Beyond Hierarchy: Gender And Sexuality In The Social Economy (Gender, Change & Society)
Does Internet communication rely on traditional gender roles or does it favor new communicational behaviors? Another topic worth discussing is that of cultural and recreational practices. Let us finally raise some questions related to video games. Gaming has traditionally acted as a form of computer initiation, primarily for boys Jenkins, However, recent research calls for an analysis of new and more widespread forms of gaming on smartphones and on social network sites FarmVille or CandyCrush for example , that women seem to use as much as men. Does this relatively new way of gaming broaden the use of video games among women?
This image of the Internet as a medium for exploring and subverting gender norms was especially strong at the beginning of the Web. Since then, it has partly lost its popularity, especially with the development of Web 2. Studies taking on a gender perspective are today less interested in the transgressive dimensions of the Internet than in its performative dimensions. Goffman's notion of "gender display" and Butler's concept of "doing gender" are two major references in this literature Goffman, ; Butler, , Empirical research on the Web 2.
This does not mean that the Internet does not change anything. More empirical research is however needed. This is especially true as the existing literature is often either overly enthusiastic or severely critical regarding the gender-related social transformations induced by the Internet. More attention could also be paid to Internet use among middle-aged or older people. Today, most work dealing with gendered Internet use, and the online display of femininity and masculinity, focuses on young people, often from middle or upper class backgrounds.
In this sense, the existing literature does reflect the diversity of Internet usage and users. Consequently, this issue of RESET calls for a widening of the research questions associated with gender and online communication, as well as of the populations under study. The abstracts words maximum are due by November 12, They should be sent to the following address: reset openedition. The abstracts, written in either English or French, should state the research question, the methodology, and the theoretical framework used.
It will focus on the scientific relevance of the proposed article in light of the existing literature and the call for papers, and may be accompanied by a short bibliography. We would like to draw the authors' attention to a special section called Revisiting the Classics , devoted to new readings of classical authors and theories in light of the Internet.
The abstracts will be reviewed anonymously by the issue coordinators and the members of the editorial board. Authors of submissions selected at this stage will be asked to e-mail their full papers by February 28 th , Deadline for abstract submission words maximum, plus references : November 12, Responses to authors: November 30, Editorial board reset openedition.
Dominique Pasquier dominique. International Journal of Intercultural Relations. Comparative Sociology. International Journal of Advertising. Sexing the body: gender politics and the construction of sexuality. New York: Basic Books. Johns Hopkins Hosp. By the term, gender role, we mean all those things that a person says or does to disclose himself or herself as having the status of boy or man, girl or woman, respectively.
It includes, but is not restricted to sexuality in the sense of eroticism. Gender role is appraised in relation to the following: general mannerisms, deportment and demeanor, play preferences and recreational interests; spontaneous topics of talk in unprompted conversation and casual comment; content of dreams, daydreams, and fantasies; replies to oblique inquiries and projective tests; evidence of erotic practices and, finally, the person's own replies to direct inquiry.
The Rolling Stone. As nature made him: The boy who was raised as a girl. NY: HarperCollins. June Gender and Society. Zalta ed. Infant Behavior and Development. Early androgens are related to childhood sex-typed toy preferences. Psychological Science 3. Retrieved 14 June The New England Journal of Medicine.
Retrieved 14 March July Psychological Review. Kohl, I. National Academies Press US. New York, NY: Routledge. Retrieved 6 February Yerkes National Primate Research Center. Retrieved 29 September Hormones and Behavior. Retrieved 17 April Oxford Review of Economic Policy. The Feminist Press. The changing face of medicine: women doctors and the evolution of health care in America. Ithaca, N. Encouraging one's daughter to pursue a career in medicine is no longer an unusual idea… Americans are now more likely to report that they feel comfortable recommending a career in medicine for a young woman than for a young man.
