma of Socialist Realism in , were official commissions. In its initial manifesto, Yevgeny Lanceray, St. Petersburg in the Early. To satisfy demands for patriotic propaganda, many of the paintings produced during the Second World War were executed in an exaggerated heroic style reminiscent of poster art.
This later painting starkly presents two contrasting images. In the top half,. Oil on canvas stuck on paper, Russian Museum, St. Tempera on canvas, Leon Bakst, Terror Antiquus, Decorative Panel, oil on canvas, x cm, Russian Museum, St. Kuzma Petrov-Vodkin, Death of the Commissar, By making ingenious use of mirrors and views from the windows, Lvov managed to include glimpses of both the city and the mountains.
This touch of artistic sophistry was surely appreciated by the prince, who was a connoisseur and generous patron of the arts. Compositions of this kind became increasingly common during the first half of the nineteenth century, stimulated no doubt by the interest in interior design that seized Europe during the post-Napoleonic period. In Vorobiev was appointed professor of perspective at the Academy. At the same time Venetsianov, as part of his own curriculum, made pupils paint carefully observed interior scenes. Many of these have survived, among them views of the Hermitage and the state rooms of the Winter Palace.
Karl Briullov,. Scenes from ordinary everyday life however, which came to be known as genre painting, were scarcely considered as worthy topics for art and did not enjoy the same prestige as portraits or historical tableaux. The same is true of the lively medley of people, animals, carts and carriages in Square in a Provincial Town by Yevgraf Krendovsky , a wide-angled panorama notable for its ingenious manipulation Leondi Solomatkin,.
The dates of his birth and death are not known, though he died after The family that figures in his most famous painting — Peasant Meal, painted in — is shown gathered round a farmhouse table.
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It is doubtful whether the Academy had ever previously been asked to consider a work of art that featured ordinary people in a humble domestic setting engaged in a commonplace daily routine. By portraying the dignified solidarity of this peasant family, Shibanov showed that it was possible to produce a masterpiece without painting in the grand manner. The same qualities are apparent in Solemnizing the Wedding Contract, which he painted three years later.
There is no distance between Shibanov and the people featured in these pictures. For the first time in the history of Russian art, peasants are treated not as exotic characters or curiosities, but as real people endowed with an aesthetic and moral worth. Another artist who left a vivid record of peasant life was L. As with Shibanov, we do not know his precise dates, but he was probably born in and died some time after The son of an equerry at the court of Catherine the Great, he was orphaned at an early age.
After graduating from the Academy, he went to study in Paris. Vassily Maximov, All in the Past, Vassily Maximov, The Sick Husband, Dressed in tatters or patched clothes, often with rheum-filled eyes and with rags on their swollen feet, the serfs and beggars that people his pictures are a far cry from the fashionably attired courtiers who sat for Rokotov, Borovikovsky or Levitsky.
Ermenev died alone, unrecognized, and his work was virtually overlooked until after his death. By the middle of the nineteenth century, Russian writers and painters were also beginning to focus attention on other sectors of society that had, until then, scarcely figured in art.
Landowners, civil servants, the military and the clergy all became possible subjects for artistic comment. As a reaction against the repressive and bureaucratic regime of Nicholas I, the behaviour of the ruling class was frequently depicted in a satirical light.
One of the most astute social commentators was Pavel Fedotov. All the figures, down to the servants in the background, are portrayed with an unerring eye for detail. In , at the age of twenty-nine, Fedotov abandoned a military career in favour of painting. Eight years later he died in a mental institution, his mental state unbalanced by poverty and frustration. The Itinerants and other painters active during the second half. Oil on cardboard, Vassily Perov, Hunters at Rest, The parents of the girl he loved had made her marry an elderly general, since they did not regard painting as an eligible career.
Pukirev himself figures in the congregation, standing unhappily, with arms crossed, behind the reluctant bride. Together they heralded a much freer and more innovative approach to academic art. Leonid Solomatkin was a less overt moralist, but in many of his paintings comedy has a mordant edge — as can be seen from Morning at a Tavern and the grotesque jollity of The Wedding The Mockers by Illarion Pryanishnikov, in which merchants and their affluent customers laugh at a dancing beggar, was based on a scene from a play by Alexander Ostrovsky.
