City out of Chaos: Urban Self Organization and Sustainability (The Sustainable World Book 19)
To strengthen local research capacity and generate information on UA at the household and community level so that cities can formulate and implement policy and technology options, primarily for the benefit of the urban poor;. To mobilize and enhance regional capacities to share experiences in UA , identify common policy and technology obstacles, and share and adapt solutions through training and networking; and. To influence governments, policymakers, and international agencies to effectively incorporate UA into their development programs.
However, to take full advantage of the economic and environmental benefits that properly managed UA offers, many questions still need to be answered. What policies and technologies offer the best tools to improve the food security of the poorest city dwellers? What mix of crop and livestock choice and growing practices offers the best balance of nutritional value, safety, and work effort? How much does gender influence the urban farmer's ability to succeed in improving the family's nutrition? What tenure arrangements can be offered that will allow organized groups, particularly women and the very poor, to have equitable access to urban spaces for agriculture?
What role does agricultural biodiversity play in urban farming, and is there a role for genetically modified organisms GMO s? What innovative forms of credit can be made available to assist urban producers and small-scale processing operations? In attempting to find answers to these and other questions, IDRC works closely with three crucial groups of urban actors — research institutions, public agencies, and urban producers' organizations — and focuses on policies, practices, and technologies.
In the process, it has helped to bring UA research into the mainstream by working closely with international development organizations, UN agencies, local government agencies, and NGO s. Perhaps most important, many projects have helped to build bridges — enabling urban farmers to be heard in official policy circles and to gain better access to public resources and services. It was recognized, however, that some level of government involvement was essential for research to succeed in bringing about changes in official attitudes and policies.
Thus, in Latin America and Africa, government and nongovernment researchers have collaborated to varying degrees on a wide range of projects, some led by NGO s, others by government agencies. For example, in Harare, Zimbabwe, a survey of urban food producers conducted by an NGO led to a forum for policymakers and eventually resulted in local policy initiatives to better manage UA.
In Kampala, Uganda, findings from a research institute survey were used to argue for the integration of UA in the city's urban development plan, leading to new zoning provisions and the adoption of new city by-laws. And in Dakar, Senegal, it was an NGO study of wastewater management that led to a ministers' conference on UA and subsequently to legislative proposals in the national parliament.
In each of these examples events did not move quickly — taking a decade or more to reach the goal of improving policies for UA. The creation of regional networks that bring together representatives of cities as well as local and national governments, as in the Quito example, maximized the impact of the research results.
At the end of the conference, all the participating nations signed the Harare Declaration strongly supporting the promotion of UPA. Subsequent events in Zimbabwe have shown that support for the Declaration has gone beyond mere words. After some discussion with authorities, urban farmers were spared the evictions that otherwise forced many informal traders and families living in irregular settlements to leave the city of Harare.
Over a period of 20 years, and particularly over the last decade, IDRC 's approach to UA matured into a well-orchestrated strategy. This used human expertise, financial resources, and institutional networks to tackle gaps in knowledge or capacity that stand in the way of urban agriculture's contribution to healthier, more prosperous, equitable, and sustainable cities. It takes an integrated approach to environmental and natural resources issues in cities, with particular emphasis on UA , water, and sanitation.
It will also support research on waste management and vulnerabilities to natural disasters, with land tenure as a cross-cutting issue. We will also meet some of the people who are on the front line to ensure that UA is integrated into the fabric of city life in a manner that is both sustainable and effective in improving the lives of city dwellers. UA has several advantages in Kampala. It increases urban food security, produce from rural areas is expensive and less fresh, and it creates sources of income.
UA also reduces open space maintenance costs to local government. When you first hear it, the term "urban agriculture" sounds like a contradiction. Most of us, particularly in the North, are conditioned to think of agriculture as an activity that happens in rural areas, not in towns and cities. As we saw in Part 1, however, there is in reality no tidy dividing line where agricultural activity ends — although some city planners might wish it were that way and might still perceive spaces of food production as nonurban, making them by implication "somebody else's problem.
However, because the issues are frequently interrelated, many of the projects supported by IDRC have multiple objectives, seeking solutions to a problem at both the technical and the policy level. The availability of land for urban agriculture — and access to it — are crucial issues in most cities of the developing world. Insecure land tenure can lead to conflicts, sometimes violent ones, and municipalities that recognize the potential benefits of UA wrestle with outdated regulations in an effort to bring some order to this growing urban enterprise.
Two streams of projects in sub-Saharan Africa illustrate the evolution of IDRC 's approach to policy research on UA in the s — but first a little background. Daniel Maxwell and Samuel Zziwa, the principal researchers on a project in Kampala, wrote that the s had witnessed the collapse of much of the formal, modern sector of Africa's economy, with plummeting standards of living for both urban and rural people.
Programs designed in the s and s to ground rural population in rural areas clearly were not successful, and structural adjustment in the late s forced the cancellation of many of these programs. Cities were burgeoning despite the lack of official attention to their problems, most of all unemployment. In Uganda, the Amin regime brought the collapse of much large-scale enterprise, to be replaced by an underground economy. In Tanzania, attempts at rural repatriation in the mids proved unenforceable and politically very unpopular. And Dar es Salaam, the largest city, kept growing amidst a deteriorating urban environment.
IDRC started supporting projects in both cities at a time when awareness was growing in some political sectors that UA had become an important component of the informal sector of these cities. The project was to lead to a new strategic urban development plan for the city, and policies for integrating UA into improved management of the city's environment. His topic was UA in Dar es Salaam, making him a natural choice to lead the project team of six Tanzanian researchers.
The team informed and advised several working groups on issues such as access to and use of urban land, food safety, and waste management. Based on a survey of nearly 2 urban producers, the researchers documented the main UA production systems, the areas used, the numbers of people involved, main crops and types of livestock, and operations of various sizes. They looked at trends over the previous 5 years, as well as related issues of transportation, irrigation, inputs, waste management, marketing, and related infrastructure, prices, and practices Kyessi The researchers scrutinized the interactions — both beneficial and detrimental — between UA and the urban environment as well as the role UA was already playing and might play in using the municipality's solid and liquid wastes.
It noted producers' use of agrochemicals and their recycling of agricultural wastes Kishimba Most importantly, the researchers studied city by-laws and other "instruments of intervention" that have some impact on UA. They gathered recommendations from the urban farmers themselves on which activities should be allowed or promoted, which should be prohibited or strictly regulated, and why. They critiqued the adequacy and enforceability of by-laws, and offered advice and assistance in revising them and writing new ones.
Thus the project gave a voice to urban producers, a group still notably ignored in most urban policy exercises worldwide Mwaiselage By the time SDP was completed in , nine other Tanzanian municipalities were preparing to replicate the process — a clear sign of the project's impact. The project team also created an information base to assist in the management of open spaces, recreational areas, and hazard-prone lands. The team's findings contributed to a successful proposal for the rehabilitation of urban garden centres.
