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He works at the University of Denver. Grant Weber has created a world that revolves around reading, running, writing and grilling on the weekends. He holds a Ph. He also writes poetry. Guillaume Morissette is a Canadian fiction writer and poet based in Montreal, Quebec. His most recent book is New Tab. He lives in Montreal. Tyler Crawford is a single dad with no kids based out of Montreal. Guy Benjamin Brookshire was born in Searcy, Arkansas in , got covered in fire ants in , and traveled widely.

They have two girls, Beatrix and Blythe, and live in Northern California. Hadiyyah is a fiction and freelance writer from Toronto, Ontario. Twitter: hahadiyyah. Haley Markbreiter lives in New York and works in a bakery. Hannah Gamble is working on her second book of poems. She lives in Chicago, where she is developing an arts-based learning workshop at the Museum of Science and Industry for a team of innovators seeking to address the city's problem of urban nutrition.

Heather Christle is the author of three poetry collections, most recently What Is Amazing. She lives in Yellow Springs, Ohio, where she is working on a book about crying. His plays have been produced on the west coast and at the Edinburgh International Fringe Festival and published by Snail Press. Hez Stalcup is an Atlanta-based Dance Artist. She has received fellowships from The Edward F.

She lives in Brooklyn, NY. She lives and teaches in Philadelphia. Hugo dos Santos is a a Luso-American writer and translator. His work has been nominated for the Pushcart Prize and has appeared in various publications in the U. He is the author of ironbound - a blog. Innas Tsuroiya is a writer and poet living in Indonesia.

She reads Durga Chew-Bose like a scripture. Follow her festivegrave on Twitter and Instagram. She teaches creative writing at Tulane University. Isabelle Davis is an editor and writer for probably crying review and avid drinker of boxed wine. Jac Jemc lives in Chicago where she writes fiction and poetry.

Their work deals primarily with the ethical lives of art and the artist as these emerge from a context of inheritance: ancestry, language, land, trauma, coercion, and choice activate their aesthetic search for multigenerational healing and connection. He is a retired radio DJ. His writing has appeared in The Destroyer, Deluge, and elsewhere.

Jack Meriwether is a poet and performance artist from Ohio currently living and working in New York City. Their work focuses on queer longing and identity, which they incorporate into their movement-based performance work. In her critical essays she writes about queer sexuality, race, gender, the politics of writing, mixed-race identity, prisons and police, the politics of safety and innocence, and revolutionary struggles. She is currently working on a book or two.

She lives in Ithaca, New York. He is from Lafayette, IN. She is the author of one previous collection, A Minute without Danger Adventures in Poetry , and edits The Physiocrats, a pamphlet press. Jaime Fountaine was raised by "wolves. Weirde Sister is forthcoming from Octopus Books. He works as a Fiction Editor for Longform. He lives in the Rogers Park neighborhood of Chicago. Jamie Gadette is a writer and music editor living in Salt Lake City.

She dreams of one day riding in the Cash Cab. Jamie Perez lives in Baltimore and works in DC. He was part of Narrow House for years, an independent small press in Baltimore putting out occasional books and more. His work as appeared in a variety of places online and in print. He plays bass and other instruments in the Casual Band and in Sweatpants before that. He blogs at www. Jan Wiezorek writes from Chicago. His fiction has appeared at TheWriteMag. For many years his feature stories of unsung heroes appeared in the Chicago Tribune.

He holds an M. Jan also studied fiction writing at Northeastern Illinois University. Visit him at teachwrite. Her poetry and fiction have appeared in various publications, and she is currently obsessed with her spirit-sisters, Lidia Yuknavitch, Kate Zambreno, Michelle Tea and Chris Kraus. She has been awarded a U. Janey Smith lives in San Francisco and edits Metazen.

She is writer of The Snow Poems and Animals. After living for over 30 years in California, she will be moving to Portland, Oregon this summer to teach at Portland State University. She is also the author of the forthcoming chapbook toxic city tinder tender press, She earned her M. She co-founded an open mic in Los Angeles called the Sunday Jump. Please visit her website: janicewrites. His new novel BTW is forthcoming in November.

He maintains a blog Trafficjamsandtea. He's currently working on his first novel. He is also writing Fanzine's Toronto event listings. Jaswinder Bolina is an American poet and essayist. Bolina earned an M. He teaches in the M. Program at the University of Miam. Read more at www. She received her M. Jeanne Jones is a writer and teacher based in the D. The name of Jeff's micro-press is Dikembe Press. His short fiction has appeared in Guernica, Vice, and The Collagist.

Five of his plays have been produced by the Obie Award winning Collapsable Giraffe theater company. Jeff Rovinelli lives in Boston. He is a contributing writer to TinyMixTapes. Jeff T. Jen May makes drawings and books and a lot of her drawings are words written. Coffee and popcorn are very important to her, and she loves it when people say "You go, Girl! Jen illustrates the rock and roll blog Strawberry Fields Whatever. Jenn McCreary is a Philadelphia poet. She serves as president of the board of directors for Small Press Traffic, a San Francisco-based nonprofit arts organization whose mission is to provide a local and national platform for experimental writing.

In , she was named a Pew Fellow in the Arts. Jennifer Blowdryer, nee Waters, grew up in a town that will never ever want her back, but has successfully bullied her way into the social life of New York City and, at times, San Francisco. Jennifer Calkins is an evolutionary biologist and writer who lives in Seattle. She formerly edited poetry at Epiphany and Washington Square Review. Aim at the Centaur Stealing Your Wife is her first full-length book of poems. She received her B. He lives in Minneapolis and tweets miahmoriarty. He lives in Iowa City. Jesi Khadivi is a writer and curator living in Berlin where she co-directs the contemporary art project space Golden Parachutes.

Jess Shaefer lives, eats, and drinks in Barcelona, where she happily and incessantly indulges her addiction to stinky cheeses, cured meats, and vino tinto. Some days the whole "Mediterranean thing"—i. But the rest of the time she's into it. Jess is currently starting up Esentia Tours, a culinary tour company, in the hopes that she can make eating, drinking and traveling into a viable profession. She is also learning how to drive a large motorcycle. Jesse Bransford is a Brooklyn-based artist whose drawings and wall works are exhibited internationally.

He is represented by Feature Inc. Jesse Hudson is a writer from Colquitt GA. She lives in Lafayette, Louisiana where she teaches creative writing. Jessica Berger is a Chicago-based writer and a founding editor of Grimoire Magazine. She holds a Ph. She is currently completing a manuscript about the downfalls of trying to power bottom the patriarchy. Jessica O.