Vassily Maximov grew up in a village and spent much of his adult life in rural Russia, different aspects of which are portrayed in paintings such as Arrival of the Sorcerer at a Peasant Wedding, The Sick Husband and All in the Past. In the paintings of Konstantin Savitsky, often people en masse — rather than individuals — are the heroes, as in Repairing the Railway and Off to War!. Both urban and village life figure in his paintings. In The Drowned Girl the stillness of the two figures, alone in the riverside dawn, is no less expressive.
In contrast to these sombre sentiments are the hilarity of pictures such as Hunters at Rest and the whimsicality barely masking anticlerical satire of Easter Procession in the Country, in which the joy of Easter is marred by the weather and the drunkenness of the priests. The woman holding a miraculous icon, the mounted police and stewards, the merchants, shopkeepers, peasants, clergy, beggars, cripples, children… everyone is carefully characterised, creating a multifaceted image of provincial Russia, or even of Russia as a whole.
Thanks to the masterly use of perspective, the whole procession seems to be moving steadily forward and to be imbued with life. The use of perspective and composition is no less important in Barge Haulers on the Volga — often called The Volga Boatmen — which Repin painted between and , while. In They Did Not Expect Him — started in and completed in — Repin makes marvellous use of his talent for drama. As a result of the revolutionary movement that culminated in the assassination of Alexander II, hundreds of political suspects were imprisoned or deported to Siberia.
In the new tsar, Alexander III, declared an amnesty for political offenders. Concern with the living and working conditions of peasants and industrial workers was voiced in the works of many of his contemporaries. The desperate state of the economy had resulted in thousands of peasants leaving their home villages in search of work. The dead man lying in bright. Konstantin Savitsky, Repairing the Railway, The dignity of peasant life, its closeness to nature and its serenity and vigour have been recurring themes in Russian art since the time of Venetsianov.
No less memorable are the harmonious, rhythmic colours of Woman Sleeping in a Sheepfold by Pavel Kuznetsov, many of whose paintings convey the freedom and fascination with the nomadic world of the steppes. One of the liveliest tableaux of Russian life dates from the s. To help Surikov recover. Each year, on the last day before the beginning of Lent, a snow fortress would be built, often with considerable skill and imagination. Boris Yakovlev, Transport Returns to Normal, Konstantin Somov, Pierrot and Lady, Boris Kustodiev, Kiss and Congratulation for Easter, Tempera on paper mounted on cardboard, 50 x 42 cm, Kustodiev Picture Gallery, Astrakhan.
Such examples of Russian life are also shown by other well-known artists. In the post-Revolutionary period, however, industrialization provided a new stimulus for Soviet artists. Nevertheless, a note of ambiguity or paradox is often present. Similarly, in Building New Factories the spark of communication between the two women and the athletic twist of their bodies contrast with the geometrical skeleton of lifeless steel girders. The development of collective farms stimulated some equally memorable images. In the s and after the Second World War, Arkady Plastov painted farming scenes full of life and confidence, celebrating the beauty of the Russian countryside and the heroic efforts of the workers engaged in the drive for agricultural regeneration.
Some aspects of rural life, however, have altered little. But, as so often the case with Russian painting, there is a thread of continuity in this painting that links the present and the past.
The peasant meal of soup and green onions, the lunchers themselves and the Landscape From the Eighteenth Century to the s It was only in the last quarter of the eighteenth century and during the first part of the nineteenth century that landscape painting in Russia emerged as a separate genre. Artists such as Fyodor Alexeyev , Fyodor Matveyev , Maxim Vorobiev and Sylvester Shchedrin produced masterpieces of landscape painting, although their work was heavily influenced by the Latin tradition — by painters such as Claude Lorrain, Poussin and Canaletto — it is in the work of Venetsianov and his followers for example, in his Summer: Harvest Time and Spring: Ploughing that landscape with a truly Russian character makes its first appearance.