Crossdressing, Sex, and Gender 1st ed. University of Pennsylvania Press. Hough Eds. Palo Alto: Consulting Psychologists Press, West J Med. Surah Al-Baqarah . Retrieved 15 November Roles of Women PBS". Retrieved 5 February Gautam, ed. India through the ages. Journal of Development Studies.
Media, gender and identity: An introduction. Oakland Tribune. Archived from the original on 10 May The Guardian. BBC News. Marriage and Families: Changes, Choices, and Constrains. New Jersey: Prentice Hall. Journal of Social Psychology. Media Psychology. Retrieved 26 September Campus-Wide Information Systems. Gender roles: A sociological perspective. Population and Development Review. The New York Times. The Globe and Mail. Striptease culture: Sex, media and the democratization of desire. London: Routledge, Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology. SAGE Publications. Gender in communication a critical introduction.
Los Angeles: Sage, Fred E. Nonverbal sex differences: Accuracy of communication and expressive style. Gender and emotion: Social psychological perspectives. Cengage Learning. A cultural approach to male-female miscommunication. Gumperz Ed. Communication and sexual desire. Guerrero Eds.
Handbook of communication and emotion. San Diego: Academic Press. Theoretical views, conceptual distinctions, and a review of relevant evidence". Personality and Social Psychology Review. Journal of Sex Research. The Journal of Sex Research. Developmental Psychology.
A room of one's own.
- Lesson Plans On China.
- Gender vs. Sex.
- Chapter 12. Gender, Sex, and Sexuality?
- FADE TO GRAY.
- Gender role?
New York: Hogarth Press. In a different voice. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Planned Parenthood Federation of America Inc. Child Development. May — June Scientific American. Bibcode : SciAm. May Journal of Educational Psychology. January Journal of Experimental Social Psychology. Review of General Psychology.
Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin. Campus Reform. Leadership Institute. Retrieved 11 June August American Sociological Review. Journal of Social Issues. Industrial and Organizational Psychology. Research in Organizational Behavior. Work-life practices and women in management". The Leadership Quarterly. American Psychologist. The Journal of Economic Perspectives.
The American Journal of Sociology. Annual Review of Sociology. Oxford University Press. Copenhagen Business School Press. The Yale Law Journal. American Bar Association Journal. Men and Women of the Corporation. New York: Basic Books Inc. Fall Communication Studies. Basic Books. Retrieved 22 October — via Google Books. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
Bibcode : PNAS.. Social Science Quarterly. Retrieved 10 December Center for American Women and Politics. This page contains current numbers of women officeholders serving in with links on the right to basic fact sheets for each level of office. American Journal of Political Science. Denver University Law Review. Political Research Quarterly. Beyond the Dichotomies of Domesticity". Current Anthology. Journal of Educational Sociology.
New York:W. Norton, The Journal of Psychology. Retrieved 23 October Center for American Progress. New York Times. Retrieved 30 November Urbana: University of Illinois Press. All these cases of perceived discrimination make up the men's rights view that men are considered, by government and society, to be more expendable than women. Merle; Muesse, Mark William, eds.
Redeeming men: religion and masculinities. Westminster John Knox Press. In contradistinction to pro-feminism, however, the men's rights perspective addresses specific legal and cultural factors that put men at a disadvantage. The movement is made up of a variety of formal and informal groups that differ in their approaches and issues; Men's rights advocates, for example, target sex-specific military conscription and judicial practices that discriminate against men in child custody cases.
Journal of Interdisciplinary Gender Studies. Archived from the original PDF on 20 October Doyle, Ciara In Herrman, Peter ed. New York: Nova Publishers. Flood, Michael In Kimmel, Michael S. Handbook of Studies on Men and Masculinities. Finocchiaro, Peter 29 March Retrieved 10 March Messner, Michael Politics of Masculinities: Men in Movements. Solinger, Rickie Oxford: Oxford University Press. Menzies, Robert In Boyd, Susan B ed. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press. Dunphy, Richard Sexual Politics: An Introduction.
Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. Mills, Martin International Journal of Inclusive Education. Contemporary perspectives on masculinity: Men, women, and politics in modern society Reissued 2nd. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press. Indeed the premise of all men's rights literature is that men are not privileged relative to women Having denied that men are privileged relative to women, this movement divides into those who believe that men and women are equally harmed by sexism and those who believe that society has become a bastion of female privilege and male degradation.
The Times of India. Retrieved 22 December Think again, say advocates". Washington Times. Times of India. The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 5 May Hansard, UK Parliament. Retrieved 24 November Cornell University Press. Cumberland House Publishing. Retrieved 24 February Oxford Dictionaries. Retrieved 18 June Retrieved 11 January Lesbian and Gay Youth: Care and Counseling. Columbia University Press. American Journal of Public Health. Journal of Homosexuality.
Teaching for Diversity and Social Justice. Retrieved 27 December Because transgender identity challenges a binary conception of sexuality and gender, educators must clarify their own understanding of these concepts. Facilitators must be able to help participants understand the connections among sexism, heterosexism, and transgender oppression and the ways in which gender roles are maintained, in part, through homophobia.
Renzetti, Jeffrey L. Edleson Encyclopedia of Interpersonal Violence. Retrieved 12 May Retrieved 15 October Homosexuality re-examined. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, Retrieved 20 November Interpersonal Relationships [e-book] 2nd ed. Public and Private Families, an introduction. McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Our Sexuality. Wadsworth Cengage Learning. The University of Chicago Press. Public and Private Families, an Introduction. Women, Murder and Justice. Hampshire: Palgrave.
Princeton: Princeton University Press. In Wight, S. London: Pandora. Journal of American Culture. American Society of Criminology. Retrieved 22 November The Social Dynamics of Family Violence. Westview Press. The norms defined by social custom, moral tradition, and scientific knowledge determine the degree of ease in which we can live within our own bodies and assume gender and sexual identities.
As we noted above, having a gender or sexual identity is only experienced as normal or natural to the degree that one fits within the dominant gender schema — the ideological framework that states that there are only two possible sexes, male and female, and two possible genders, masculine and feminine. The dominant gender schema therefore provides the basis for the ways inequalities in power and status are distributed according to the degree that individuals conform to its narrow categories.
Interactionists focus on the meanings associated with sexuality and with sexual orientation. Since femininity is devalued in North American society, those who adopt such traits are subject to ridicule; this is especially true for boys or men. Just as masculinity is the symbolic norm, so too has heterosexuality come to signify normalcy.
"Explanations" of Male Dominance
For the homosexual, these transitions are fraught with difficulty. To what degree does the same process apply to heterosexuals? Although the idea of coming out as a heterosexual, or as a masculine man or a feminine woman, might seem absurd, this absurdity is grounded in the norms of heteronormative society that are so deeply entrenched as to make them appear natural. Interactionists are also interested in how discussions of homosexuals often focus almost exclusively on the sex lives of gays and lesbians; homosexuals, especially men, may be assumed to be hypersexual and, in some cases, deviant.
Interactionism might also focus on the slurs used to describe homosexuals. This subsequently affects how homosexuals perceive themselves. Constant exposure to derogatory labels, jokes, and pervasive homophobia would lead to a negative self-image, or worse, self-hate. The CDC reports that homosexual youths who experience high levels of social rejection are six times more likely to have high levels of depression and eight times more likely to have attempted suicide CDC, Queer theory is a perspective that problematizes the manner in which we have been taught to think about sexual orientation.
Queer theorists reject the dominant gender schema and the dichotomization of sexual orientations into two mutually exclusive outcomes, homosexual or heterosexual. Rather, the perspective highlights the need for a more flexible and fluid conceptualization of sexuality — one that allows for change, negotiation, and freedom. This mirrors other oppressive schemas in our culture, especially those surrounding gender and race Black versus White, male versus female.