Resolving conflicts over access to and use of urban land was one of the key management issues identified by SDP. This issue became the focus of a subsequent three-city project that included Kinondoni one of three municipalities that constitute the city of Dar es Salaam , Kampala, and Harare. The researchers highlighted both similarities and differences in the approach to UA in the three cities. Kampala, which a decade earlier had a relatively limited policy framework for UA , had progressed significantly. A participatory process for writing new by-laws was begun, and new regulations calling for occupancy licences and registration for urban producers were created to provide more secure tenure to a greater number of people than before Nuwagaba et al.
The situation was similar in Harare, which had a record of regulatory and planning steps providing for agricultural land use on private and public land, but had found itself ill-equipped to cope with the large-scale growth in recent decades. Unofficially, the large-scale practice of UA is now widely accepted, and the city council has begun to change its attitude, partly as a result of information provided by this and previous research projects.
The researchers found few citywide formal mechanisms for conflict resolution, but proposed Parliamentary legislation would explicitly empower local governments to regulate UA Mudimu et al. Only in Kinondoni was UA widely supported and practiced so that it has become accepted as a feature in the city. There were policies and regulations governing UA , and the municipality's Web site even contains information about different types of agriculture in and around the city, as well as photos of urban farmers at work. Of the three cities, Kinondoni had the more advanced legal and regulatory framework but, as in Harare, there was no participatory strategy for its revision or for compliance.
Village elders and village courts were the main local mechanism used for conflict resolution Mlozi et al. In his report on the project, Takawira Mubvami comments: "There is a need to identify institutional arrangements Renting is increasingly beyond the reach of poor families as speculation pushes up land values in the cities. In all three cities, researchers found that demand for land suitable for UA outstripped supply — yet aerial photography of districts close to the Dar es Salaam city centre showed plenty of suitable vacant land. In both Kampala and Harare research revealed that planning and land-use legislation fails to address the land tenure issue — planners simply did not recognize UA as a legal land use.
However, the researchers did find that both cities had started looking at issues of UA in a "positive manner. Complicating the issue was the fact that most of the urban farmers were simply not aware of legislation and policies governing UA. He adds that in all three cities regulations and laws have not been widely circulated and need to be simplified to ensure that the urban farmers can fully understand them. With some legal and policy framework in place in the three cities, Mubvami's report concludes that what is urgently needed is a clearer integration of UA into land-use planning procedures.
In the telling words of one former director of the Dar es Salaam Planning Department: "Urban planners have had no problem in setting aside land to bury the dead. Should not we, with more reason, set aside land which will actually enable people to feed themselves and stay alive. There are many signs of progress, however. At a Ministers' Conference on Urban and Peri-urban Agriculture UPA in East and Southern Africa, Crispen Maseva, the senior ecologist in Zimbabwe's Natural Resources Department, commented: "With the growing acknowledgement of the permanency of UPA , not necessarily in location-specific terms but rather as a feature of the urban socioeconomic fabric and landscape, official responses to and treatment of UPA have begun to noticeably shift" Mushamba et al.
As in Africa, globalization and market liberalization, often reinforced by structural adjustment or other national policies, directly affected livelihoods in the s and s. This has been further aggravated by unemployment and a decline in real wages. Little wonder, then, that many in the cities resort to informal activities to survive. Urban food production, processing, and marketing are among these strategies Cabannes and Mougeot As elsewhere, access to land and land tenure limit the effective development of UA.
Rapid population increase and land speculation are forcing the price of land and land rents well beyond the. Ten years ago, IDRC became the first international agency to launch a fullscale program dedicated to research on urban agriculture. Today, it is no longer alone. There is now a veritable alphabet of regional and global organizations with similar objectives, many of which are partners with IDRC in a range of projects.
Founded in at a meeting hosted by IDRC, SGUA is a global initiative with 43 members that focuses on research training, policy, technical assistance, credit, and investment. It also publishes the Urban Agriculture Magazine three times a year. At the end of this phase. However, IDRC projects found that land availability was less of an issue than access to suitable land , and until recently UA was still largely ignored in municipal land-use planning in most cities of the region. Even highly urbanized municipalities have extensive undeveloped or partially built-up land and water areas that could be used for agriculture Table 1.
The project studied how UA policy was being developed locally, who the urban farmers were, and what barriers they faced in growing food and raising livestock. Researchers documented innovative local approaches, ranging from cultural preservation and control of urban sprawl, to fiscal incentives aimed at revitalizing the local economy, to small-scale agroindustries and creation of national UA programs UMP-LAC The project also encouraged formal and informal interaction among local authorities.
One unexpected but much welcomed outcome of this interaction was the Quito Declaration, a powerful statement in support of UA signed by the mayors of over. Table 1. Open-space area within city limits in four cities of Latin America. The combined experiences of the 10 cities provided many of the elements for a new policy framework. The objective was to design and test planning tools and methods that cities in the region would need to apply the action plan produced by the city project. The cities, differing in size and circumstances, but all with some level of official recognition of UA , were Rosario, Argentina, Cienfuegos, Cuba, and Governador Valadares, Brazil.
The three cities formed multidisciplinary teams that included local government officials, universities, researchers, community members, farmers, and local NGO s. The teams developed a land-use mapping system, as well as practical tools, policies, and strategies for integrating UA into land-use planning. In addition to making recommendations on the need for a legal framework governing UA and the integration of agriculture into urban land-use planning, they tackled issues such as the need for alternative credit systems to assist urban farmers and the impact of UA on the city environment UMP-LAC The resulting case studies helped draft or improve local policies for UA and the sustainable management of cities.
Finally, analysis of the city project led to the development of a regional plan for UA , and Quito was chosen as the site for implementing the plan, making it a sort of UA regional laboratory. The program has brought community members together with municipal representatives and NGO s, resulting in official recognition of UA and its inclusion in the city's Strategic Land Use Plan. As well, there are municipal laws regulating access to land and provision in the municipal budget for financial support of a UA program.
Farming on contaminated soil, irrigating with untreated wastewater, and use of chemicals are just some of the environmental and health issues that must be carefully considered in any program to promote food production in urban areas. But on the positive side of the ledger, UA has the potential to contribute to a healthier environment by recycling and reusing some of the city's organic wastes, discouraging practices such as unregulated dumping of garbage, and building on unsuitable land.
A city is a huge nutrient sink, continually absorbing food to feed the ever-growing urban population. Most of the inflow comes from distant locations, and some of it is wasted or deteriorates during transportation or storage. The sink could be made more effective if it recycled more of what it discharges. This might even reduce the need for imports. The sink would be a better place to live — with less air, water, and soil-borne pollution — if it reused some of its wastes.
Yet, the lack of effective waste disposal in most cities in the developing world results in huge accumulations of nutrient-rich garbage that threatens the environment and people's health. Finding a safe and economical way to recycle some or all of the municipal and agroindustrial waste holds the promise of a "triple win": clean up the urban environment, reduce the threat to health, and increase agriculture production by replacing soil nutrients. The research team, including staff and students from several Ghanaian universities, studied three cities in Ghana: Accra, Kumasi, and Tamale.
The team looked at the supply side of organic waste, the demand for compost, processing options, the economics of composting and alternatives, as well as the institutional and legal aspects. A similar finding was reached a few years earlier by researchers in the city of Santiago de los Caballeros in the Dominican Republic, which has since launched a community composting program.