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She resides on Long Island. He lives in San Francisco's Tenderloin and has yet to be mugged. Jim Ruland is a veteran of the U. He runs the Southern California-based reading series Vermin on the Mount, now in its eleventh year. Jimmy Chen lives in San Francisco and enjoys writing, reading, art, and sleeping. He may be found here. A co-founder of the literary journal and chapbook publisher, Tammy, she lives in Los Angeles. Joanna Ruocco lives in Denver, Colorado. Joe Fritsch is a poet and critic. He lives with fellow poet Cheryl Quimba in Buffalo, New York where he is currently studying waste flows piss and shit.

Joe Jock was born an hour from Yankee Stadium in Connecticut and is a fan of all things New York, but resides in Southern California, as he is also a fan of the sun. His field is Human Resources, but his passions include writing - for which he has gained accolades from the English Department of his college - and History. He is currently at work on his first novel.

Visit him online at josephspfister. Joe Wenderoth has numerous numerous publications. He teaches at UC Davis, where police keep order with pepper spray. Joel Westendorf has done lots of things. Some of which you might be interested in, some.. Currently he likes taking and working with photographs of anything that isn't man-made, especially animals.

His graphics have been featured on Fanzine from the site's inception. He teaches creative writing at Portland State University. John Farley is a writer from Ellicott City, Maryland. He currently lives in Mexico City, where co-edits the literary zine Call of the Void. John Rufo reads and writes poetry at Hamilton College. You can hang out with him online at dadtalkshow.

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He is now an artist, curator, editor of the Frozen Tears book series, and football fan based in London. He lives in Lawrence, Kansas. He sells pool supplies, works as a handyman, and tutors students to pay the bills. He likes long walks on the beach, going to the opera, and really stupid dad jokes. Johnny Drago is an Atlanta-based performer and writer.

His first novel, co-written with poet EC Crandall, is available at www. Jon Cone lives in Iowa City. Rauan Klassnik is the author of Holy Land and a few other books. Jon Leon is a New York based poet and novellaist. He is an occasional contributer to Art in America. Waiting for his real bio, while we get his first piece up, but he's a big sports fan, lives in New York and is a friend of Danny Jock's and I hope this is him in the pic I grabbed from a private myspace page by the same name ha!

From until , Jonathan Rosenbaum was principal film critic at the Chicago Reader. His web site is at jonathanrosenbaum. Jordan Castro b. Jordan Heller is a former senior editor of the pop culture magazines BlackBook and Radar. He lives in Brooklyn and can be contacted at jordhell gmail. In his spare time he plays in bands and writes cranky articles about cultural ephemera. They are making amends with their situation. Josalyn Knapic lives in Chicago, IL. Contact her at josalynknapic gmail. Joseph Dante lives in Plantation, Florida.

He was a finalist for the Lascaux Prize for Poetry. He lives in Southern Pines, North Carolina. He lives in America and runs Disorder Press with his sister. Joseph Mosconi is a writer and taxonomist based in Los Angeles. Joseph Rathgeber is an author, poet, high school English teacher, and adjunct professor from New Jersey. His forthcoming novel is Mixedbloods Fomite, Josh Bell's next book of poems comes out, from Copper Canyon, in early He teaches creative writing at Harvard and is the author of No Planets Strike. Josh Boardman is from Michigan.

He lives in Brooklyn, New York, where he is working on his first novel and a collection of stories. In addition to constructing elaborate Lego sets with his three boys, he plays the drums in the band Borrisokane and edits at SmokeLong Quarterly. Joshua Cohen was born in Southern New Jersey in A novel of his is forthcoming in from Fugue State Press.

Joshua Jennifer Espinoza is a trans woman poet living in California. Joshua Jones is a writer and animator residing in Maryland. Find him on Twitter jnjoneswriter. She lives in Chicago and is looking for snowpants. Her work can be found or is forthcoming at Paper Darts, Barrelhouse, Monkeybicycle, and elsewhere. Julia Madsen is a multimedia poet and educator. Julian Modugno is a writer and filmmaker from Atlanta, GA. His films have appeared in a variety of film festivals, as well as being featured in a vitriolic hate-rant on The O'Reilly Factor.

He would trade it all for one shot at being a wizard in the Iron Kingdoms fantasy setting. She is about to relocate to Portland, OR so's to indulge in "some kind of hippy fantasy" quote uncertain. She lives in West Virginia. For more, go to julietescoria. He is a professor of creative writing at Southern Oregon University. Kaptain Carbon writes for Tapewyrmmetal. Kari Larsen karileelarsen is a writer and editor dwelling on the banks of the mighty Susquehanna.

For more information see www. Karsten Krejcarek is Brooklyn-based artist who works primarily in sculpture and video. He is a level-two boundary disillusionist, with apparent leanings toward the fourth quadrant. Her chapbook, Parts, is published with DorsaBrevia Press. Kate Montgomery is a writer and photographer living in Tokyo, currently in search of a new home. Through an increasingly eclectic variety of media including film and corporeal mime she explores ideas of being a woman in the city, desire, and growing in foreign places.

Katherine Botten is an Australian interdisciplinary artist. Her works are primarily voiced in the first person, often blurring the distinction between artist and object of study. She is represented by Suicidal Oil Piglet and currently squats instagram. Katherine Osborne is a writer in Massachusetts and editor of Little River. She is the author of Fire Sign. Kati Heng is a writer living in Chicago.

Her work has been featured in CityPages. Katie Burke is a writer living in Chicago. She is a reviewer for Probably Crying and her work has been published by Electric Cereal. Katie Ebbitt is a poet and social worker living in New York City. Her work has appeared in Tarpaulin Sky and Queen Mobs. Katie Foster was born and raised in Denver, Colorado.

She recently adopted a grey cat after a lifetime of living with dogs. She lives in Providence, Rhode Island. She is assistant editor at Caketrain, a journal and press. Kaya was the co-founder and senior editor of Kitchen Sink magazine. Her website is www. Ken Baumann is. For more information, see kenbaumann. He teaches film and writing at Rutgers University-Newark.