Despite the brief span of their working lives, both of these artists were to have a considerable influence on the painters who came after them. In order to paint the scene realistically, he had a simple wooden studio erected, looking out over the snow-covered plain to the woodlands visible in the distance.
Only a small number of his works have survived. Soroka died in even more tragic circumstances.
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True to his humanitarian ideals, Venetsianov pleaded for the freedom of other talented serf artists and in some cases purchased their liberty himself. Later, in , Soroka was arrested for his part in local agitation for land reforms and sentenced to be flogged. Before the punishment could be carried out, he committed suicide. One of his most representative paintings is Fishermen: View of Lake Moldino late s , which is remarkable for the way it captures the silence and stillness of the lake.
For a period of thirty or forty years most of the leading Russian landscape painters were taught by Maxim Vorobiev, who became a teacher at the Academy in and continued to teach there — except for long trips abroad, including an extended stay in Italy — almost. Especially during the last decade of his life, Shchedrin favoured dramatic settings. Vorobiev went through a phase where he was. Indeed, those who reach such fame in their lifetime are rare. Barely finished with his studies, his name was already circulating throughout Russia. His learning years were situated, in effect, at a critical time.
He was further taught by Vorobiov, whose teaching was influenced by the Romantic spirit. In October , he finished his studies at the Academy and received a gold medal, synonymous with a trip to foreign countries at the cost of the Academy. The echo of the success of his Italian exhibitions was even heard in Russia. Fyodor Vassilyev, Wet Meadow, Pope Gregory XVI bought Chaos and hung it in the Vatican where only paintings by world-famous painters have the honour of hanging.
Like many of his paintings, it bears the imprint of Romanticism: the sea and sky convey the power and grandeur of nature, while in the foreground, the survivors of a shipwreck embody human hopes and fears. Although the sea is the dominant theme in the majority of the 6, paintings that Aivazovsky produced, he also painted views of the coast and countryside, both in Russia especially in the Ukraine and Crimea and during travels abroad.
The enthusiasm for all things French that had been so prevalent in Russia during the eighteenth century diminished following the Napoleonic Wars — which is one reason that. Fyodor Matveyev painted little else besides Italian architecture and landscape. He received the gold medal to crown his graduation. The Academy offered him a trip abroad. He left for Italy, but only in , because of the Neapolitan invasion. Indeed, this painting was a great success and Shchedrin had to fill several orders and made several replicas of the painting from different angles. He lived in Rome and then in Naples.
Orders were abundant and Italy was a constant source of inspiration. He worked outdoors, drawing nature, bays, hills, villages, fishermen… Among his works, we can point out View of Serrento and Terrace on a Seashore He liked drawing hillsides of vineyards overlooking the sea. As he had fallen ill, this certainly explains the change. Most of his works belong to private collectors throughout the world. The architecture of their own country also caught the imagination of Russian painters. Professor of landscape painting at the Academy from until his death, he painted charming, sensitive views of the parks and gardens of the Imperial residences near Saint Petersburg — such as Stone Bridge at Gatchina, one of a series of decorative panels that he produced between and They are executed with a harmony and appreciation of beauty that became a mark of Russian landscape painting throughout the nineteenth century.
The skilful handling of complicated effects of chiaroscuro, both in terms of brushwork and perspective, coupled with the wealth of observation of city life and the detail of the buildings, give his work enduring artistic and historical value. Ivan Shishkin, Morning in a Pine Forest, Martynov, who was a pupil of Semion Shchedrin, painted. Arkhip Kuinji, After the Rain, Vassily Polenov, Overgrown Pond, Oil on canvas, 77 x Like Vorobiev and Aivazovsky, he managed to travel widely, and painted in Siberia, Mongolia and China. From the s to the s With the Itinerants, the status of landscape painting was greatly enhanced.
Even artists like Perov, who were primarily concerned with people rather than landscape, regarded the countryside as something more than a convenient background for portraits and genre paintings. These three paintings in effect mark the watershed between academic Romanticism and a more realistic representation of nature. A mild-mannered and extraordinarily patient teacher, Savrasov exerted a far-reaching Vassily Polenov, Bethlehem, From to he was in charge of the landscape studio at the Moscow College of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture, where.