Subsidies would be needed for waste management and composting, but the costs could be offset somewhat by sales of compost and the reduction in the amount of waste. The researchers envisioned a citywide system for recycling as much of the solid organic waste as possible, producing several types of compost to cater to a mixed clientele. This would range from numerous small community-based units supplying nearby farming households with high-quality compost for food production, to large processing plants producing truckloads for enterprises requiring large volumes of lesser quality products for purposes such as woodlot amendment, landfilling, and landscaping Dreschel et al.
The highly intensive nature of most UA and the limited land base on which it is practiced results in rapid loss of soil fertility. But many urban farmers also keep livestock, particularly in peri-urban areas, sometimes for the main purpose of fertilizing their crop fields. The project also evaluated the effectiveness of incorporating some agricultural by-products into livestock feeding systems. The result was to add value to waste products and improve long-term productivity on relatively small areas of agricultural land in urban and peri-urban areas.
Livestock farming in the six cities studied also raises particularly tricky issues for urban planners — cattle and traffic do not mix well — and the research emphasized the need for the planners to work with the producers to better integrate livestock into the urban mix Akinbamijo and Fall This project in the Gambia and Senegal not only increased incomes and improved land use, it also had major impacts on the city environment.
As part of the project, the use of chemicals and pesticides was closely monitored, and farmers were encouraged to make full use of waste products from both horticulture and live-stock production as alternatives to chemical fertilizers. Both the public and the authorities were made aware of the health dangers associated with careless use of toxic chemicals. It was also the first IDRC -supported project to generate a geographic information system GIS map of the distribution of UA cultivation at the city block level over an entire city del Rosario et al. With a rapidly growing population of more than , the city was facing a deteriorating physical environment as a result of inadequate waste management.
Building on this institutional set-up IDRC supported a project to explore ways in which UA could assist the city to make better use of local resources to improve the living environment as well as to provide inexpensive food for the urban poor. At the outset, the city was able to handle only about one-third of the waste it produced. There were many neighbourhoods with no connection to the sewer system, and local industries were discharging toxic waste into the Yaque River, the main water source for the city and for crop irrigation.
Maps produced by the project team showed the location of unauthorized garbage dumps and areas of off-plot cultivation vacant land that is not designated for agricultural or horticultural use combined in Figure 2. Figure 2. Waste dumps and off-plot cultivation shaded areas in Santiago de los Caballeros. The project team used the results of their research to assist in producing an official plan for the integrated management of solid wastes, the creation of a commission, and the implementation of a pilot project on community-based waste management PUCMM This pilot project not only reduced the amount of solid waste to be disposed of, it also supplied fresh, affordable food to the urban poor and provided some additional income.
After the project was completed, the city created a Municipal Program on Urban Agriculture to support organic waste recycling and poverty alleviation. The country's highly centralized governmental structure was in crisis at the time of the project in the late s.
Sustainable urban systems: Co-design and framing for transformation
Many major donors had suspended their aid, except for a few humanitarian organizations such as CARE -Haiti, which is involved in numerous small-scale agricultural and health projects in the country. The city government of the capital, Port-au-Prince, was functioning very precariously and government involvement in the project had to be sought at the ward level, with city councillors approving and promoting fieldwork in their own constituencies.
Although in this way the project could expect to generate little impact on public policy, it could do much through working with local community organizations and NGO s. Three-quarters of the 1. Regular employment is scarce: fewer than one person in five of working age earns a salary. Not surprisingly, many households have a difficult time meeting their basic food requirements. Malnutrition and anemia are common among children and lactating mothers. If food is a "basic luxury" anywhere, it is here!
In most areas, household waste simply piles up around the houses, in ravines, and in other open spaces creating a health hazard. The project aimed to find ways of composting some of the waste — particularly kitchen waste and other organic material — for use in intensive gardens. Intensive because housing density leaves little open space. Working closely with a national NGO , Gardens of Haiti, community-based organizations, and the ward councillors, as well as the Ministries of the Environment and Agriculture, the researchers at CARE -Haiti developed simple technologies and container growing techniques that began to show results in a matter of months.
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People quickly adapted the techniques, improvising many different kinds of containers, including old kitchen pots, baskets, used tires, even old television and radio frames — demonstrating that even nonorganic waste can have its uses in UA. In addition to composted organic waste, some cattle and horse manure was used. Some participants simply lined containers with household waste rather than composting it. Midway through the project, gardens also began to appear on buildings with solid rooftops, a largely unused space until then.
Many owners shared their roofs with neighbours, thus creating "neighbourhood rooftop gardens. The project rapidly grew well beyond its original scale. Fourteen demonstration gardens were set up initially, and some people more than half of them women in 68 groups were trained to set up and operate gardens. Local organizations were trained in the creation of small businesses.
The approach not only improved families' diet and health, it also created social bonds in communities, strengthened women's roles, reduced expenditures, and caused a change of attitude toward waste management. Now, instead of being able to afford vegetables from the markets only once or twice a week, fresh, tasty produce was available daily. Many participants attributed the improved health of their children — evidenced by fewer medical visits and better performance at school — to their daily consumption of fresh vegetables.
In , the World Bank estimated that in the LAC region alone half-a-million hectares of agricultural crops were being irrigated with urban wastewater, most of which was untreated. A much larger area was being irrigated with surface water that was contaminated with untreated wastewater. The first studied the treatment efficiency of an experimental multiple-lagoon system in the municipality of San Juan, in Lima, Peru. The researchers documented the system's high efficiency in removing parasites, viruses, and pathogenic bacteria.
A model used to estimate the water retention time required in the lagoons for removal of these elements proved to be a very useful tool to design and operate similar systems elsewhere. The second project enabled CEPIS to define a reliable methodology to assess the sanitary quality of agricultural products irrigated with wastewater, and the results were key components of a regional training strategy.
Since then, cities in Argentina, Chile, Mexico, and Peru have adopted these methods. But after more than a decade of replicating the system, CEPIS noted problems with several of the plants and approached IDRC for help in improving existing systems and the design of new ones. Between and , the project identified, documented, and analyzed different types of existing domestic wastewater management systems in 13 countries of the region. It found that although wastewater is widely used for irrigation, reuse is the aspect that receives the least attention. The researchers assessed 20 different management systems — with and without treatment, with and without reuse.
The project's technical committee then developed a more comprehensive sequence of steps, which are presented in the Guidelines for the Formulation of Projects , probably the single most important output of this project. In these guidelines, CEPIS recast its own approach in a new light, tapping into the insights gained from the case studies. The guidelines provide much needed advice on critical issues of wastewater management, for which legislation in the region is either inadequate or nonexistent CEPIS West Africa is also urbanizing rapidly; here too fresh water is an increasingly precious commodity in cities.
A series of projects is developing locally appropriate systems for the integrated management, treatment, and agricultural reuse of domestic wastewater. Urban and peri-urban vegetable farming contributes most of the fresh produce consumed by the city, and the concern was that most of these crops were irrigated with untreated, nutrient-loaded wastewater. This produced higher yields, but raised questions about health issues. By then, Dakar had already suffered cholera epidemics attributed to the consumption of vegetables irrigated with inadequate wastewater.