He has also written two books of poetry, Argento Series , and Action Kylie His fiction has appeared in Hobart, Barrelhouse, Vol. He lives in Portland, Oregon with his girlfriend and daughter. He previously taught journalism at Brooklyn College. Kevin Spaide is from Auburn, New York. He lives in Madrid with his wife and son. He has published one novel, Deaf at Spiral Park Salt, Kim Yi-deum has earned degrees in German and Korean Literatures. She teaches at Gyeongsang National University. Her writing has been used in scripts for a play The metamorphosis, and independent film After school, She lives in Queens with her partner and two young sons.

Kina Viola is the managing editor for chapbooks at Big Lucks Books. Find her online kinamv. Kory Calico was born at Grady hospital in Atlanta. He is an avid fan of rap music, poetry and prose. Kristen Felicetti is the editor of The Bushwick Review. She also wrote and recorded The New York Crimes, a modern radio play. Kristen Iskandrian has new work forthcoming in Zyzzyva and Ploughshares. Kristen Steenbeeke is a fiction writer and poet. She is the marketing manager at Hugo House, a place for writers in Seattle. She grew up and continues to live in a rural town in southern Philippines.

His short stories and essays can be found elsewhere. She is a contributing editor at The Offing and lives in Chicago. More info at ladanosman. She can be found online at lanaspendl. Laura Jane now runs Strawberry Fields Whatever , a thoughtful and rabble-rousing blog about rock and roll music with longtime collaborators Elizabeth Barker and Jen May.

Their work currently involves multilingual translations and the language of the untranslatable body. Laura Straub is a writer and the woman behind Vouched Books Atlanta. Her reviews can be read at Vouchedbooks. Laura Theobald is a journalist, editor, and creative writer originally from the Florida Keys and currently living in Atlanta, Georgia. She recently graduated cum laude from The University of Tampa. Coach is an education writer and editor in D. She lives in Jersey. Lauren Traetto is a poet and journalist who has done a lot of different kinds of jobs. She lives in Atlanta, but she used to live in Athens, GA, where she studied linguistics and performed with an Afro-Cuban horror punk band called "Los Meesfits.

Leesa Cross-Smith is a homemaker and writer from Kentucky. Leslie Burnette is a short fiction writer and hair stylist who resides in South Philly by way of Arizona. Recent domain name purchases include leslieburnette. One of those should be a website very soon.

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Levi Bentley organizes the reading series Housework, edits the journal Boneless Skinless, and is a member of the artist collective Vox Populi. Vitrine released their tape "Red Green Blue". Lily Daly is a writer from Alabama. By trade she is a librarian at the public library and by night she is a collector of dreams. Linda Franklin Barkinglips is a Baltimore artist writer who uses shadows, stains, fossils, bones, reflections, smears and half-sensed remnants to help her prove reality.

Otherwise she is too emotional, and too crazy. See one of her blogs, www. Linh Dinh is the author of two books of stories, five of poems, and a just released novel, Love Like Hate. He's tracking our deteriorating socialscape through his frequently updated photo blog, State of the Union. Lisa Ciccarello is the author of five chapbooks, including the recent Sometimes there are travails Hyacinth Girl Press and the forthcoming the shore in parts Greying Ghost Press. She is also the poetry editor at draft: The Journal of Process. Lisa Korzeniowski is a writer of fiction and poetry living in Boston.

Her work has appeared in Opium and The Drum. You can find her on social media at lizlatty or at her website, www. Lonely Christopher is the author of several poetry chapbooks and the volume Into with Christopher Sweeney and Robert Snyderman. As a librettist and playwright, his dramatic works have been published, staged in New York City and internationally, and released in Mandarin translation. He is a founding member of the small press The Corresponding Society and an editor of its biannual journal Correspondence.

He lives in Bed-Stuy, Brooklyn. Lorenzo De Los Angeles has shown his drawings, sculptures, light shows, and art collaborations throughout the U. Lucas Burkett is the recipient of the Wolfson Poetry Award. Lucy Tiven is reluctantly repaying her debt to society. Her chapbook I am not all water is available from NAP.

Natural History (Rackham, Jones, & Eichholz)/Book 17

Luis H. Francia is the author of several books. He has written for The Village Voice , the Nation , and other periodicals. Luis Neer is the author of a full-length poetry collection, Extinction Sad Spell Press, , and eight chapbooks. Luke B. He worked as an editor with a NYC-based literary journal and independent publishing house. An assistant professor of creative writing at the University of Texas at Tyler, he was born in Ohio and grew up in Portland, Oregon.

His fiction has appeared at carte blanche, Cheap Pop, Potluck Magazine, and elsewhere.

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M Kitchell is learning how to levitate through staring at the sun. He likes houses painted black and perfect geometry. Her second chapbook, Twins , is available through Birds of Lace Press. She lives and teaches in Jacksonville, Illinois. He has served both as Asst. Mairead Case lives in Colorado. Maisie Wilhelm is a Midwestern girl at heart, even though she has been living abroad for 3 of the last 4 years, Italy and France.

Just like Madonna, she escaped from a factory town in Michigan. She also writes the Paris Events listings. Maja Malou Lyse , born Explores social and aesthetic construct of female-coded identity and practicing non-binary femininity. Marcel Inhoff is finishing a doctoral dissertation at Bonn University Germany.

His publications include a volume of poetry Prosopopeia, Editions Mantel, , as well as individually published poems in both English and German. Smith, and Elizabeth Bishop, and translated fiction into both English and German. His own blog is at shigekuni. She is prose editor for decomP magazine, and lives in Durham, NC. Her work can be found in The Apiary, Bedfellows, and online.

Her fiction has appeared in Story Quarterly. Once, in a forest of trees, her eyes each looked at a different thing. She lives in Detroit, where she is completing a dissertation about the literature of the Black Power and Women's Liberation movements. Born in Slovakia, he currently resides in Prague, where he is a founding member of the multimedia art collective DeaFactory. Mariusz Zubrowski can be found biking around South Brooklyn. If spotted he'll grant three wishes and a year's supply of lukewarm luck.

Mark Baumer is a human with an internet presence , but his internet presence isn't quite a perfect representation of his earth presence. He started working on a novel three minutes ago called, "the internet presence that wasn't a perfect representation of an earth presence. He is only four years old, but his web history dates back almost fifteen years to when he registered his first email address at hotmail. Mark Budman was born in the former Soviet Union.

He is the publisher of the flash fiction magazine Vestal Review. Several of his mixes can be found on Gauss PDF. Mary Breaden is an Oregonian native living in Brooklyn. By early morning light, she writes, and during business hours, she works for a social services nonprofit. She and Andrea Janda founded an experimental literary journal www. Masha Tupitsyn is a writer, critic, and multi-media artist. Her fiction and criticism has been published widely in journals and anthologies. Big Lucks will release his book Wastoid in He is also the editor of The Collagist and can be found online at www.