And rightly so. From his earliest years, he was fascinated by the conifers around his house. After his studies, and with the benediction of his father, who always encouraged him in this path, he left for Moscow in to study painting. At the time, realism was highly regarded and academic rules were less strict, which allowed Shishkin to freely develop his deepest inclinations. He was taught by Mokritsky, who was under the influence of Briullov and Venetsianov himself.
He encouraged Shishkin in the direction that was his; namely, landscape and nature. Very soon, he asked himself why inspiration was sought in Italian nature, as by Shchedrin and Lebedev, and not in Russian nature. He then left the Academy of Moscow and went to the one in Saint Petersburg in The most influential painters there at the time were Chernyshevsky and Dobroliubov, for whom painting was meant to be not only a mirror of the surrounding world but a means to transform it. Another important aspect of teaching was the emulation of western painters, especially the Swiss landscape artist Alexandre Calame, who was very popular at the time.
Calame influenced many Russian painters, among whom Shishkin, who, however, retained a personal touch. At first he often used pencil. A silver medal rewarded his drawings in In , he was given the gold. He was recognized for the finesse and extreme precision of his strokes. At this time, he was also trying his hand at eau-forte and lithography. His drawings alone represent a large part. He also made friends with many painters, including Repin. Numerous and remarkable drawings were born during these evenings. Nothing disturbs the calm of this scene.
All the details are present: the bear, the flying bird, the pines that are all different one from the other. This is thus once again a very realistic scene but, at the same time, a new energy emanates from this painting, expressing a harmony that Shishkin had not reached up to that point.
This painting was an immense success. Together, they very often went off to Isaac Levitan,. He was increasingly preoccupied with the representation of light, which was not the case previously. His study Sunlit Pines reveals shadows and reflections that leave the light penetrate. During those years, his strokes became supple, dynamic, alert to reflected light while the crosshatching, for its part, was more sensitive and varied. The technical virtuosity and poetic majesty of his painting speak for themselves. Works such as Winter are unrivalled in the way they convey the texture of snow, while his summer landscapes such as Rye and Oak Grove powerfully express the beauty and colours of the Russian countryside.
Indeed, Morning in a Pine Forest describes the awakening of the forest, the sun coming up, the fog slowly lifting; the foreground is in focus whereas the trees that are further away have fuzzy contours. The sliding light of the sun which chases the mist away little by little bestows great poetry on this magnificent piece of work.
During the s the art of Arkhip Kuindzhi underwent an abrupt transformation. Many of the pictures that he painted in the early and mids — such as The Forgotten Village and The Pack-Ox Road in Mariupol — have muted tones, reflecting the harshness of life in rural Russia. Then Kuindzhi began to experiment with a completely different tonal range, resulting in the marvellously luminous quality of paintings such as After the Rain and the brightness of ones like The Birch Grove, both of which date from Vassily Polenov was also a master of pleasing light effects, amply demonstrated by his painting Overgrown Pond, a tranquil Moscow backyard, more farmyard than courtyard, that Isaac Levitan, Evening Bells, An enthusiastic advocate of plein-air painting, he succeeded.
One of the greatest and best-known landscape painters among the Itinerants, Isaac Levitan, had the advantage of studying under both Savrasov and Polenov. Levitan, like Shishkin, was a supreme master of the use of colour, composition, and light and shade. But, unlike Shishkin, who had a preference for summer landscapes, Levitan preferred the fresh colours of spring and the muted cadences of autumn. When he painted summer scenes, such as Secluded Monastery, he preferred to work in the evening, when the light was softer, or even at dusk. He also joined the Society of Itinerant Exhibitions. He was friends with Ostroukhov and Serov.
Isaac Levitan, March, Oil on canvas, 60 x 75 cm, Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow. Isaac Levitan, Springtime Flood, Igor Grabar, February Azure, Oil on canvas, x 83 cm, Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow. Vassily Surikov, Zubovsky Boulevard in Winter. Oil on canvas, 42 x 30 cm, Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow. If the painting is marked by a certain feeling of sadness, an impression of solemnity also emanates from this empty space.