In almost all water-treatment processes tested, pollution loads were reduced, but none reduced bacteria enough to meet norms for unrestricted agriculture or pisciculture. The project recommended a combination of different processes to reach such norms and much of the researchers' subsequent work was devoted to testing such a system Niang In mid, the lead researcher, Seydou Niang, suggested to a national governmental commission on the environment, that future treatment plants should not be copies of imported models but rather take into account the country's own socioeconomic peculiarities.
He was subsequently asked by the Ministry of Science and Technology to prepare a report on the state of the art of wastewater-treatment technologies in the country. The ENDA system was cost-effective, with a high rate of investment recovery and ENDA was lobbying public utilities to take up more appropriate waste-management strategies. By the policy environment, both at the state and municipal levels, was evolving positively.
A pilot project would test two aquatic treatment systems, one using water lettuce in Castor and the other using bulrushes along with tilapia fish in Diokoul. The project, also funded by CIDA , showed that natural treatment plants are clearly more robust than mechanical systems Niang and Gaye A new project will focus on bringing the existing systems in line with WHO guidelines Faruqui et al. In Jordan, one of the most water-scarce countries in the world, the shortage of water creates a double threat for the poor: food and water insecurity.
Almost three-quarters of Jordan's population lives in cities and towns, and in these urban centres there is barely enough water to drink, let alone enough for agriculture. It is estimated that the amount of water available to each individual is less than cubic metres per year. Below 1 cubic metres, water scarcity can impede economic development and harm human health.
Greywater is water that has been used for domestic purposes such as bathing or laundry. The project took a new approach to food insecurity and water scarcity in the region, exploring water management techniques, simple technological innovations, and creative agricultural practices. Most of these gardens were irrigated with fresh water from the public distribution system. At the same time, nearly one-third of all households suffered from water scarcity, and many complained of the high price of water.
Some households, however, were already using water-saving practices such as collecting rainwater and applying greywater directly to their gardens Shakhatreh and Raddad He adds that reusing water for irrigation is a new area of research for UA that has substantially reduced the demand for freshwater. He believes that the techniques for wastewater reuse developed in this project can help produce more food for the poor.
But he warns that it is essential to ensure that reusing wastewater is both safe and socially acceptable. The researchers met these requirements in tests in a small town south of Amman. They developed a wastewater-recycling system that allows water from household uses to be reused in home gardens.
Involving some minor modifications to household plumbing, the system diverts water from kitchen and bathroom sinks through a filter instead of allowing it to go down the drain. The project has exceeded expectations. As a bonus, the new technology has created a thriving local business enterprise involving engineers, plumbers, and contractors.
Food security has been defined by the World Bank as "access by all people at all times to enough food for an active healthy life. As witnessed in the bidonvilles of Haiti, when that budget no longer stretches to provide enough food, coping strategies are few. In some cases, desperate people resort to scavenging garbage dumps for leftover food and rotting fruits and vegetables to feed their families. Seen in this light, UA is a welcome and perhaps even an inevitable alternative. Haiti may be the poorest nation in the Western hemisphere, but it is by no means the only country where poverty threatens people's food security.
It was in this environment that CFP undertook two projects. The first was a study of past and current efforts to promote UA , including a cooperative program funded by the state government and the European Union EU to promote backyard and community gardening, small animal husbandry, and fruit-tree planting for economic, health, and microclimatic benefits. Based on the lessons and recommendations from the first EU project, CFP supported a second, more ambitious program that included a series of pilot projects.
These projects were located in peri-urban regions and included aquaculture in cages, vegetables, fruit trees, medicinal gardens, and production of herbal remedies Albuquerque a,b,c. Working closely with NGO s and community organizations, the project team conducted numerous workshops with the local people. They developed training programs through courses and seminars and organized exchanges with technicians and students from other institutions, both local and from other countries.
The project team also produced books, videos, and other training materials Albuquerque All results of the pilot projects were submitted to the state government to be made available for other researchers in the field of UA Cabannes Both the fish farming and the fruit, vegetable, and herb gardening involved many young people.
Training included production techniques, composting, planting and care of fruit trees, soil improvement, irrigation, and fertilization. A community medicine garden was established by women in the project. They received training in plant production, drying, home processing, and handling. A pharmacist was employed to explain the production of medicinal plants providing alternative medicines for common illnesses such as colds and flu, bronchitis, asthma, diarrhea, mycosis, and some intestinal parasites Collombon et al.
The end result was great demand in the communities for more such projects. One group managed to raise enough money to start their own laboratory for medicinal plants, as well as a therapeutic massage centre. Others used the knowledge gained during the project to develop more aquaculture sites, and even children were being trained to build fish cages. In Part 4 we will examine the lessons offered by the experience in these and scores of other projects supported by IDRC, CFP , and our partners, and how these lessons can be applied.
Urban agriculture is a means of securing incomes, and therefore has an important role in urban planning. Urban agriculture also converts idle laying land into green space, and green zones and greenbelts are important for the city authorities. The previous chapter provides a cross-section of some of the UA projects supported by IDRC over more than two decades. This chapter draws some lessons from that unique volume of practical experience, particularly as it pertains to the interaction between development research and policy interventions, whether through site-specific projects or broader institutional programs.
A great deal has been learned over the past two decades through support for close to projects in 40 countries. There is no question that what was once seen as a novel area for research has now become mainstream. The continuing growth of cities, particularly in developing countries, is nothing short of phenomenal and is likely to continue for the foreseeable future. The issues that are raised by this avalanche of urbanization can no longer be ignored. The situation demands innovative approaches and new ways of thinking — the city planners of past generations simply did not conceive of cities on the scale that now exists.
The old paradigms of city and country, urban and rural, city folk and farmers, no longer apply. Cities can never become completely self-sustaining but, as we have seen, they can become greener, cleaner, healthier, and more sustainable. And they must — the alternative is unimaginable chaos and unthinkable squalor.
Urban agriculture is not the total solution to the issues facing the future of cities in developing countries, but it is an essential part of any program to make those cities more livable, and to improve the lives of the city dwellers. And research is key to realizing the full potential of UA.
The next few pages offer some practical lessons for city planners, politicians, policymakers, and urban farmers based on what has been learned through pioneering IDRC -supported research in the field. Land — who owns it, who can use it, how safe is it, how secure? These are key questions both for the practitioners of UA and for the policymakers and planners.
But there is another key question that cities need to be able to answer if they are to take full advantage of the benefits offered by UA: How much land is there really, and where is it? Analysis of open space areas within cities in Africa and Latin America clearly shows that in most cities there is far more land available than is generally recognized by city managers and elected officials. There are vacant lots, public lands around buildings such as schools and hospitals, undeveloped or abandoned sites, and so on. Perhaps the first lesson, then, is the importance of taking stock — creating an inventory of all the land in the city that could be used for some form of production, whether permanently or temporarily, as was done in Dar es Salaam and Kampala, Governador Valadares and Santiago de los Caballeros.