His fiction has been published in many places and his most recent chapbook Congratulations! His internet home is Words for Guns. Matt's been intoxicated on television three times. Matt Lundy is a graduate student of journalism at the University of Western Ontario. His research focuses on contemporary European theater and performance, as well as avant-garde aesthetics.

He is a dramaturge, having worked with several Atlanta based theater companies and performance groups. His first book, Ravage and Snare, is forthcoming in He lives in Pawtucket, RI. Learn more at mathewderby. His second novel, Hero Custodian, will be published in Sculptor Matthew Ronay was born in Louisville, Kentucky, in After initially making brightly colored sculptures of combined objects that illuminated social subjects such as: an exit strategy for the Iraq war, the fall of the United States empire as envisioned through Caligula, and a theoretical uprising in the United States lead by the throw-aways of technology and weakened gene pool, he changed.

Years of trying to capture an explanation of the human condition through popular culture and material objects has shifted to using environments, performance, costuming, and devotional objects to allude to the immaterial. His website is www. He hasn't slept since He lives in Seattle with his cat Emmett. Matthew Stokoe was born in England and is currently living in the Southern Hemisphere. A lingering sense of wild holes in the field next door.

And the ocean a pair of blue directions, a watery blue lineation. Cleft or cleaved. Skin transmits a feeling of perforation. His second, Paradise, will also come out with Rescue Press, in spring With little effort I can conjure up the scene. Blonde, beats him. He sputters and spits, snot and blood running from his nose as he swears to knowing nothing about their jewelry store heist being a setup.

Unfortunately Mr. He just wants to torture Nash, and he tells him this, tells him that he is going to hurt him because he just likes hurting people.

Something grisly and memorable. Blonde struts across the warehouse floor like a rooster, the razor in his hand. He dances and shuffles. As the music plays Blonde dances toward Marvin, comically shuffling and wielding the blade like a brush. The camera returns as Blonde stands holding up the severed ear and looking at it, pinched between his fingers. The music dies out behind the closed door. The music swells again as Blonde reenters the warehouse.

To this day I cannot hear that song without seeing the warehouse, Blonde dancing, and helpless Marvin Nash taped to the chair. Tarantino has admitted in interviews that the song came first, before anything else. We are capable of imagining and even of desiring to hurt.

At least that, if not actually capable of enacting hurt, too. That is why the movie, and this scene in particular, succeeds: because it implicates you, as a witness, in the violence. This scene is the Mike Tyson of movie scenes. Blonde in turn. Tarantino lets us feel the creeping horror, the suspense, and finally the release, the ecstatic exhalation when Mr.

Blonde is suddenly shot dead by Mr. Of course our reprieve is a brief one, a momentary satisfaction of our baser instincts that passes quickly, like all adrenaline rushes. That song amplifies the savagery of the scene precisely because of its incongruity, its essential wrongness. The song has since become infamous, inextricably linked to this moment. For those who still recall the grisly images, and the sight of Mr. Blonde dancing with a straight razor, I imagine they must feel the same pull of gravity as I do, the same moral weight, dragging them back to that warehouse.

There is a single story we all know about the painter Vincent Van Gogh, the tortured artist who cut off part of his own ear and then mailed it to a lover. It seems to persist as a kind of parable, a lesson or a warning, perhaps a story of mythic or of aberrant love. Although, as this scene from Reservoir Dogs reveals, ears have a greater signifying potential as objects, as metonyms for bodies themselves. We forget that sound, presented in utero, was our first experience of the outside world.

We forget Van Gogh, but we remember Tarantino. I myself have a difficult time forgetting, however, primarily because I have seen a necklace of ears, like a string of dried apples, kept as a trophy at the top of an underwear drawer. He had kept the necklace as a reminder. As a child growing up in the 70s, the Vietnam War mostly seemed to be a knot of secrets that the fathers of other boys brought back with them. The large part of my understanding came from books, television, and movies. I recoiled from the drawer, and walked alone down the hall. My father had avoided the draft, his number never actually called.

Not my father, but other men, who would go on to become football coaches, attorneys, bricklayers, ditch diggers, Boy Scout leaders, school teachers, professors, writers…. I was already afraid of him before then, but something definitely shifted that day. A new kind of fear arose in me, a fear of the future, for all of us. Seeing what was in that drawer gave me a vision, a truth I would carry forever, a ghost of our collective past that would continue to haunt me, and return again some twenty years later as I watched Mr.

Blonde carve up Marvin Nash on the movie screen. The world had changed, and pop culture possessed the power to capture this change, the new leap in our associative thinking. It was no longer Van Gogh, with his quaintly distressing tale of psychotic love, that sprung to mind anymore. Not after Mr. Blonde and Marvin Nash, not after Tarantino. There was only and always now this savage act of violence, and that jarring song, throughout it all, bouncing incessantly in the background.

It may have seemed like just about everyone you knew, or wanted to know, was reading it. Wonder no more. Last night, Warner Bros. Nadia by Brit Bennett. A picture book about the atomic bomb? A middle-school book about our first presidents and the people they owned? A fast-paced account of Daniel Ellsberg and the Pentagon Papers for young teenagers? While Donald Trump and his administration play loose with facts and figures, a substantial number of authors and illustrators are presenting American history to students in all of its gory, complicated, and fascinating glory.

Akin to the golden age of realistic YA fiction that began in the early s, this approach to American history veers away from what we might wish had happened to focus on what actually happened. These books grapple with volatile issues that have shaken the country for hundreds of years…and emerge on the other side with an idealism that is energizing as well as critical and questioning.

Although Davis describes events of two centuries ago, he effectively signals their longstanding relevance. Teaching about the less glorious episodes of the United States story has often come up against opposition. And it runs counter to what they have experienced with young readers. Unless they are being very effectively sheltered, children and teenagers know about all sorts of human fallibility among public figures, and it makes sense to show the complexities of history early and often.

Weatherford recently wrote Voice of Freedom , a picture book about Fannie Lou Hamer, who became a leading light in the s civil rights movement. Born poor in the Mississippi Delta, Hamer was unaware she had the right to vote until she was in her forties.

Her life shows that we need to know more. The next challenge is to keep infusing that into our culture. Other picture-book authors have also found engaging ways to handle difficult topics. How difficult? But it is by no means intended as a bedtime story. I see no reason why every nonfiction picture book has to have a happy ending. Why not encourage children to think?