The silhouette placed in the painting accentuates even further the feeling of solitude. He left a permanent mark on Russian painting by bringing to it the feeling of profound typically Levitanian poetry characteristic of Russian nature. Extolling the simplicity of aestheticism before all else, which only a great master has the capacity to succeed in, his paintings were first and foremost a simplification of shape and colour, while preserving the most expressiveness and realism possible.
From the s to the Post-Revolutionary Period With its championing of plein air techniques, Impressionism inevitably had a considerable impact on Russian landscape painting; one of the foremost Russian Impressionists was Grabar, whose favourite genre was landscape. In particular, he liked to paint sun and shadows on snow or the contrast between wintry skies and frosted trees, as in February Azure. The style and mood of Blue Spring by Vassily Baksheyev, an almost exact contemporary of Grabar, are reminiscent of the spring landscapes painted by Savrasov, who was one of his teachers.
Baksheyev devoted his energies almost entirely to landscape painting from the early stages of his career, and the beauty of slender birches seen against a clear spring sky was a theme that he returned to again and again. In common with other painters who belonged to the Union of Russian Artists, Konstantin Yuon was attracted by the landscape of Old Russia, particularly by the ancient towns, with.
Vassily Kandinsky, Red Church, Oil on plywood, 28 x Vassily Kandinsky, Murnau with Church I, Oil and watercolor on cardboard,. Martiros Saryan, Constantinople Street. Midday, Tempera on cardboard, Martiros Saryan, The Courtyard of my House, Oil on canvas, x 68 cm, Armenian Painting Gallery, Etevan. After the Revolution, he produced landscapes such as his famous Industrial Moscow Morning , which have a poetic quality expressing the dynamism of industry and the joy of work. Before the Revolution, he experimented with a variety of styles, including a Primitivist phase that resulted in landscapes such as Windy Day, notable for a pictorial quality and colour range inspired by Russian folk art.
Both landscape and folk art were important to Chagall and Kandinsky. The Blue House features an isba a traditional wooden house in the foreground and, beyond it, a very Russian view painted in a style derived from Russian folk art. Chagall also painted a number of delightful views from or through windows, some of them realistic, others in a more symbolic style.
But it was only after he went to live in Murnau — in the mountainous area outside Munich, where he shared a house with Jawlensky — that his move towards abstraction began to emerge, with canvases such as Boat Trip. One of the most spectacular landscape painters of the mid twentieth century was Martiros Saryan. Paintings such as Constantinople Street at Midday, The Courtyard of my House and Lake Sevan show the intensity of his colours and his instinct for dramatic composition.
Caravans of camels with bells, nomads coming down from the mountains with tanned faces, with herds of sheep, cows, buffaloes, horses, donkeys or goats; the bazaars, the street life of the motley crowd; Martiros Saryan, Lake Sevan, Muslim women slipping silently by in black and pink veils; the big, dark, almond eyes of the Armenian women — it was all that reality of which I had daydreamed back in.
Still Life From the Eighteenth Century to the s In Russia, still life did not emerge as a separate artistic category until the second half of the nineteenth century. Indeed, until that time there were relatively few Russian painters who devoted their energies primarily to still life. Its most brilliant proponent was Ivan Khrutsky , whose decorative pictures of fruit and vegetables were influenced by the Dutch masterpieces displayed in the Hermitage. Count Fyodor Tolstoy , a friend and admirer of Venetsianov and relative of the famous novelist, was an exceptionally versatile artist who became known as a sculptor and medallist as well as for his silhouettes.
In addition, he produced natural-history studies of birds and flowers, and interior scenes with such titles as At the Window on a Moonlit Night. From the s to the s Although there are some pleasing still lifes from the second half of the nineteenth century, it was not until the earlier part of the twentieth century that still-life painting in Russia came into its own. Russian Museum, St. Vroubel, who worked a great deal in the area of theatrical, monumental and decorative art, is often considered as one of the masters of Russian Art Nouveau.