Areas close to industrial districts shrank, while others expanded: next to high-density, low-income residential districts, along roadways and waterways, in the central business district, and in parkland and upscale neighbourhoods. But these maps only show part of the picture. Much of the cultivated open space extending beyond the official city boundary was not recorded.
Neither were open fields left in fallow nor cropping and livestock on residential and other lots, built or not. The lesson: you need to know what you are looking for when designing a UA survey. Establishing what lands are available for UA is an important first step. However, not all vacant land is suitable for food production.
Studies in Latin American cities have shown that suitability depends on your "toolkit" of systems technologies, how diverse it is, and the options you have on hand. Ingenuity can find ways to effectively "recycle" derelict industrial sites. For example, in Cuba and in Argentina, producers were faced with the challenge of contaminated soil in some areas. They overcame the problem by building raised beds filled with soil and compost that was trucked in. Another option demonstrated successfully in several cities in both Africa and Latin America has been to use "unsuitable" sites to cultivate flowers instead of food — floriculture instead of horticulture.
Sale of the flowers, often for export, provides the income families need to purchase food. Establishing how land is available and determining the suitability of that land for various types of production are essential first. Figure 3. Open space in cultivation within the city limits of Harare, and However, the research also points clearly to the fact that, for many would-be city farmers, access to land is more of a constraint than is its availability.
This is particularly true for the poor, and especially for women. Ensuring access to that land on a fair and equitable basis can be difficult, and one of the keys to ensuring fairness is to encourage the producer to form organizations. Clear and well-publicized regulations for the use of land have also been shown to make life more predictable for city farmers.
Predictability is important. People are unlikely to invest time and scarce resources into UA if they are afraid that they will be evicted from the land before their crop is ready for harvest or that the crop will be destroyed by over-zealous officials. Which points to another lesson, a corollary to the previous one: security of tenure is more important than ownership. In fact, it is clear that insisting on ownership as a prerequisite for UA artificially creates a scarcity of land.
Research has demonstrated that there are many ways to provide security of tenure. For example, NGO s or church groups can help by negotiating leases with city officials. Such agreements should be made in writing because this increases the producers' perception of security. Where the producers are organized, it is far easier to reach leasing agreements. There is also a need to be flexible, to allow production systems to evolve over time, to use space when it is available, and to eventually relocate to other sites in the city when it is appropriate. An example would be to allow the use of a vacant building site until construction is scheduled, under the mutual and formal agreement that the producers are committed to move to another undeveloped site, ideally with some assistance, when the need to evacuate arises.
Although we are considering here issues that relate to land, we should also consider the lesson that in the city, space may be more critical than land itself. Certainly land is important, but a great deal of production can and does take place in many cities where no additional land is needed. Space, after all, is three-dimensional and space embraces the built-up area as much as the unbuilt area. Space in this context encompasses rooftops, walls, fences, sheds, shelves, basements, ponds, and even window boxes. There are production systems designed for all environments — indoor and outdoor.
In Haiti, for example, concrete rooftops become fertile "ground" to produce fresh vegetables grown in a wide variety of containers. Built-up areas in general tend to be less exploited, but there is great potential even in the most densely developed areas of the city. People are often seen to grow crops or keep livestock within the walls of their unfinished, still roofless house.
Mushrooms can be grown in trays indoors. Various species of fish can be raised in tanks or artificial ponds. Small livestock such as guinea pigs in cages require little space and water, and are inexpensive to feed. They are a significant source of meat in some central Andean cities. Silkworms can be a valuable source of income. Medicinal herbs can be cultivated in containers and processed in the home. The list goes on. There is such a variety of scale and types of productions systems that the opportunity of fitting UA with particular urban uses and at particular moments in time seems unlimited.
However, many of these practices contravene various regulations for the use of urban dwellings, and this has implications for the revision of building codes and regulations to remove restrictions that may be more apparent than real. If city planners and administrators learn to "think outside of the box," then the range of options really opens up Premat It is not only the city planners, however, who need to discover new ways of thinking about agriculture in the cities.
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Consider that extension workers are invariably trained in rural areas, not in the cities, and thus naturally tend to follow norms and standards that are intended for the rural agriculture and may have little relevance in the urban environment. To assess the agricultural potential of a site, you need to have a multidisciplinary approach — providing an all-encompassing view that involves architects and planners as well as agronomists and the producers themselves.
Some major challenges for research on land-related issues remain. These include the need to adapt some of the more profitable UA systems so that they can be used by people who currently lack the money, resources, or the know-how to take advantage of opportunities to increase family incomes. Equally important is the need to help poor urban farmers get organized so that they can better negotiate with wealthy landowners and municipal governments. Civil society groups and NGO s have demonstrated their effectiveness in helping with this aspect of the issue. Cities everywhere produce a lot of waste, and the waste load of most cities in developing countries is largely organic.
Agriculture, particularly urban agriculture, represents a principal market for the productive use of much of this organic material , if only because the cities don't have many other options. There are very few other industries that can make use of large amounts of organic waste — biogas production being one possibility that is still largely in the experimental stage. Urban farmers however are ideal reusers of waste close to the source points.
That being said, it is true that UA cannot make use of all of the waste that a large city produces. But, to maximize productive use of organic, composted waste, it is important that waste-treatment centres be close to the areas where UA is going on, as the projects in Ghana and Brazil demonstrate. The proximity of a waste-treatment centre makes it more attractive for producers to use the material by reducing transportation costs. Recycling organic waste products is particularly important for cities in arid environments, such as much of sub-Saharan Africa.
The valuable lesson here is that organic waste management should include various systems of collection and treatment. The integrated approach to solid waste management should include a variety of products for a variety of users. For example, there might be compost bins at the city block level, larger-scale treatment centres at the district level, and so on.
Several different kinds of compost and mulches may be produced to meet different needs. High-grade compost, which sells at a relatively high price, may be economically moved and sold within a wide territory. Transportation costs dictate that lower grade and lower priced products be sold close to home. This emphasizes yet again the value of producers forming organized groups that can share the costs of bulk transportation. On the other hand, lowquality, less expensive products, such as coarse mulch used for landscaping and similar projects, could be sold by the truckload to contractors.
Public education is an important component for the successful introduction of recycling programs. Incentives are needed to encourage people to recycle. This applies to both the producers and the consumers of organic waste. Such public education should include the importance of separating different kinds of waste materials and for the producers the use of safe water and the minimum use of pesticides.
It can be difficult to persuade producers to "go organic" because the intensive systems of agriculture that are common in UA demand the use of chemical fertilizers. One solution to this issue is to demonstrate the law of diminishing returns — where you have to use more and more inputs, both fertilizers and pesticides, to produce the same amount of product. So far we have been discussing solid wastes. What about waste-water? This is a resource that is virtually ignored by all except for the urban farmers. UA will continue to use whatever water is available regardless of the source, so it is very important to do something about this.
Not doing anything about the use of wastewater will only increase the vulnerability to epidemics of disease. By the same token, not paying attention to the issue is not going to solve your problem, whether you are a public health official, a water resource manager, or a politician. As with solid wastes, different qualities of wastewater can be used safely for the production of different agricultural goods.
