Process Improvement and CMMI® for Systems and Software
These people act as a team 1. Today, small and medium sized enterprises SMEs have become the backbone of the software industry around the world. The definition and standards of SMEs are different from one country to another. According to the definition of SME Corporation Malaysia, a small enterprise is classified as one with a size capacity between employees and the medium size with a capacity between employees.
For the European Union EU , a small enterprise has employees and a medium size enterprise 5 has Software Process Improvement SPI is recommended for improving the software quality and increasing the productivity 6. Reason is that it can improve the quality of their software process and can cut down the cost and time of building quality software products 7. Sommerville 7 believed that the implementation of SPI takes a chain of continuous and iterative enhancements to the current software process practices. These processes continuously change and improve as new practices can be added as well.
These components emphasize on technologies, tools and procedures to manage and organize the SPI processes. The SPI initiatives prompt to change of software processes which directly affect the organization, its employees and their behaviors. It changes as a result of SPI initiatives on the business side of the organization is called the organizational change 9. Furthermore, human factors are not getting enough attention and consequently most of SPI failures are appeared to be directly caused by poor commitment and low motivation Also, it has complex processes.
Additionally, the training and documentation are expensive to achieve, thus unaffordable for the managers However, it is not always true. It can also make the process more productive. It will ultimately improve customer satisfaction. In other words, there is a potential solution by combining both the CMMI and agile methods. It makes them collaborate with each other in a unified way. In the light of the above observations, this thesis aims to highlight the previous related works and their advantages and limitations.
By doing so, this thesis would like to offer a critical analysis of gaps in this area of research. The first factor is the complex processes of CMMI Secondly, CMMI is bureaucratic framework which would lay off the learning attitude Additionally, the training and documentation are expensive, thus unaffordable for the managers Khurshid et al.
Adopting CMMI is expensive, needs a substantial time and requires expertise as well of which it is very resource consuming for SMEs 17 to manage. Nevertheless, these factors have created awareness and motivation for many researchers to deal with with alternative frameworks for CMMI. Currently, adoption of different SPI frameworks have been extensively done by software houses to improve their process and product quality.
However, there are many challenges facing the organization in order to improve their software processes. Some of these challenges are pertinent to the software engineering processes and some are associated to the required organizational changes. Rahman et al. The framework provides a group of strict description for SPI frameworks by identifying the structural relationships between the frameworks.
Another challenge is the commintment of the organization towards SPI and the interaction of different roles in SPI project. Dagnino 19 proposed an approach to tackle this challenge which includes two models organizational readiness evaluation for SPI and a Game Theory model. These models work together to increase the readiness and commitment for SPI Another challenge is the implementation of framework which contains the process definition and the development of continuous process improvement culture Miramontes et al. It aims to optimize the process through lightening them without missing the necessities for CMMI certification.
Another concern is to test the existing software process to find the possible improvement.
This includes the structural complexity management methods that can be used to analyze the software process to systematize its structure and behavior Kreimeyer and Lindemann 21 suggested to use goal-question-metric framework to guide SPI using structural analysis. This framework provides the main direction to possible analysis strategies which can help to understand the dependency model and help to get information from it to specific goals.
Another framework was introduced by Khan 22 to support the implementation of SPI in global software development. It was based on the understanding of the factors impact on SPI project in domain of global software development. Khan et al. It has the capability to make more profit from the international customers who are attracted by the CMM standards.
However, Khan et al. They used XP instead of proving that agile methods can work in line with the CMM for SMEs in an effort to accomplish their business objectives and attract the international customers. Some agile features like pair programming and collective code ownership are presented at different levels of the CMM.
Process Improvement and CMMI® for Systems and Software - CRC Press Book
Adopting these agile features will decrease the training expenses and in early software development stages but no documentation would be required. In this way, SMEs can save capital by earning extra income. Later on, these can invest their profits in making the first class software. They believe that agile methods bring value to the business.
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These are quick and inexpensive because of the frequently required changes. However, the problem is how to combine these two approaches to achieve the best results with minimum costs and less culture change shortcomings. Nevertheless, Lukasiewicz and Miler 14 proposed a model which is a combination of the CMMI maturity model and the Scrum practices as a coherent model to improve discipline and agility of software improvement. It is suitable for different kinds of companies.