The range of colours that the painter preferred included all the shades of blue, from light blue to violet; combined with pink or green, these colours create the impression of a shimmering and changing surface. In fact, the subject served as a pretext for his stroke and his palette of colours. Born in Omsk in , he only began painting later in life, in , after having obtained a law degree from the University of Saint Petersburg. At the Academy of the Arts, he was a student of the teacher and graphic artist P. Just four years later, he was entrusted with the restoration of ancient frescoes in Kiev, in the twelfth century Kirillov Church.
Vroubel also accomplished other paintings there, including a mural. In Kiev, Vroubel made sketches as well of the unfinished painting of the cathedral of St Vladimir that was under construction. His painting turned toward epic subjects inspired by the history of his country. Some historical portraits were painted before he launched himself into ceramic work and even invented a new method of baking. Suffering from depression as of the beginning of the century, he nevertheless continued to create, perhaps to free himself from his stagnation. From to his illness was calmer; this was the moment in particular when he gave himself over to still lifes.
The impressive painting Lilacs proves his disposition for this genre, which remained secondary in Russia for a long time. From the s to the Post-Revolutionary Period During the first few decades of the twentieth century still-life painting in Russia was one of the most inventive art forms, in terms of technique, subject matter and imaginative treatment.
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One reason was that it was a natural vehicle not only for the decorative and aesthetic philosophy of the World of Art movement but also for the Impressionist and PostImpressionist experiments with colour and the avant-garde experiments with form. Both Mikhail Vrubel, Dogrose, Konstantin Korovin was born into a family of shopkeepers.
He gave drawing lessons at age 15 to help support his family. After two years of studies, he managed to gain admission to the Department of Painting. He knew how to spark enthusiasm in his students and, as soon as the weather became better, they left the city and its suburbs to admire flowers, fields, the miraculous rebirth of life after winter.
Polenov introduced Korovin to the Abramtsevo circle. His painting was very soon appreciated within that circle. He was also chosen to design the Russian pavilion for the World Fair held in Paris in The painter received a gold medal during the Fair for that work. Having thereby gained an international reputation, his work was exhibited worldwide. Essentially a colourist, colour remained his principal means of expression, no matter which art form he used: decoration, painting or decors for the theatre or opera.
Indeed, he did many paintings such as Roses and Violets , executed with an extremely rich colour palette. In Fish , objects have a very concrete presence, upholding the diversity of colour. The influence of Impressionism, of which Korovin knew many paintings due to his travels, is palpable in his use of colour. Objects are less and less defined but still remain tangible. His colours are less and less precise, gradually becoming touches of light.
From on, Constantin Korovin was a teacher at the School of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture where he had been a student. He taught his art to an enormous number of students. He died at the beginning of the Second World War. They often included old objects in their still lifes such as antique figurines, hand-painted trays and old-fashioned toys.
Like Grabar, Sapunov produced flower paintings remarkable for their handling of colour, though in terms of tonal range the two artists could scarcely have been less similar. Four of the most active founding members of the group were Alexander Kuprin, Pyotr Konchalovsky, Ilya Mashkov and Robert Falk. All four produced still lifes that played with colour and form. This creative playfulness resulted in pictures like the ones by Kuprin and Konchalovsky reproduced.
Tempera on plywood, Boris Kustodiev, Still Life with Pheasants, Oil on canvas, 41 x 40 cm, Kustodiev Picture Gallery, Astrakhan. Quite different from any of these were the still lifes of Kuzma Petrov-Vodkin, who became an influential theorist and teacher. Petrov-Vodkin began working as a student of Burov. He completed his studies at the School of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture of Moscow in , where he was guided by Serov. Writing as much as he painted at that time, he hesitated greatly as to which path to follow. His figurative and laconic paintings date in part from the influence of modern European and western painters.
First that of Germans and Austrians, the influence then became French, in particular Neoclassic and post-Impressionist. At the time of the formation of the Blue Rose group he was working in North Africa which had an impact on his treatment of light and the human figure , but he was able to participate in the Golden Fleece exhibitions. In , Petro-Vodkin became a member of the artistic World of Art association and he remained a member until its dissolution in , although he belonged to no school.