Similarly, separation at source and utilization close to source are keys to optimal use, with minimal treatment and distribution costs. Technologies do exist to treat different types of wastewater at different scales and to produce end products of different qualities. For example, the greywater project in Jordan reused household wastewater at the site; in Fortaleza, wastewater was piped to a common plot of land where it was used to irrigate an orchard. The CEPIS project also safely uses water from the final stage of cleaning for aquaculture production. And on the outskirts of Dakar, Senegal, two community-scale wastewater schemes demonstrated water-treatment systems that are both effective and affordable.
Such systems are more effective in developing countries than the large-scale, centralized, capital-intensive systems that were developed for the industrialized North and simply don't work in many developing contexts. These and other IDRC -supported research projects have shown that the health risks currently caused by the use of wastewater that is untreated or insufficiently treated in urban or peri-urban agriculture can be overcome by simple measures.
These measures include modifying irrigation practices — for example, irrigating the base of the plant instead of watering the leaves or using underground watering systems — and matching the choice of crops or products to the quality of the water used — for example, using poor quality water on flowers or foods that must be cooked before eating. Equally important are the post-harvest handling of products and the working conditions of people in contact with wastewater in the fields.
The key lesson here is that because the use of untreated waste-water is growing so fast, more has to be done to protect both producers and consumers. Public education on the risks of working with untreated wastewater is important, as are agriculture extension and financial assistance. Market incentives for the producers to use safer wastewater for irrigation have also been shown to be effective. And, once again, the advantage of producers working together in groups is demonstrated, enabling them to gain access to technologies that they would otherwise be unable to afford.
Once again too, there are implications at the building code level. Because cities rely on specialization and an economic system based on wage labour , their inhabitants must have the ability to regularly travel between home, work, commerce, and entertainment. Cities also rely on long-distance transportation truck, rail , and airplane for economic connections with other cities and rural areas.
Historically, city streets were the domain of horses and their riders and pedestrians , who only sometimes had sidewalks and special walking areas reserved for them. Since the mid-twentieth century, cities have relied heavily on motor vehicle transportation, with major implications for their layout, environment, and aesthetics. However, severe traffic jams still occur regularly in cities around the world, as private car ownership and urbanization continue to increase, overwhelming existing urban street networks.
The urban bus system , the world's most common form of public transport , uses a network of scheduled routes to move people through the city, alongside cars, on the roads. Rapid transit is widely used in Europe and has increased in Latin America and Asia. Walking and cycling "non-motorized transport" enjoy increasing favor more pedestrian zones and bike lanes in American and Asian urban transportation planning, under the influence of such trends as the Healthy Cities movement, the drive for sustainable development , and the idea of a carfree city.
Housing of residents presents one of the major challenges every city must face. Adequate housing entails not only physical shelters but also the physical systems necessary to sustain life and economic activity. Homelessness , or lack of housing, is a challenge currently faced by millions of people in countries rich and poor. Urban ecosystems , influenced as they are by the density of human buildings and activities differ considerably from those of their rural surroundings.
Anthropogenic buildings and waste , as well as cultivation in gardens , create physical and chemical environments which have no equivalents in wilderness , in some cases enabling exceptional biodiversity. They provide homes not only for immigrant humans but also for immigrant plants , bringing about interactions between species which never previously encountered each other. They introduce frequent disturbances construction, walking to plant and animal habitats , creating opportunities for recolonization and thus favoring young ecosystems with r-selected species dominant.
On the whole, urban ecosystems are less complex and productive than others, due to the diminished absolute amount of biological interactions. Typical urban fauna include insects especially ants , rodents mice , rats , and birds , as well as cats and dogs domesticated and feral.
Large predators are scarce. Cities generate considerable ecological footprints , locally and at longer distances, due to concentrated populations and technological activities. From one perspective, cities are not ecologically sustainable due to their resource needs. From another, proper management may be able to ameliorate a city's ill effects. Industrialized cities, and today third-world megacities, are notorious for veils of smog industrial haze which envelop them, posing a chronic threat to the health of their millions of inhabitants.
Modern cities are known for creating their own microclimates , due to concrete , asphalt , and other artificial surfaces, which heat up in sunlight and channel rainwater into underground ducts. This effect varies nonlinearly with population changes independently of the city's physical size. Thus, urban areas experience unique climates, with earlier flowering and later leaf dropping than in nearby country.
Poor and working-class people face disproportionate exposure to environmental risks known as environmental racism when intersecting also with racial segregation. For example, within the urban microclimate, less-vegetated poor neighborhoods bear more of the heat but have fewer means of coping with it. On of the main methodes of improving the urban ecology is including in the cities more or less natural areas: Parks , Gardens , Lawns. These areas improve the health, the well being of the human, animal, and plant population of the cities .
Generally they are called Urban open space although this word not always mean green space , Green space, Urban greening. A study published in Nature's Scientific Reports journal in found that people who spent at least two hours per week in nature, were 23 percent more likely to be satisfied with their life and were 59 percent more likely to be in good health than those who had zero exposure. The study used data from almost 20, people in the UK. Benefits increased for up to minutes of exposure. The benefits applied to men and women of all ages, as well as across different ethnicities, socioeconomic status, and even those with long-term illnesses and disabilities.
People who did not get at least two hours — even if they surpassed an hour per week — did not get the benefits. The study is the latest addition to a compelling body of evidence for the health benefits of nature. Many doctors already give nature prescriptions to their patients. The study didn't count time spent in a person's own yard or garden as time in nature, but the majority of nature visits in the study took place within two miles from home.
White said in a press release. As the world becomes more closely linked through economics, politics, technology, and culture a process called globalization , cities have come to play a leading role in transnational affairs, exceeding the limitations of international relations conducted by national governments. A global city , also known as a world city, is a prominent centre of trade, banking, finance, innovation, and markets. Saskia Sassen used the term "global city" in her work, The Global City: New York, London, Tokyo to refer to a city's power , status, and cosmopolitanism, rather than to its size.
Global cities may have reached their status due to early transition to post-industrialism  or through inertia which has enabled them to maintain their dominance from the industrial era. Critics of the notion point to the different realms of power and interchange. The term "global city" is heavily influenced by economic factors and, thus, may not account for places that are otherwise significant. Paul James , for example argues that the term is "reductive and skewed" in its focus on financial systems.
Multinational corporations and banks make their headquarters in global cities and conduct much of their business within this context. Global cities feature concentrations of extremely wealthy and extremely poor people. Cities increasingly participate in world political activities independently of their enclosing nation-states. Early examples of this phenomenon are the sister city relationship and the promotion of multi-level governance within the European Union as a technique for European integration.
New urban dwellers may increasingly not simply as immigrants but as transmigrants , keeping one foot each through telecommunications if not travel in their old and their new homes. Cities participate in global governance by various means including membership in global networks which transmit norms and regulations.
Networks have become especially prevalent in the arena of environmentalism and specifically climate change following the adoption of Agenda Cities with world political status as meeting places for advocacy groups, non-governmental organizations, lobbyists, educational institutions, intelligence agencies, military contractors, information technology firms, and other groups with a stake in world policymaking.
