Post Mortems on Enemy Submarines

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U surrendered on 13 May at Loch Eriboll, Scotland. Photos taken during the boat's first war patrol and the KTB from the patrol. U sunk by aircraft in the Persian Gulf 16 October, U surrendered to British forces May 14, Photos from attacking aircraft, Photo of aircrews, Logbook of U which was nearby at the time of the attack. Action reports from the attacking ships, Photos taken at the scene of action. U sunk February 2, U sunk by a Sunderland of Squadron R.

July 13, U sunk by a Liberator of 86 Squadron R. April 6, U sunk by a Liberator of Squadron R. October 8, Reports and photos from attacking aircraft. R eport on the Interrogation of Survivors. U sunk by ships of Support Group 2, 8 March, U sunk by a Swordfish of H. U surrendered to U.

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Report of Commander Task Group ASW-6 report, Photos taken at the scene of action. Report of Task Group U surrendered to Canadian forces May 10, Naval messages from Canadian authorities concerning surrender, Naval message report of preliminary investigation, Canadian Interrogation Report, Photos of the boat's snorkel installation from Naval Technical Mission in Europe, Report Number U scuttled May 20, after damage from an aircraft attack. The fuel tanks are located behind the diesel engine room aft and in front of the gas turbine room mid-ship. Neither fuel tank exhibited signs of an explosion.

There was no outward bending of hull plating around the tanks, nor any damage on either the upper decks or the fuel tank bulkheads. There is also no evidence of fire or damage to the fuel pipe, and crew members did not report either a fire or a fire column. Finally, on the recovery of the Cheonan, neither aft nor mid-ship fuel tanks exhibited substantial damage.

Remaining fuel was recovered from both the tanks and the site and determined to be in relatively good condition. The gas turbine room, meanwhile, sustained significant damage, with a portion of it breaking away from the rest of the ship.

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The bulkheads surrounding the gas turbine room as well as the decks above were heavily damaged. The gas turbine room is located in the middle of the ship, along the break plane. However, other physical evidence, most importantly the inward bending of the hull and the lack of traces of fire or fragmentation damage, point away from a gas turbine explosion.

In particular, in an explosion, the turbine blades would fragment and damage nearby walls. No such damage was evident. Finally, at the time of the incident the Cheonan was operating at low speed 6. According to a final alternative theory, the Cheonan encountered an underwater mine. The official report does speculate that an underwater mine would carry a sufficient payload to cause the damage observed.

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But no fragments were found embedded in the hull or in the surrounding area. Furthermore, tidal currents would significantly affect the depth and position of moored mines, making them at best, an unreliable system. The report also cites a lack of evidence indicating a contact explosion, such as heat scoring, impact zone, or explosive fragments. Additionally, numerous fishing vessels traverse these waters and have never encountered mines.

Indeed, during its patrol, the Cheonan itself passed over the site 10 times without any prior incident. Finally, no vessels involved in rescue and recovery following the incident reported observing or coming into contact with any underwater mines. However, the official report is by no means exhaustive in countering all alternative claims and answering all questions. Indeed, there are several inconsistencies and omissions that cast doubt on the veracity of the report and on the conclusion it advances.

Many have pointed out that a torpedo would not produce such an effect. The report concludes that this was a water plume but does not elaborate further, and this assertion is not corroborated by the testimony of the survivors.

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Indeed, the Lee government has generally restricted access to the surviving sailors. Also conspicuously absent from the report is any explanation as to why no other fragments of the torpedo were found. Evidence typically associated with a torpedo attack includes fragments of the torpedo embedded in the hull of the ship. However, no such fragments were observed or collected either from the ship or the surrounding area.

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Only the telltale drive shaft and motor of the torpedo were found. It remains possible that the strong currents in the area carried other fragments away or sufficiently hid them, but no such explanation as to their absence is offered.

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Questions have also been raised over discrepancies regarding the time the incident occurred. The initial time of the incident was announced as occurring at This was subsequently revised to between and , before fixed at These discrepancies are not mentioned in the report but have been a source of public skepticism.

Finally, any discussion regarding the failure to detect the enemy submarine or the torpedo is absent from the final report. A possible explanation might be that sonar equipment is much less reliable in shallow, choppy water or near underwater rock formations, such as the area in which the incident took place. In such conditions, sonar capabilities can be reduced by as much as 60 percent, greatly decreasing its chances of detecting enemy action. There are also several inconsistencies within the report itself that are not addressed. Chief among them is the difference in the conclusion that the torpedo carried an explosive charge between kilograms depending on depth , later averaged to kilos, and the simulations used to model the incident that used a range of charges from to to kilos of TNT at depths of six, seven, and seven to nine meters respectively , with each producing similar results.

The simulation suggests that an underwater explosion similar to the one modeled sank the Cheonan.

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However, almost all of the simulations pictured in the report model a kilo explosion at a depth of seven meters, and it is not clear that the simulated damage is as great as actually occurred. This is particularly troublesome given the discrepancy between the charge size in the conclusion kilos and the charge size in the simulation kilos.

Likewise, many species of termites , such as Globitermes sulphureus , have members, deemed the soldier class, who can split their bodies open emitting a noxious and sticky chemical for the same reason. In January , the Townsville Daily Bulletin , an Australian newspaper, reported an incident where a dairy cow was partially blown up and killed on a farm at Kennedy Creek near Cardwell , North Queensland. The cow had reputedly picked up a detonator in her mouth while grazing in a paddock.

This was only triggered later, when the cow began to chew her cud , at a time when she was in the process of being milked. The cow had its head blown off by the resulting explosion, and the farmer milking the cow was knocked unconscious. Rat carcasses were filled with plastic explosives, and were to be distributed near German boiler rooms, where it was expected they would be disposed of by burning, with the subsequent explosion having a chance of causing a boiler explosion. The explosive rats never saw use, as the first shipment was intercepted by the Germans; however, the resulting search for more booby trapped rats consumed enough German resources for the SOE to conclude that the operation was a success.

According to worldwide media reports in April , toads in the Altona district of Hamburg were observed by nature protection officials to swell up with gases and explode, propelling their innards for distances of up to one meter. The incidents were reported as occurring with greatest frequency between 2 and 3 a. Werner Smolnik, environmental movement worker, stated on April 26, , at least 1, toads had died in this manner over a series of a few days.

Berlin veterinarian Franz Mutschmann collected toad corpses and performed necropsies. He theorised that the phenomenon was linked to a recent influx of predatory crows to the area. He stated that the cause was a mixture of crow attacks and the natural puff up defense of the toads. Crows attacked the toads to pick through the skin between the amphibian's chest and abdominal cavity, picking out the liver, which appears to be a delicacy for crows in the area. In a defensive move, the toads begin to blow themselves up, which in turn, due to the hole in the toad's body and the missing liver, led to a rupture of blood vessels and lungs, and to the spreading of intestines.