Letters to C. E. Beecher In Reply to an Essay on Slavery and Abolitionism (Annotated)
The party argues that rich planters will squeeze out small white farmers and buy their land. Taylor expresses no view on slavery in the Southwest during campaign. After the election, he reveals a plan to admit California and New Mexico to the Union as free states covering entire Southwest and to exclude slavery from any territories. Taylor warns the South that he will meet rebellion with force.
His moderate views on the expansion of slavery and the acceptability of the Wilmot Proviso angered his unsuspecting Southern supporters but did not fully satisfy Northerners who wanted to limit or abolish slavery. Lopez is defeated and flees to the United States. He is tried for violation of neutrality laws but a New Orleans jury fails to convict him.
The California Gold Rush quickly populates Northern California with Northern-born and immigrant settlers who outnumber Southern-born settlers. California's constitutional convention unanimously rejects slavery and petitions to join the Union as a free state without first being organized as a territory. President Zachary Taylor asks Congress to admit California as a free state, saying he will suppress secession if it is attempted by any dissenting states. She makes about 20 trips to the South and returns along the Underground Railroad with slaves seeking freedom.
Senator William H. Seward of New York delivers his "Higher Law" address. He states that a compromise on slavery is wrong because under a higher law than the Constitution, the law of God, all men are free and equal. Senator Henry S. Foote of Mississippi pulls a pistol on anti-slavery Senator Benton on the floor of the Senate. Although he is a New Yorker, Fillmore is more inclined to compromise with or even support Southern interests.
Under the Fugitive Slave Act of , a slave owner could reclaim a runaway slave by establishing ownership before a commissioner rather than in a jury trial. Clay's initial omnibus bill that included all these provisions failed.
Senator Stephen A. Douglas of Illinois then established different coalitions that passed each provision separately. Southerners cease movement toward disunion but are angered by Northern resistance to enforcement of the Fugitive Slave Act. Anti-slavery forces are upset about possible expansion of slavery in the Southwest and the stronger fugitive slave law that could require all U. Only 29 slaves are found in the territory in Southern Unionists in several states defeat secession measures. Mississippi's convention denies the existence of the right to secession. In the gunfight that follows, three blacks and the slave owner are killed while his son is seriously wounded.
In Lemmon v. New York , a New York court frees eight slaves in transit from Virginia with their owner. The powerful novel depicts slave owner "Simon Legree" as deeply evil, and the slave "Uncle Tom" as the Christ-like hero.
Millions of people see the stage adaptation. By June , Southerners move to suppress the book's publication in the South and numerous "refutations" appear in print. Democrats control state governments in all the states which will form the Confederate States of America. The purposes of the Gadsden Purchase are the construction of a transcontinental railroad along a deep southern route and the reconciliation of outstanding border issues following the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, which ended the Mexican—American War.
Many early settlers in the region are pro-slavery. When they are forced to retreat to California and put on trial for violating neutrality laws, they are acquitted by a jury that deliberated for only eight minutes. Democratic U. Douglas of Illinois proposes the Kansas—Nebraska Bill to open good Midwestern farmland to settlement and to encourage building of a transcontinental railroad with a terminus at Chicago.
Whether slavery would be permitted in a territory would be determined by a vote of the people at the time a territory is organized. Especially in Kansas, many voters are pro-slavery Missouri residents who enter Kansas simply to vote. Republicans win most of the Northern state seats in the U. House of Representatives in the fall elections as 66 of 91 Northern state Democrats are defeated. Abraham Lincoln emerges as a Republican leader in the West Illinois. Four months after the dispatch is drafted, it is published in full at the request of the U. House of Representatives.
Northern states view the document as a Southern attempt to extend slavery. European nations consider it as a threat to Spain and to Imperial power. Radical abolitionists attack the courthouse and kill a deputy marshal in an unsuccessful attempt to free Burns. Marshal Stephen V.
Quitman begins to raise money and volunteers to invade Cuba, but is slow to act and cancels the invasion plan in spring when President Pierce says he would enforce the neutrality laws. The party demands ethnic purification, opposes Catholics because of the presumed power of the Pope over them , and opposes corruption in local politics. The party soon fades away. Violence by pro-slavery looters from Missouri known as Border Ruffians and anti-slavery groups known as Jayhawkers breaks out in " Bleeding Kansas " as pro-slavery and anti-slavery supporters try to organize the territory as slave or free.
Many Ruffians vote illegally in Kansas. Over 95 percent of the pro-slavery votes in the election of a Kansas territorial legislature in are later determined to be fraudulent. Meanwhile, the initial fraudulently elected but legal Kansas legislature operates separately. May Missouri Ruffians and local pro-slavery men sack and burn the town of Lawrence, Kansas , an anti-slavery stronghold. Senator Andrew Butler of South Carolina—as in love with a prostitute slavery and raping the virgin Kansas.