In the end, queer theory strives to question the ways society perceives and experiences sex, gender, and sexuality, opening the door to new scholarly understanding. Throughout this chapter, we have examined the complexities of gender, sex, and sexuality. Differentiating between sex, gender, and sexual orientation is an important first step to a deeper understanding and critical analysis of these issues. Understanding the sociology of sex, gender, and sexuality will help to build awareness of the inequalities experienced by subordinate groups such as women, homosexuals, and transgendered individuals.
Sex denotes biological characteristics differentiating males and females, while gender denotes social and cultural characteristics of masculine and feminine behaviour. Sex and gender are not always synchronous. Individuals who strongly identify with the opposing gender are considered transgendered.
Gender Children become aware of gender roles in their earliest years. They come to understand and perform these roles through socialization, which occurs through four major agents: family, education, peer groups, and mass media. Socialization into narrowly prescribed gender roles results in the stratification of males and females. Each sociological perspective offers a valuable view for understanding how and why gender inequality occurs in our society. Sex and Sexuality When studying sex and sexuality, sociologists focus their attention on sexual attitudes and practices, not on physiology or anatomy.
Norms regarding gender and sexuality vary across cultures. In general, Canada tends to be less conservative than the United States in its sexual attitudes. As a result, homosexuals still continue to face opposition and discrimination in most major social institutions, but discrimination based on sexual orientation is legally prohibited in the Canadian constitution. Gays and lesbians are able to get married in Canada, and school boards across the country have instituted anti-bullying policies to prevent the targeting of LGBT students.
The Difference between Sex, Gender, and Sexuality 1. Gender 6. Which of the following is the best example of a gender stereotype? Which of the following is the best example of the role peers play as an agent of socialization for school-aged children? Sex and Sexuality What Western country is thought to be the most liberal in its attitudes toward sex? Which theoretical perspective stresses the importance of regulating sexual behaviour to ensure marital cohesion and family stability?
The Difference between Sex, Gender, and Sexuality. Gender For more gender-related statistics, see the U. Transgender identities: Towards a sociological analysis of gender diversity. New York: Routledge. Ling, Lisa. Weiss, Debra C. ABA Journal , February 4. Answers to your questions: For a better understanding of sexual Orientation and Homosexuality.
Washington, DC. Bradley, S. Oliver, A. Chernick, and K. Experiment of nurture: ablatio penis at 2 months, sex reassignment at 7 months, and a psychosexual follow-up in young adulthood. Social interactions and play patterns of parents and toddlers with feminine, masculine, and neutral toys. Case, M. Disaggregating gender from sex and sexual orientation: The effeminate man in the law and feminist jurisprudence. Cowan, Sharon. Devor, A. How many sexes? How many genders? When two are not enough. Diamond, Milton.
Sex and gender are different: Sexual identity and gender identity are different. Fausto-Sterling, A. Sexing the body: Gender politics and the construction of sexuality. Two spirit people: Native American gender identity, sexuality, and spirituality. Kinsey, Alfred C. Sexual Behavior in the Human Male. National Coalition of Anti-Violence Programs. Hate violence against lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer and HIV-affected communities in the United States.
Poasa, Kris. Ryle, Robyn. Questioning gender: A sociological exploration. Sedgwick, Eve Kosofsky. Between men: English literature and male homosocial desire. New York: Columbia University Press. Statistics Canada. Gay pride…by the numbers. Media room: By the numbers. Taylor, Catherine and Tracey Peter. Every class in every school: The first national climate survey on homophobia, biphobia, and transphobia in Canadian schools. Final report. Retrieved February 13, www. Gender Coltrane, Scott and Michele Adams. Gender and families. Cooley, Charles Horton. Human nature and the social order.
Living and loving beyond the heteronorm
Davis, Donald M. TV is a blonde, blonde world. American demographics , Special Issue: Women change places, 15 5 — Etaugh, Clair and Judith Bridges. Farrington, K. Social Conflict Theories of the Family. Boss, W. Doherty, R. LaRossa, W. Schumm and S. Steinmetz Eds. New York: Plenum.