What is CMMI?
The model is being used widely. The model is applicable for any organization at the CMMI levels 2 or 3. It aims to increase the agility to its process and to keep its maturity level or it suits to any organization which has already applied the Scrum and seeks to reach at the CMMI level 2 or 3 maturity and want to keep its current agility.
Additionally, the model can be used by those organizations which are interested in improving their processes with the CMMI and the Scrum and have already applied either of them partly They do not agree that the CMMI can work only for large enterprises. For example, the CMMI focuses on what projects do and the Scrum focuses on how projects make things done.
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It is because that the Scrum does not determine sources and parameters for risk analysis and controlling these. It also does not provide any strategy or mitigation plan for dealing with critical risks. Moreover, the Scrum does not have any practices to support the processes like quality assurance and configuration management. Therefore, the support processes practices should be taken from the CMMI. Finally, the software lifecycle should be based on the Scrum with an iteration of 2 or 4 weeks for each process that needs to deliver software product and predictive methods to focus on the future planning Zhang and Shao 23 improved framework divides the development process into two parts.
The second part is the project management and support, which covers planning, requirement engineering, configuration management, process quality assurance , decision analysis and resolution, measurement and analysis and organizational environment 23 Fig. Habib et al. However, it has become critical for them to start the SPI initiatives for getting an important competitive chance and surviving in the industry. The blend of the CMMI and six sigma framework uses six sigma to enhance the control of the SPI activities, since the six sigma analysis and control documentations address most of the CMMI practices, so the organizations do not need to put extra efforts.
The blending of the two approaches helps to identify the process areas which are required to be improved. It also identifies a project with at least between months duration and three people are assigned to pull six sigma champion and black belts roles.
Here the head of the organization should be the champion and the project manager should have the black belt. Munoz-Mata et al. Unfortunately, most of SMEs do not have enough knowledge for addressing the SPI efforts and they do not know where to start which creates many obstacles on the path of SPI implementation, thus, difficult to achieve targets. The authors suggested a framework to address their SPI efforts based on solving their current problems, needs and culture as a starting point.
It offers information related to agile methods, models and practices to be considered and implemented. Based on SMEs features and challenges, a group of process patterns to be used for the identification of the current SMEs situation and those patterns would be selected which tie the current situation. The framework is built upon three elements: A process pattern group, a selection method for suitable process pattern, and a software tool for using the previous features automatically.
Capability Maturity Model Integration
In the first element, three primary contexts, based on SMEs features are addressed and 11 patterns were defined and each pattern has some components like name, context, force, solution and results as shown in Fig. The second element is the selection process pattern method based on SME current problems through identification, selection and providing a guide as explained in Fig. The last element is a web tool to support the previous elements, which has the following modules 2 :. Previous Next. Main Takeaways. It is a process improvement maturity model for the development of products and services.
It consists of proven practices that address development and maintenance activities that cover the product lifecycle from conception through delivery and maintenance of software, resp. IT services. Ron S. Kenett, Emanuel R. Baker: Auerbach Pubn Addison Wesley; Dennis M. Ahern, Aaron Clouse, Richard Turner:. Margaret K. Add to Cart. Focusing on planning, implementation, and management in system and software processes, it supplies a brief overview of basic strategic planning models and covers fundamental concepts and approaches for system and software measurement, testing, and improvements.
The book represents the significant cumulative experience of the authors who were among the first to introduce quality management to the software development processes. It also provides readers with an easy-to-follow methodology for evaluating the status of development and maintenance processes and for determining the return on investment for process improvements.
The authors examine beta testing and various testing and usability programs. They highlight examples of useful metrics for monitoring process improvement projects and explain how to establish baselines against which to measure achieved improvements. Divided into four parts, this practical resource covers:.
Strategy and basics of quality and process improvement Assessment and measurement in systems and software Improvements and testing of systems and software Managing and reporting data The text concludes with a realistic case study that illustrates how the process improvement effort is structured and brings together the methods, tools, and techniques discussed.
Spelling out how to lay out a reasoned plan for process improvement, this book supplies readers with concrete action plans for setting up process improvement initiatives that are effective, efficient, and sustainable. Ron S.