Brooks is a hero in the South, Sumner a martyr in the North. The Democratic Party candidate, James Buchanan , who carries five northern and western states and all the southern states except Maryland, wins. The book receives wide acclaim among secessionists in the South and much derision from anti-slavery politicians in the North, even though some historians think Kettell intended it as an argument that the two regions are economically dependent upon each other.
He decrees the reintroduction of slavery. Many of Walker's men succumb to cholera and he and his remaining men are rescued by the U. Navy in May George Fitzhugh publishes Cannibals All! Or Slaves Without Masters , which defends chattel slavery and ridicules free labor as wage slavery.
This charge angers many Southerners. Supreme Court reaches the Dred Scott v. Sandford decision, a 7 to 2 ruling that Congress lacks the power to exclude slavery from the territories, that slaves are property and have no rights as citizens and that slaves are not made free by living in free territory. Chief Justice Roger B. Taney concludes that the Missouri Compromise is unconstitutional.
If a court majority clearly agreed which it did not in this decision , this conclusion would allow all territories to be open to slavery. Scott and his family were purchased and freed by a supporter's children. Northerners vowed to oppose the decision as in violation of a "higher law". Antagonism between the sections of the country increases. The convention adopts the pro-slavery Lecompton Constitution. Meanwhile, anti-slavery representatives win control of the state legislature. Southerners tout the small effect in their section as support for their economic and labor system.
A bitter feud begins inside the Democratic party. Douglas's opposition to the Lecompton constitution erodes his support from pro-slavery factions. Hunter of Virginia, uses the Walker Tariff as a base and lowers rates. Minnesota is admitted to the Union as a free state. House of Representatives rejects the pro-slavery Lecompton constitution for Kansas on April 1. Five are killed and five wounded. In , the Old School church splits along North—South lines. Pro-Douglas candidates win a small majority in the Illinois legislature in the general election and choose Douglas as U.
Senator from Illinois for another term. However, Lincoln emerges as a nationally known moderate spokesman for Republicans and a moderate opponent of slavery. Lincoln asks whether the people of a territory could lawfully exclude slavery before the territory became a state.
In effect, this question asks Douglas to reconcile popular sovereignty with the Dred Scott decision. Douglas says they could do so by refusing to pass the type of police regulations needed to sustain slavery. This answer further alienates pro-slavery advocates from Douglas.
No power on earth dares to make war upon it. Cotton is King; until lately the Bank of England was king; but she tried to put her screws, as usual They advocate reopening the African slave trade and the formation of a Southern confederacy. Seward says there is an "irrepressible conflict" between slavery and freedom. Similarly, a Charleston, South Carolina jury acquits the crew of The Echo , another illegal slave ship which is caught with Africans on board. Southerners block an increase in the low tariff rates of Senator Albert G. Brown of Mississippi says that if a territory requires a slave code in line with Douglas' Freeport Doctrine, the federal government must pass a slave code to protect slavery in the territories.
If it does not, Brown says he will urge Mississippi to secede from the Union. Booth , the U. Supreme Court rules that the Fugitive Slave Law is constitutional and that state courts cannot overrule federal court decisions. Douglas supports the proposed annexation of Cuba. Republicans block funding. Many members think this would lessen feelings that the slave trade was immoral and provide an incentive or tool for Southern nationalism. No slaves join him and no rebellion ensues but 17 persons, including 10 of Brown's men, are killed. Brown and his remaining men are captured by U. Members come to the sessions armed.
The House of Representatives requires eight weeks to choose a Speaker. This delays consideration of vitally important business. President James Buchanan vetoes a homestead act. Senator Jefferson Davis of Mississippi presents a resolution stating the southern position on slavery, including adoption of a Federal slave code for the territories. Southern radicals, or " fire-eaters ", oppose front-runner Stephen A.
Douglas ' bid for the party's Presidential nomination. The Democrats begin splitting North and South as many Southern delegates walk out. After 57 ballots, the convention adjourns to meet in Baltimore six weeks later. Senator John C. Seward of New York, Salmon P. Chase of Ohio, and Simon Cameron of Pennsylvania are leading contenders for the Republican presidential nomination, along with the more moderate Abraham Lincoln of Illinois, when the Republican convention convenes in Chicago.
Lincoln supporters from Illinois skillfully gain commitments for Lincoln. Breckinridge of Kentucky for President. Their platform endorses a national slave code. They capture and execute him before a firing squad on September 12, November 6: Abraham Lincoln wins the presidential election on a platform that includes the prohibition of slavery in new states and territories. Douglas wins 3. November 7: Charleston, South Carolina authorities arrest a Federal officer who had attempted to move supplies to Fort Moultrie from Charleston Arsenal.
Senators James Chesnut, Jr. Stephens of Georgia , later Vice President of the Confederate States of America , speaks to the Georgia legislature in opposition to secession. On November 29, the legislature votes for an election on December 29 for delegates to a convention to meet on January 7 to consider whether the State should secede from the Union.