Hawke, Lucy A. Gender roles within American marriage: Are they really changing? ESSAI , 5 23 Hochschild, Arlie R. The second shift: Working parents and the revolution at home. New York: Viking. Kane, Eileen. Gender, culture, and learning. Kilbourne, Jean. New York: Touchstone Publishing. Lips, Hillary M. The gender gap in possible selves: Divergence of academic self-views among high school and university students. McInturff, Kate. Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives. Mead, George Herbert. Mind, self, and society: From the standpoint of a social behaviorist.
Murdock, George Peter and Douglas R. Standard cross-cultural sample. National Institute of Mental Health. Unpublished epidemiological catchment area analysis. Nellie McClung Foundation. The Nellie McClung foundation. Parsons, Talcott. The kinship system of the contemporary United States. NY: Free Press. Pincus, Fred. Discrimination comes in many forms: Individual, institutional, and structural. New York, NY: Routledge. Raffaelli, Marcela and Lenna L. Ready, Diane. Gender and Education, 13 2 Risman, Barbara and Danette Johnson-Sumerford.
Doing it fairly: A study of postgender marriages. Journal of Marriage and Family, 60 — Sadker, David and Myra Sadker. Failing at fairness: How our schools cheat girls. Sanday, Peggy Reeves. Women at the center: Life in a modern matriarchy. Seem, Susan Rachael and Diane M.
Chapter Gender, Sex, and Sexuality – Introduction to Sociology – 2nd Canadian Edition
Sex Roles, 55 : — Smith, Dorothy. The everyday world as problematic: A feminist sociology. Boston: Northeastern University Press. Smith, Stacy. Gender stereotypes: An analysis of popular films and TV. Staples, Robert and Leanor Boulin Johnson. Black Families at the Crossroads: Challenges and Prospects. Women in Canada: A gender based statistical report. Thorne, Barrie. Gender Play: Girls and Boys in Schoo l. Early Gender Socialization. August West, Candace and Don Zimmerman. Doing gender. Gender and Society, 1 2 — Answers to your questions: For a better understanding of sexual orientation and homosexuality.
Produced by the Office of Public and Member Communications]. Broude, Gwen J. Sexual attitudes and practices. New York, NY: Springer. Buss, David M. Sex differences in human mate preferences: Evolutionary hypothesis tested in 37 cultures. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 12 1 :1— Timeline: Same-sex rights in Canada. CBC News. January Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender health. Devor, Aaron. FTM: Female-to-male transsexuals in society. How much does gender explain in sexual attitudes and behaviors? A survey of Canadian adults. Fisher, T. Moore and M. Sex on the brain? The Journal of Sex Research, 49 1 — Foucault, Michel.
- Introduction: Gender and Politics: A Gendered World, a Gendered Discipline - Oxford Handbooks.
- A Man of Sorrows (Inspector Carlyle Book 6)?
- Los favores del mundo (Spanish Edition);
NY: Vintage Books. Grose, Thomas K. Straight facts about the birds and bees. Kinsman, Gary. Constructing gay men and lesbians as national security risks, In Gary Kinsman, Dieter K. Buse, and Mercedes Steedman Eds. Canadian State Surveillance and the Creation of Enemies pp. Toronto: Between the Lines Press. Milhausen, Robin and Edward Herold.
Does the sexuality double standard still exist? Perceptions of university women.
Journal of Sex Research, 36 4 — In Essays in Sociological Theory pp. Parsons, Talcott, Robert F. Family, socialization, and interaction process. New York: Free Press. Pew Research Center. The global divide on homosexuality: Greater acceptance in more secular and affluent countries. June 4. Potard, C. Courtois, and E.
The influence of peers on risky sexual behavior during adolescence. Epistemology of the closet. Widmer, Eric D. Attitudes toward nonmarital sex in 24 countries. Journal of Sex Research, 35 4