They are consequently also sites for symbolic protest. The United Nations System has been involved in a series of events and declarations dealing with the development of cities during this period of rapid urbanization. The World Bank , a United Nations specialized agency , has been a primary force in promoting the Habitat conferences, and since the first Habitat conference has used their declarations as a framework for issuing loans for urban infrastructure.
Cities figure prominently in traditional Western culture, appearing in the Bible in both evil and holy forms, symbolized by Babylon and Jerusalem. In Sumerian mythology Gilgamesh built the walls of Uruk. Cities can be perceived in terms of extremes or opposites: at once liberating and oppressive, wealthy and poor, organized and chaotic.
Such opposition may result from identification of cities with oppression and the ruling elite. Writers, painters, and filmmakers have produced innumerable works of art concerning the urban experience. Classical and medieval literature includes a genre of descriptiones which treat of city features and history. Modern authors such as Charles Dickens and James Joyce are famous for evocative descriptions of their home cities. By the s, however, traffic congestion began to appear in such films as The Fast Lady and Playtime Literature, film, and other forms of popular culture have supplied visions of future cities both utopian and dystopian.
The prospect of expanding, communicating, and increasingly interdependent world cities has given rise to images such as Nylonkong NY, London, Hong Kong  and visions of a single world-encompassing ecumenopolis. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see City disambiguation. Large and permanent human settlement. Main article: City centre. Main article: History of the city. Further information: Urban history , Historical urban community sizes , and List of largest cities throughout history. Main article: Urbanization. Further information: Local government.
Main articles: Urban planning and Urban design. See also: Public transport. Main article: Urban ecology. Bibliography of suburbs Ekistics Ghost town List of adjectivals and demonyms for cities Lists of cities Lost city Nation Principles of intelligent urbanism Primate city Urban sociology Free city antiquity City-state. Wells , Patrick Geddes and Kingsley Davis foretold the coming of a mostly urban world throughout the twentieth century. Critics within the economics field have contested the inevitability of this outcome. Beyond the prominent institutions of U.
London: Penguin. London: Routledge. Retrieved Values are embedded in these metaphors: historic continuity, stable equilibrium, productive efficiency, capable decision and management, maximum interaction, or the progress of political struggle. Certain actors become the decisive elements of transformation in each view: political leaders, families and ethnic groups, major investors, the technicians of transport, the decision elite, the revolutionary classes. Archived from the original on Moreover, within any area possessing a broadly uniform level of agricultural productivity, there is a rough but definite association between the density of the rural population and the average spacing of cities above any chosen minimum size.
‘Saving’ the city: Collective low‐budget organizing and urban practice
As cities grew in complexity, the major civic institutions, from seats of government to religious buildings, would also come to dominate these points of convergence. Study of the very earliest cities show this compound to be largely composed of a temple and supporting structures. The temple rose some 40 feet above the ground and would have presented a formidable profile to those far away.
The temple contained the priestly class, scribes, and record keepers, as well as granaries, schools, crafts—almost all non-agricultural aspects of society. In the overbound city the administrative area is greater than the physical extent. The 'truebound' city is one where the administrative bound is nearly coincidental with the physical extent.
Cities functioned economically as centers of extraction and redistribution from countryside to granaries to the urban population. One of the main functions of this central authority was to extract, store, and redistribute the grain. It is no accident that granaries—storage areas for grain—were often found within the temples of early cities.
Elizabeth C. From this source sprang the elaborate system of fortifications, with walls, ramparts, towers, canals, ditches, that continued to characterize the chief historic cities, apart from certain special cases—as during the Pax Romana—down to the eighteenth century. The desire to create cities was the most striking characteristic of the people of antiquity, and ancient rulers and statesmen vied with one another in satisfying that desire.
It became one precociously, before the end of the fourth millennium B. Urban traditions remained strong and virtually continuous through the vicissitudes of conquest, internal upheaval accompanied by widespread economic breakdown, and massive linguistic and population replacement. The symbolic and material content of civilization obviously changed, but its cultural ambience remained tied to cities.
The Citizenship Debates. Roman colonies were organized as a means of securing Roman territory. The first thing that Romans did when they conquered new territories was to establish cities. Afriques 4. Retrieved December 13, This urban heritage would continue despite the conquests of the Seljuk Turks and the later Crusades. China, the longest standing civilization, was in the midst of a golden age as the Tang dynasty gave way—after a short period of fragmentation—to the Song dynasty. This dynasty ruled two of the most impressive cities on the planet, Xian and Hangzhou.
For more than five centuries a steady process of deurbanization—whereby the population living in cities and the number of cities declined precipitously—had converted a prosperous landscape into a scary wilderness, overrun with bandits, warlords, and rude settlements. The Byzantines. John Wiley and Sons.
Retrieved 24 January In Angeliki E. Laiou ed. The Economic History of Byzantium Volume 1. Washington, DC: Dumbarton Oaks. Indeed, rather than freestanding legal sites, they are imagined as products or 'creatures' of the provinces who may bring them into being or dissolve them as they choose. As with the provinces their powers are of a delegated form: they may only exercise jurisdiction over areas that have been expressly identified by enabling legislation. Municipal law may not conflict with provincial law, and may only be exercised within its defined territory. While liberalism fears the encroachments of the state, it seems less worried about those of the municipality.
Thus if a national government proposed a statute forbidding public gatherings or sporting events, a revolution would occur. Yet municipalities routinely enact sweeping by-laws directed at open ended and ill-defined offences such as loitering and obstruction, requiring permits for protests or requiring residents and homeowners to remove snow from the city's sidewalks. London became the first truly global city by placing itself within the new global economy. English colonialism in North America, the Caribbean, South Asia, and later Africa and China helped to further fatten the wallets of many of its merchants.
These colonies would later provide many of the raw materials for industrial production. England's hinterland was no longer confined to a portion of the world; it effectively became a global hinterland. Robert Z. Lawrence, for example, uses aggregate economic data to show that manufacturing employment in the United States did not decline but actually increased from However, manufacturing employment was in relative decline. Barry Bluestone noted that manufacturing represented a decreasing proportion of the U. Studies in Canada have likewise shown that manufacturing employment was only in relative decline during these years.
Yet mills and factories did close, and towns and cities lost their industries. John Cumbler submitted that 'depressions do not manifest themselves only at moments of national economic collapse' such as in the s, but 'also recur in scattered sites across the nation in regions, in industries, and in communities. For example, in St. The leadership involved cooperation between public and private interests. The results were efforts at downtown revitalization; inner-city gentrification; the transformation of the CBD to advanced service employment; entetainment, museums, and cultural venues; the construction of sports stadiums and sport complexes; and waterfront development.
The network society: a cross-cultural perspective. London: Edward Elgar.
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London: Little, Brown. Wildey and William H. Robinson, Urbanization and Growth. The imperial planners and architects knew the answer, which is as valid today as it was 2, years ago. Big cities were created as power images of a competitive society, conscious of its achievement potential.