Natural History (Rackham, Jones, & Eichholz)/Book 17 - Wikisource, the free online library

Or to learn about the parts of their cultural history which are not so virtuous? Steve Sheinkin, another author who labors to produce a nuanced, richly researched view of American history, started out as a textbook writer. First of all we must notice what kind of tree will stand grafting of this nature, and what tree it will take a graft from. Also the sap is variously distributed, and does not lie under the bark in the same parts with all trees: in vines and figs the middle is drier, and generation starts from the top, shoots for grafting being consequently taken from the top of the tree, whereas in olives the sap is round the middle and grafts are also taken from there, the tops being parched up.

Grafts and trunk grow together most easily when they have the same kind of bark and when they flower at the same time, so that they have the affinity of the same season and a partnership of juices; whereas it is a slow business when there is incompatibility between dry tissues and damp ones, and between hard and soft barks. The other points to be observed are not to make the cleft at a knot, as the inhospitable hardness repudiates a newcomer; to make it at the shiniest place; not to make it much more than three inches long, nor on a slant, nor so as to be transparent.

Virgil says that grafts must not be taken from the top, and it is certain that the slips should be obtained from the shoulders of the tree that look north-east, and from trees that are good bearers and from a young shoot, unless the tree on which they are to be grafted is an old one, as in that case the slip must be stouter. A further point is that slips that are going to be grafted must be pregnant, that is, swelling with bud-formations, and in expectation of giving birth in that year, and they must be at all events two years old, and not thinner than the little finger.

But grafts are also inserted the other way round a when the intention is for them not to grow so long but to spread out. Before all things it will be serviceable for them to have buds and to be glossy, as nothing shabby or shrivelled anywhere will gratify one's hopes. The pith of the slip grafted should be put touching the place in the mother tree where the wood and the bark meet, for that is more satisfactory than to place it level with the bark outside.

The process of giving a point to the slip for grafting must not strip the pith quite bare, but only make it visible through a narrow aperture; the point must slope off in an even wedge not more than three inches long, which is most easily achieved by dipping the slip in water when paring it. It must not be exposed to wind while it is being pointed. The bark must not be allowed to become separated from the wood in either the graft or the trunk. Consequently shoots dripping with sap should not be used for grafting, no more, I swear, than ones that are dry, because in the former case excess of moisture causes the bark to slip, while in the latter owing to defective vitality it makes no moisture and does not incorporate with the trunk.

Moreover there is a religious rule that a graft must be inserted while the moon is waxing; and that both hands must be used in pressing it home; and apart from that, to use both hands at once in this job requires less effort, as it involves combining their forces. Grafts pressed in too forcibly are slower in bearing but last more stoutly, while the contrary procedure has the opposite results.

The crack must not gape too wide and afford a loose hold, nor yet not wide enough, so as to squeeze the graft out or to kill it by pressure; special care must be taken to avoid the latter in the trunk of a tree that takes the graft with an excessively powerful hold. In order that a cleft may be left in the middle, some people make a line of cleavage in the trunk with a pruning-hook and bandage the actual edge of the incision with a withe, and afterwards force it apart with a wedge, the bandage keeping it from gaping open too freely.

Some slips are grafted on plants in a seed-plot and then are transplanted on the same day. If a rather thick stock is used for grafting, it is better to insert it between the bark and the wood, after using a wedge, preferably of bone, to loosen the bark, so as not to break it. Cherry-trees have their inner rind removed before the incision is made.

They are the only trees that are grafted even after midwinter. After the bark has been removed they have a layer of a sort of down, and if this gets a hold on the graft it makes it decay.

The most effective way of tightening the bandage is by driving a wedge into it; it suits best to insert it as close to the ground as the formation of the tree and the knots allows. Grafts ought not to project to a length of more than six inches. Cato a recommends making a mixture of pounded white clay or chalk and cow-dung and so working it to a sticky consistency, and putting this into the fissure and smearing it round it.

From his remarks on the subject it is easily seen that at that period they used to insert the graft between the wood and the bark and not otherwise, nor used they to put the slips more than two inches in. He advises grafting pear and apples during the spring and fifty days after midsummer and after the vintage, but olives and figs only in the spring and when a cloudless moon is shining, and moreover in the afternoon and not if there is a south wind blowing. It is remarkable that he is not content to have safeguarded the graft in the manner described, and to have protected it against rain and frost by means of turf and soft bundles of split osiers, but he says it must be covered with a layer of bugloisa species of plantas well, and that this should be tied on with a layer of straw; whereas nowadays they think it is very adequately packed with a wrapping of mud and chaff, the graft projecting two inches from the bark.

Those who do their grafting in spring are pressed for time, as the buds are just shooting, except in the case of the olive, the eyes of which are pregnant for a very long time, and it has a very small amount of sap under the bark, which when too abundant is injurious to the grafts. But with pomegranates and the fig and other trees of a dry nature it is far from beneficial to put off grafting till a late season. A pear-tree however may be grafted when actually in blossom, and the process may be carried forward even into May.

If however cuttings of fruit trees have to be brought from a considerable distance, it is believed that they best preserve their sap if they are inserted in a turnip, and it is best to store them near a stream or a pond, packed between two hollow tiles blocked up at each end with earth; but it is thought that vine-cuttings are best stored in dry ditches, under a covering of straw, with earth then piled over them so as to let their tops protrude. Cato has three ways of grafting a vine: he advises cutting the stock short and splitting it through the pith, and then inserting into it the shoots after sharpening them at the end in the manner stated above, and making the cambium of the two meet; the second method is, in case the vines are contiguous with one another, to pare down on a slant the side of each that faces the other and to tie them together with the cambiums joined; and the third is to bore a slanting hole in the vine down to the pith and insert slips a couple of feet long, and to tie the graft in that position and cover it up with a plaster of pounded earth, with the shoots upright.

Our generation has improved on this method, so as to employ a Gallic auger which makes a hole in the tree without scorching it, because all scorching weakens it, and to select a slip that is beginning to bud, and not to let it protrude from the stock by more than two eyes, They have fixed the time for grafting vines from the autumn equinox till the beginning of budding. Cultivated plants are grafted on roots of wild ones, which are of a closer texture, whereas if slips of cultivated plants arc grafted on the trunks of wild ones they degenerate to the wild variety.