His evolution proved that he attempted to synthesise the traditions of Eastern and Western painting. At the end of the s, he developed and wrote a new theory on the representation of space. The artist created various spaces on his canvas, connected by gravity. After the Bolshevic revolution in October , Petrov-Vodkin painted more and more still lifes: Morning Still life , Still life with mirror , Still life with Blue Ashtray Between the end of the twenties and the beginning of the thirties, as a result of his illness, he ceased painting and devoted himself to writing once again.
The work of Petrov-Vodkin did not correspond to Stalinist ideology, it was therefore quickly forgotten. Oil on canvas, The Russian Museum, St. Different from Vodkin was the style of Larionov whose still lifes went through several phases. Pyotr Konchalovsky, Tray and Vegetables, Oil on canvas, 73 x 92 cm, Russian Museum, St. Goncharova poured out a stream of Primitivist pictures, using elements and styles culled from folk art, especially tradesmen signboards and lubki the Russian wood-cuts, similar to English chapbooks, that had become immensely popular in the seventeenth century.
Among paintings influenced by signs, Bread sets itself apart. A pyramid of round and oblong loaves of bread takes up the entire surface of this monumental painting. His painting Bread is nothing more than bread: good bread, well baked, that would have been the pride of any bakery had it been on its tinplate sign. Alexander Kuprin,. Radiation of reflected colour coloured thrust. Realistic rayonism reproducing real shapes. Negation of shapes in painting as existing independently of the eye a priori.
Conventional representation of the ray by the use of the line. Disappearance of frontiers under the effect of what is called the plan of the painting and nature. Seeds of rayonism in previous arts. Teachings on the creation of new shapes. Reproduction of the sensation of the infinite and the timeless.
Pictorial construction according to the laws of painting ie. Tempera on canvas, x cm, Saryan Museum, Erevan. He participated as well in the illustration of anthologies and poems, such as The Twelve. His still lifes, like his portraits and landscapes, have a remarkable zest. Many of them feature fruit, vegetables or flowers painted in vibrant, sun-drenched colours. A few include Eastern elements, as in Buddhist Still Life.
A warm light emanates from the juxtaposition of colours. According to his son, Saryan, although he was still in the army, conceived of his still life Flowers,. Martiros Saryan, Still Life. Grapes, Twentieth-century Avant-garde and Revolutioary art A New World of Art By the s the Society for Itinerant Exhibitions had become so well established that three of its members Repin, Polenov and Bogoliubov were invited to draw up a new constitution for the Academy.
Then Repin, Shishkin, Kuindzhi and Makovsky were appointed professors. But at the very moment when the Itinerants had succeeded in storming the heights of academia, the Society began to fall apart. Although it continued to hold exhibitions until the s, there was internal bickering about who should be allowed to join or participate in exhibitions, and up-and-coming artists began to regard the Society as backward-looking and no longer a dynamic force.
Moreover, new ideas about art were in the air. This manifested itself in numerous forms, ranging from Impressionism and Russian Art Nouveau to the abstract art of the s and s. As happened elsewhere for example in France and Germany , the various movements gave rise to a plethora of groups, associations, exhibitions and magazines. Among the most influential of these affiliations was the one known as the World of Art. Diaghilev soon proved to be a promoter and motivator with an unusual ability to recognize artistic potential. In , at the age of twenty-six, he staged an exhibition of Russian and Finnish artists, persuading a number of well-known Muscovite painters to participate — among them Korovin, Levitan, Nesterov, Riabushkin, Serov and Vrubel.
The following year he launched a monthly magazine, also called Mir iskusstva, notable for the calibre of its principal contributors, which included Benois, Bakst and Igor Grabar. The magazine was only published for six years until , but partly because of its enthusiasm for the style moderne as Art Nouveau was called in Russia , it had an immense influence not only on painting but on a variety of art forms. When the World of Art society was reborn in after the period of turmoil that followed the Russo-Japanese War and the Revolution of , it attracted a new wave of supporters, including Konchalovsky, Kuznetsov, Roerich, Sapunov, Serebriakova, Saryan and Kustodiev.
Artists as diverse as Dobuzhinsky, Maliavin, Tatlin and Chagall took part in the exhibitions that the society organized, the last of which. Vladimir Tatlin, Nude,