Those who came to live in them did so in order to participate and compete on any attainable level. Their aim was to share in public life, and they were willing to pay for this share with personal discomfort. Paranagua, " Latin America struggles to cope with record urban growth " archive , The Guardian , 11 September By , just over 10 years ago, 20 megacities existed, 15 of which were in less economically developed regions of the world. In , the number of megacities had increased to 26, again all except 6 are located in the less developed world regions.
Especially in megacities, these reforms led to enormous influx of foreign direct investments, to intensive industrialization processes through international relocation of production locations and depending upon the location, partially to considerable expansion of the services sector with increasing demand for office space as well as to a reorientation of national support policies—with a not to be mistaken influence of transnationally acting conglomerates but also considerable transfer payments from overseas communities. In turn, these processes are flanked and intensified through, at times, massive migration movements of national and international migrants into the megacities Baur et al.
As 'first citizen', mayors are often associated with political parties, yet many of the most successful mayors are often those whoare able to speak 'for' their city. Rudy Giuliani, for example, while pursuing a neo-liberal political agenda, was often seen as being outside the mainstream of the national Republican party.
Furthermore, mayors are often crucial in articulating the interests of their cities to external agents, be they national governments or major public and private investors. In a congested urban situation, the individual is powerless to protect himself from the "free" i.
Jones, Saadia R. These production oriented criteria often give rise to "service deliver rules", regularized procedures for the delivery of services, which are attempts to codify the productivity goals of urban service bureaucracies. These rules have distinct, definable distributional consequences which often go unrecognized.
That is, the decisions of governments to adopt rational service delivery rules can and usually do differentially benefit citizens. See: Hawkins v. Town of Shaw Research in Transportation Economics. Because developers require cash up-front, cities transform promises of future tax revenues into securities that far-flung buyers and sellers exchange through local markets.
Detroit's partial recovery in the early s, for example, was reversed when Moody's downgraded the rating of the city's general obligation bonds, precipitating new rounds of capital flight Hackworth, The need to maintain a high credit rating constrains municipal actors by making it difficult to finance discretionary projects in traditional ways. It has been used both as a condition for aid and a development goal in its own right. Key terms in definitions of good governance include participation, accountability, transparency, equity, efficiency, effectiveness, responsiveness, and rule of law e.
Zoning being an exercise of the police power, it must be justified by such considerations as the protection of public health and safety, the preservation of taxable property values, and the enhancement of community welfare. Among these is the power of eminent domain, which has been used effectively in connection with slum clearance and the rehabilitation of blighted areas. Also available to cities in their implementation of planning objectives are municipal powers of zoning, subdivision control and the regulation of building, housing and sanitation principles.
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It is immersed in politics and inseparable from the law. Even when little public expenditure is involved, planning decisions can deliver large benefits to some and large losses at others. The various interests and conditions of life within the ranks of the proletariat are more and more equalised, in proportion as machinery obliterates all distinctions of labour, and nearly everywhere reduces wages to the same low level.
This outcast proletariat—perhaps 1. By and large, the urban informal working class is not a labor reserve army in the nineteenth-century sense: a backlog of strikebreakers during booms; to be expelled during busts; then reabsorbed again in the next expansion. On the contrary, this is a mass of humanity structurally and biologically redundant to the global accumulation and the corporate matrix. It is ontologically both similar and dissimilar to the historical agency described in the Communist Manifesto. Like the traditional working classes, it has radical chains in the sense of having little vested interest in the reproduction of private property.
But it is not a socialized collectivity of labor and it lacks significant power to disrupt or seize the means of production. It does possess, however, yet unmeasured powers of subverting urban order. These places are, of course, places to make money, but they are also stages of performance for an interactive consumer. This interaction at the level of 'technostructure'—heavily oriented toward information gathering and incremental policy modification—is too complex and voluminous to be monitored by top leadership, yet nevertheless often has important implications for policy.
Papers in Regional Science. All great cultures have been city-born. World history is basically the history of city dwellers. A farmer in Europe or California who checks the markets every morning on the computer, negotiates with product brokers in distant cities, buys food at a supermarket, watches television every night, and takes vacations half a continent away is not exactly living a traditional rural life. In most respects such a farmer is an urbanite living in the countryside, albeit an urbanite who has many good reasons for perceiving himself or herself as a rural person.
Environment and Planning D: Society and Space. Gold, eds. This tourism impact will focus on, but extend beyond, the city to the country and the wider global region. More importantly, there is also huge long term potential for both tourism and investment Kasimati, No other city marketing opportunity achieves this global exposure. At the same time, provided it is carefully managed at the local level, it also gives a tremendous opportunity to heighten and mobilize the commitment of citizens to their own city.
The competitive nature of sport and its unrivalled capacity to be enjoyed as a mass cultural activity gives it many advantages from the marketing point of view S. Ward, , pp. In a more subtle way it also becomes a metaphor for the notion of cities having to compete in a global marketplace, a way of reconciling citizens and local institutions to the wider economic realities of the world. Connected networks of protected settlements are inserted as islands of government control into insurgent areas—either defensively to separate existing populations from insurgents or aggressively as a means of extending control over areas—as used by the British in South Africa — and Malaya —3 and by the Americans in Cuba and Vietnam — These were generally small settlements and intended as much for local security as offensive operations.
Franklin Bell 's telegraphic circular to all station commanders, 8 December , in Robert D. Eric Weyenberg, U. Citing L. Peltier and G. Pearcy, Military Geography Military Forces. Produced for U. This leads in consequence to defensive reactions on the part of those responsible for public security, and by individual citizens concerned for their personal safety. The authorities react with situational crime prevention as part of the armoury of urban defense, and individuals fashion their behavior according to an 'urban geography of fear'. The traditional lamentations provide eloquently stylized literary accounts of this, while in other cases the combinations of archaeological evidence with the testimony of a city's like Ur's victorious opponent as to its destruction grounds the world of metaphor in harsh reality Brinkman , pp.
Following these reforms, few countries embarked on a larger scale initiative than Australia to privatize delivery and management of public infrastructure at all levels of government. There is now a new orthodoxy in many branches of urban planning: 'The logic is now for planners to fight for the best possible networked infrastructures for their specialized district, in partnership with often privatised and internationalised network operators, rather than seeking to orchestrate how networks roll out through the city as a whole' Graham and Marvin, In the context of development theory, these 'secessionary' infrastructures physically by-pass sectors of cities unable to afford the necessary cabling, pipe-laying, or streetscaping that underpins service provision.
Cities such as Manila, Lagos or Mumbai are thus increasingly characterized by a two-speed mode of urbanisation. Cities"; Urban Affairs Quarterly 21 1 , September Leaving aside private cars, all indicators—passengers carried, vehicle kilometers accumulated, size of fleet, accidents recorded, pollution caused, workers employed, or whatever else—show the dominance of buses among all transit modes, in this country as well as anywhere else around the world. The larger places have other modes as well, but the bulk of these cities offers buses as their sole public means of mobility.
Landscape and Urban Planning. The problems of living and working are of primary importance. These include sanitation, sufficient sewers, clean, well-lighted streets, rehabilitation of slum areas, and health protection through provision for pure water and wholesome food. Pickett, M. Cadenasso, J. Grove, C. Nilon, R.