The rest depends on the weather: dry weather is most favourable for grafts, because a remedy for its ill effects is to place earthenware pots of ashes on the stock and let a small amount of water filter through the ashes; but grafting by inoculation likes a light fall of dew. Scutcheon grafting may itself also be thought to have sprung from grafting by inoculation, but it is most suited to a thick bark, such as that of fig-trees.

The procedure is to prune all the branches so that they may not attract the sap, and then, at the most flourishing part of the tree and where it displays exceptional luxuriance, to remove a scutcheon, without allowing the knife to penetrate below the bark; and then to take a piece of bark of equal size from another tree, together with a protuberant bud, and press it into the place, fitting the join so closely that there is no room for a scar to form and a single substance is produced straight away, impervious to damp and to airthough all the same it is better to protect the splice by plastering it with mud and tying it with a bandage.

People in favour of modem fashions make out that this kind of grafting was only recently invented, but it is found already in the old Greek writers and in Cato, who prescribed this method of grafting for the olive and the fig, in conformity with his invariable precision actually defining the proper measurement: he says that a piece of bark four inches long and three wide should be cut out with a knife, and so fitted to its place and smeared with that pounded mixture of his described above, in the same way as in grafting an apple.

In the case of vines some people have combined with this kind of grafting the fissure method, removing a little square of bark on the side and then forcing in the shoot. We have seen beside the Falls of Tivoli a tree that has been grafted in all these ways and was laden with fruit of every kind, nuts on one branch, berries on another, while in other places hung grapes, pears, figs, pomegranates and various sorts of apples; but the tree did not live long.

And nevertheless it is impossible for us by our experiments to attain to all the things found in Nature, as some cannot possibly come into existence except spontaneously, and these only occur in wild and uninhabited places. The tree most receptive of every kind of graft is believed to be the plane, and next to it the hard-oak, but both of these spoil the flavours of the fruit. Some trees, for instance the fig and the pomegranate, can be grafted in all the different methods, but the vine does not admit scutcheons, nor do trees that have a thin bark or one that peels off and cracks; nor do trees which are dry or contain only a little sap admit of inoculation.

Inoculation is the most prolific of all methods of grafting, and grafting by scutcheon comes next, but both are very subject to displacement; and a graft that relies on the support of the bark only is very speedily dislodged by even a light breeze. Grafting by insertion is the firmest, and produces more fruit than a tree grown from planting.

We must not omit one extremely exceptional case. In the territory of Naples a Knight of Rome named Corellius, a native of Este, grafted a chestnut with a slip cut from the tree itself, and this is how the celebrated variety of chestnut tree named after him was produced. Subsequently his freedman Tereus grafted a Corellius chestnut again. The difference between the two varieties is this: the former is more prolific but the latter, the Tereus chestnut, of better quality.

It is mere accident that by its own ingenuity has devised the remaining kinds of reproduction; it taught us to break off branches from trees and plant them because stakes driven into the earth had taken root. This method is used to grow many frees, especially the fig, which can be grown in all the other ways except from a cutting; the best plan indeed is to take a comparatively large branch and point it at the end like a stake and drive it deep into the earth, leaving a small head above ground and covering up even this with sand.

Pomegranates also are grown from a branch, the passage into the hole having first been widened with stakes; and so also the myrtle; in all of these a branch is used that is three feet long and not so thick as a man s arm, and the bark is carefully preserved and the trunk sharpened to a point at the end. Consequently we must now speak about the planting of cuttings. In this care must be taken above all that the cuttings are made from trees that bear well, that they are not bent in shape nor scabbed or forked, that they are thick enough to fill the hand and not less than a foot long, that they are planted without injury to the bark and always with the cut end and the part that was nearest the root downward, and during the process of budding the plant is kept heaped over with earth until it attains strength.

We shall best convey in Cato's own words the rules that he judged necessary to keep in looking after olives: 'Make the olive slips that you are going to plant in the hole a yard long, and handle them carefully so as not to damage the bark when cutting or trimming them. Make those you are going to plant in the nursery a foot long. Plant them thus: the place must be first dug over with a mattock and have the soil well loosened; when you put the slip in, press down the slip with your foot; if it does not go down far enough, drive it in with a mallet or a beetle, and be careful not to break the bark while you are driving it in.

Do not make a hole beforehand with a dibble into which to put the slip: if you do not, it will live better. The slips do not mature till three years old, when the bark will turn. If you plant them in holes or in furrows, put them in groups of three and keep these apart. Cheek just by the eye that they do not project more than four fingers' breadth above the earth.

In taking up an olive tree you should use great care and carry the roots with as much earth as possible; when you have well covered up the roots, tread them down well, so that nothing may injure them. If anyone asks what is the time for planting an olive, the answer is, where there is a dry soil, at seed-time, but where it is rich, in the spring. Begin to prune an olive-yard a fortnight before the spring equinox; the six weeks from then onward will be the right time for pruning. Prune it in this way: in a really fertile place, remove all the parts that are dry and any branches broken by the wind; in a place that is not fertile, trim away more and reduce well and disentangle out and make the stocks smooth.

In the autumn season turn up the earth round the olive-trees and add dung. The man who stirs over his olive-yard most often and deepest, will plough up the thinnest roots. If be ploughs badly, the roots will spread out on the top of the ground and will become thicker, and the strength of the olive-trees will go away into them. We have already stated, in treating of olive-oil, what kinds of olive trees Cato tells us to plant and in what kind of soil, and what aspect he advises for olive-yards. Mago recommends that on sloping ground and in dry positions and in a clay soil they should be planted between autumn and the middle of winter, but in heavy or damp or watery soil between harvest and the middle of winterthough it must be understood that he gave this advice for Africa.

Italy at any rate, at the present time, does its planting chiefly in spring, but if one chooses to plant in autumn as well, there are only four days of the forty between the equinox and the setting of the Pleiades on which it injures olives to be planted. It is peculiar to Africa that it grafts them on a wild olive, in a soft of everlasting sequence, as when they begin to get old the shoot next for engrafting is put in and so another young tree grows out of the same one and the process is repeated as often as is necessary, so that the same olive-yards go on for generations.

The wild olive however is propagated both by grafting and by inoculation. It is bad to plant an olive where an oak-tree has been dug up, because the worms called raucae breed in oak roots and go over to olives. It has been ascertained to pay better not to bury the cuttings in the ground or to dry them before they are planted. It has been found better for an old olive-yard to be raked over every other year between the spring equinox and the rising of the Pleiades, and also to have the moss scraped off the trees, but for them to be dug round every year just after midsummer with a hole a yard across and a foot deep, and to be manured with dung every third year.