Craven rightly suspects Southern States will try to seize federal property and military supplies. House of Representatives appoints a Committee of Thirty-Three to consider "the present perilous condition of the country". Floyd , a former governor of Virginia , whose actions appear to favor the Southern secessionists. He arranged to shift weapons from Pittsburgh and other locations to the South. Floyd resigns on December The War Department stops the transfer of weapons from Pittsburgh on January 3.
Anderson is authorized to put his command in any of the forts at Charleston to resist their seizure. Later in the month Floyd says Anderson violated the President's pledge to keep the status quo pending further discussions and the garrison should be removed from Charleston. Floyd soon will join the Confederacy. He believes President Buchanan should reinforce the Charleston forts and is unhappy about Buchanan's lack of action. The document cites "encroachments on the reserved rights of the states" and "an increasing hostility of the non-slaveholding states to the institution of slavery" and "the election of a man to the high office of President of the United States, whose opinions and purposes are hostile to slavery" as among the causes.
Crittenden of Kentucky proposes the " Crittenden Compromise ". Its main features are a constitutional amendment that would reinstate the Missouri Compromise line between free and slave territory and retention of the fugitive slave law and slavery where it existed, including in the District of Columbia. Douglas, to consider the state of the nation and to propose solutions to the crisis. House of Representatives, but on December 24 the House refuses their resignations.
Buchanan states he needs more time to consider the situation. Army, asks permission from President Buchanan to reinforce and resupply Fort Sumter but receives no reply. Army can do no more to relieve Fort Sumter and only the U. Navy could aid the fort's garrison. Senators from seven deep South states meet and advise their states to secede. The men flee. After being struck twice, the ship heads back to New York. Revenue Schooner Washington on January 31,  and the U. Paymaster's office at New Orleans on February Congress resign. This became an important base of supply, including coal, for blockaders and other vessels on January Senators Clement C.
Clay, Jr. Yulee and Stephen R. The 34th state is a free state under the Wyandotte Constitution. Seven Texas delegates to the Montgomery convention are elected. Border states initially refuse to join Confederacy. None of the seceded states are represented. Five Northern states also do not attend. On February 27, after much bickering, the convention sends recommendations for six constitutional amendments along the lines of the Crittenden Compromise to Congress and adjourns.
Senate rejects the Peace Convention proposals on March 2. The group assumes authority to deal with the issue of disputed forts. Twiggs surrenders U. Twiggs tells authorities in Washington he acted under threat of force but they consider his actions to be treason. Army "for his treachery to the flag of his country" in his surrender of military posts and Federal property in Texas to state authorities. Arkansas voters elect a majority of Unionists to their convention.
Waite at Camp Verde , Texas took over nominal command of U. Unionists led by Francis Preston Blair, Jr. Louis and Unionists again thwart secessionists. Eventually, on October 31, , under the protection of Confederate troops, secessionist members of the Missouri legislature meeting at Neosho, Missouri adopt a resolution of secession. The Confederate Congress seats Missouri representatives but Missouri remains in the Union and at least twice as many Missouri men fight for the Union as fight for the Confederacy.
Confederate President Davis appoints P. Beauregard as brigadier general and assigns him to command Confederate forces in the area. Local authorities had been allowing the fort to receive some provisions but Confederates were training and constructing works around Charleston harbor. It is too late to be of practical importance. He states his intentions not to interfere with slavery where it exists and to preserve the Union.
Supreme Court Justice John A. President Lincoln will not meet with the Confederate commissioners because it would appear to recognize the seceded states were out of the union. For various reasons, over the next two weeks, members advise the President not to attempt to relieve Fort Sumter. Seward gives lengthy advice on how to run the government and handle the crisis. Fox thinks that ships still can relieve the fort. Stephens acknowledges that black slavery is the "cornerstone" of the Confederate government.
Magruder to Richmond to attempt to arrange talks with Virginia unionists. Fox that Fort Sumter will be relieved. Fox as Lincoln's agent aboard sails from New York for relief of the Charleston garrison. Navy Lieutenant John L. Abel, Sheri Lyn. Lanham, MD: Lexington, Adams, Katherine. Women's Life Writing. Oxford, England: Oxford UP, Finseth, Ian Frederick.
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American Transcendental Quarterly 5, no. MacFarlane, Lisa Watt. Goluboff, Benjamin. New Orleans Review 18, no. Helten, James A. North Dakota Quarterly 59, no. Coward, Patricia Ann. Tomc, Sandra Mariana. Studies in American Fiction 19, no. Hartshorne, Sarah Dickson. Dobson, Joanne. Bender, Eileen T. Tallahassee: Florida State UP, Krog, Carl E. DeCanio, Stephen J. The Centennial Review 34, no.
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Critical Essays on American Literature. Prior, Moody E. Stowe's Uncle Tom. Critical Inquiry 5, no.