Mago also tells us to plant almonds between the rising of Arcturus and the shortest day, and not to plant all kinds of pears at the same time, as they do not blossom at the same time either; he says that those with oblong or round fruit should be planted between the setting of the Pleiades and the shortest day, but the remaining kinds in midwinter after the setting of the Arrow, with an eastern or northerly aspect; and a laurel between the setting of the Eagle and the setting of the Arrow.

For the rule as to the time for planting and that for grafting are connected: the authorities have decided that for the greater part grafting should be done in spring and autumn, but there is also another suitable season, about the rising of the Dog-star, known to fewer people because it is understood not to be equally advantageous for all localities, but as we are enquiring into the proper method not for a particular region but for the whole of nature we must not omit it.

In the district of Cyrene they plant when the yearly winds are blowing, as they also do in Greece, and particularly the olive in Laconia. The island of Cos also plants vines at that season, but the rest of the farmers in Greece, though they do not hesitate to inoculate and to graft trees at that season, do not plant trees then. And the natural qualities of the localities carry very great weight in this matter; for in Egypt they plant in every month, and so in every country that has a summer rainfall, but in India and Ethiopia trees are necessarily planted later, in autumn.

Consequently there are three regular periods for germination, spring and the rise of the Dog-star and that of Arcturus. For in fact not only do animals possess a strong appetite for copulation, but the earth and all vegetable growths have a much greater desire, the indulgence of which at the proper season is of the greatest importance for conception, and peculiarly so in the case of grafts, as both graft and stock share a mutual eagerness to unite.

Those who approve of spring for grafting begin it immediately after the equinox, stating that the buds are just coming out, which facilitates the joining of the barks; but those who prefer autumn begin at the rising of Arcturus, because the grafts at once so to speak take root and are prepared when they reach springtime, and do not have their strength taken away immediately by budding. Some kinds of trees however have a fixed time of year everywhere, for instance cherries and almonds, which have to be planted or grafted about midwinter; but as to the greater number of trees the lie of the land will make the best decision, as cold and damp lands must be planted in spring, but dry and warm sites in autumn.

The system general in Italy at all events assigns the times for planting in the following manner: for a mulberry from February 13 to the spring equinox; for a pear the autumn, provided it is not less than a fortnight before the shortest day; for summer apples and quinces, and also sorbs and plums, from midwinter to February 13; for the Greek carob and for peaches, right through autumn till midwinter; for the nuts, walnut and pine-cone and filbert and almond and chestnut, from March 1 to March 15; for the willow and broom about March 1.

The broom is grown from seed in dry places and the willow from a slip in damp localities, as we have stated. There is moreover a new method of graftingso that I may not wittingly pass over anything that I have anywhere discovereddevised by Columella, as he himself states, for the purpose of effecting a union even between trees of different natures and not easily combined, for example figs and olives. He gives instructions to plant a fig-tree near to an olive, with not too wide a space between for the fig at full spread to touch a branch of the olive, the most supple and pliant branch possible being chosen, and all the time during the process it must be trained by practice in curving; and afterwards, when the fig has gained full strength, which he says is a matter of three or at most five years, the top of it is cut off and the branch of the olive is itself also pruned and with its head shaved to a point in the way that has been stated is inserted in the shank of the fig, after having been secured with ties to prevent its escaping because of the bend in it.

In this way, he says, by a sort of combination of layering and grafting, in three years the branch shared between the two mother trees grows together, and in the fourth year it is cut away and belongs entirely to the tree that has adopted it; this method however is not yet generally known, or at all events I have not yet obtained a complete account of it. For the rest, the same account that has been given above about warm and cold and damp and dry substances has also demonstrated the method of trenching. In watery soils it will be suitable to make trenches neither broad nor deep, but the contrary in warm and dry ground, so that they may receive and retain water as much as possible.

This is the method used in cultivating old trees as well, as in very warm localities growers heap earth over the roots in summer and cover them up, to prevent the heat of the sun from parching them. In other places they turn up the earth round them and give access to the air, but also in winter pile up earth to protect them from frost; whereas growers in hot climates open up the roots in winter and try to obtain moisture for the thirsty trees. Everywhere the rule is to dig a circular trench three feet in circumference round the tree, though this is not done in meadowland because the roots, owing to their love of sun and moisture, wander about on the surface of the groundAnd let these be our general observations in regard to planting and grafting trees for fruit.

It remains to give an account of those which are grown as supports for other trees, particularly for vines, and which are felled for timber. Among these the first place is taken by willows, which arc planted in a damp place, but in a hole dug two and a half feet deep, a truncheon or rod 18 inches long being used, the stouter the more serviceable. They should be set six feet apart.

When three years old they are lopped off two feet from the ground to make them spread out wide and to enable them to be cut back without using ladders; for the willow is the more productive the nearer it is to the ground. It is advised that these frees also should be dug round every year, in April. This is the mode of cultivating the osier willow. The stake willow is grown both from a rod and from a truncheon, in a hole of the same depth.

It is proper to cut rods from it in about three years; but these also fill up the place of trees that are growing old, by means of a layered new growth cut off after a year. A single acre of osier-willow will supply enough for 25 acres of vineyard. The white poplar is also grown for the same purpose, the hole being two feet deep and the cutting eighteen inches long and left two days to dry; the truncheons are planted one foot nine inches apart and a layer of earth a yard deep is thrown on the top of them.

The reed likes an even moister soil than osiers do. It is planted by putting the bulb of the root, which others call the 'eye' in a hole nine inches deep, two feet six inches apart; and it renews itself of its own accord when an old reed-bed has been rooted up, a method that has been found to pay better than thinning out, as used to be done previously, because the roots get twisted up together and are hilled by their mutual inroads.

The time to plant is before the eyes of the reeds swell up, which is before the first of March. It goes on growing till midwinter, and stops when it is beginning to get hard, which is the indication that it is ready for cutting; though it is thought that the reed also requires digging round as often as the vine does. It is also planted in a horizontal position, not buried deep in the ground, and as many shoots spring up as there are eyes.

It is also grown by being planted out in a hole a foot deep, with two eyes buried so that the third knot is just touching the earth, and with the head bent down so as not to hold the dew. It is cut when the moon is on the wane. For propping vines a reed dried in smoke is more serviceable than one still green. The chestnut-tree is preferred to all other props because of the ease with which it is worked its obstinate durability, and because when cut it nuts again even more abundantly than the willow. It asks for a light yet not sandy soil, and especially a damp gravel or glowing-coal earth or even a powdery tufa, and it will grow in a site however shady, and facing north and extremely cold, or even in one on a slope; but at the same time it refuses dry gravel, red earth, chalk, and all rich fertile soils.

We have said that it is grown from the nut, but it will only grow from very large ones, and only when they are planted five in a heap together. The soil underneath must be kept broken up from November to February, when the nuts detach themselves and fall from the tree and sprout in the ground underneath it. They should be planted in a hole measuring nine inches each way, with spaces of a foot between them.

After two years they are transferred from this seed-plot to another and replanted two feet apart. People also grow them from a layer, which indeed is easier in their case than with any other tree: for the root is bared and the layer laid in the trench at full length, and then it throws out a new shoot from the top left above the earth and another from the root.

When transplanted however it does not know how to make itself at home and dreads the novelty for almost two years, but afterwards it puts out shoots. Consequently plantations felled for timber are replenished by sowing nuts rather than by planting quicksets. The mode of cultivation is not different from that used for the trees a mentioned above: it is by loosening the soil and pruning the lower part for the next two years. For the rest the tree looks after itself, as its shadow kills off superfluous suckers. It is lopped before the end of the sixth year.

The props provided by one acre are enough for twenty acres of vines, as they even grow forked in two from the root, and they last till after the next lopping of the plantation they come from. The sessile-fruited oak is grown in a similar way, though later by three years in lopping, and less difficult to propagate in whatever soil it is sown; this is done in spring, with an acorn but only a sessile-oak is grown from one in a hole nine inches deep, with two foot spaces between the plants; the ground is lightly hoed four times a year.

A sessile-oak grown as a prop is least liable to rot, and it makes new shoots when lopped most of any timber. Timber trees in addition to those we have mentioned are the ash, laurel, peach, hazel, apple, but these shoot more slowly and when fixed in the ground scarcely stand the action of the soil, not to mention the damp.

The elder, on the contrary, which is very strong timber for a stake, is grown from cuttings like the poplar. About the cypress we have already said enough. And now that a preliminary account has been given of what may be called the rigging that supports the vines, it remains to give a particularly careful description of the nature of the vines themselves. The shoots of the vine, and of certain other trees that have a somewhat spongy inner substance, have stalks with knotted joints that make divisions across the pith.

The actual lengths of cane are short, and get shorter towards the top, and they close up their pieces between the knots with joints at each end. The pith, or what is really the life-giving soul of the tree, stretches forward filling up the length in front of it, so long as the knots are open, with a tube that allows a passage; but when they have become solidified and prevent passage, the pith is thrown back and bursts out at its lowest part close to the previous knot with a series of alternate lateral forks, as has been stated in the case of the reed and of the giant fennel; with these the swelling from the bottom knot can be observed on the right and that at the next one on the left, and so on alternately.

This is the way in which the main shoots, side-shoots, grapes, leaves and tendrils are formed; and it is a remarkable fact that those growing on the right-hand side are the stronger. Consequently when these slips are planted it is necessary to cut the knots in them across the middle, without letting the pith run out. And in the case of a fig nine-inch slips are planted in holes made in the ground with pegs, in such a way as to have the parts that were nearest to the tree sunk into the earth and two eyes projecting above the surface the term 'eyes' in slips of trees properly denotes the points from which they send out shoots.

It is because of this that even when bedded out the slips occasionally produce in the same year the fruit they were going to bear on the tree if they have been planted at the proper time when pregnant, and give birth in their other position to the progeny they had begun to conceive. Fig-trees struck in this way are easily transplanted two years later, as this tree in compensation for the rapidity with which it grows old is endowed with the property of coming to maturity very rapidly. Vines give more numerous kinds of shoots for planting. The first point is that none of these are used for planting except useless growths lopped off for brush-wood, whereas any branch that bore fruit last time is pruned away.

It used to be the custom to plant the shoot with a knob of the hard wood on each side of it, and this explains why it is still called a 'mallet-shoot'; but afterwards the practice began of pulling it off with its own heel, as is done in the case of the fig; and there is no kind of slip that grows better. A third kind has been added that strikes even quicker, which has the heel removed; these slips are called 'arrows' when they are twisted before being set out, 'three-bud slips' when they are cut off and set without being twisted. By this method several can be obtained from the same shoot.

To plant from young leafy shoots is unproductive, and a slip for planting must only be taken from a shoot that has already borne fruit. A shoot that has few knots in it is deemed unlikely to bear, whereas a crowd of buds is a sign of fertility. Some people say that only shoots that have flowered should be planted. It does not pay so well to plant arrow-slips, because anything that is twisted easily gets broken in being moved.

Shoots chosen for planting should be not less than a foot long, with five or six knots; that length of shoot will not possibly have less than three buds. It pays best to plant them on the same day as they are cut off, or if a considerable postponement cannot be avoided, to keep them well protected, as we have instructed, or at all events to be careful not to lay them down on the surface of the earth and let them be dried up by the sun and nipped by wind or frost.

Shoots that have been left too long in a dry place should be soaked in water for several days to restore their freshness. The soil whether in a nursery or a vineyard should be exposed to the sun and should he as soft as possible, and it should be tinned over with a two-pronged fork three feet down, and thrown back with a two-spit spade or mattock to swell naturally in ridges four feet high, so that each trench goes down two feet; and when dug the earth must be cleaned of weeds and spread out, so that no part may be left uncultivated, and it must be levelled accurately by measurement: unequal ridges show that the ground has been badly dug.

The part of the ground lying between the banks must also be measured. Shoots are planted either in a hole or in a longer trench, and the finest possible layer of earth is heaped over them, although in a thin soil this is of no use unless a layer of richer soil is spread underneath. The earth should cover up not fewer than two buds and should just touch the third; it must be pressed down to the same level and compacted with the dibble; in the nursery plot there should be spaces eighteen inches broad and six inches longways between every two settings; and the mallet-shoots so planted should after two years be cut back to their bottom knot, if the knot itself is spared.

From this point they throw out the substance of eyes, with which at the end of three years the quickset is planted. There is also a luxury method of growing vinesto tie four mallet-shoots together at the bottom with a tight string and so pass them through the shank bones of an ox or else through earthenware pipes, and then bury them in the earth, leaving two buds protruding.