Animal Peculiarity Volume 2 Part 2
As amniotes , reptile eggs are surrounded by membranes for protection and transport, which adapt them to reproduction on dry land. Many of the viviparous species feed their fetuses through various forms of placenta analogous to those of mammals , with some providing initial care for their hatchlings. Some reptiles are more closely related to birds than other reptiles, and many scientists prefer to make Reptilia a monophyletic group which includes the birds.
Currently, of the approximately 12, extant reptile species and sub-species, only about of are classed as marine reptiles. Except for some sea snakes, most extant marine reptiles are oviparous and need to return to land to lay their eggs. Apart from sea turtles, the species usually spend most of their lives on or near land rather than in the ocean.
Sea snakes generally prefer shallow waters nearby land, around islands, especially waters that are somewhat sheltered, as well as near estuaries. The ancient Ichthyosaurus communis independently evolved flippers similar to dolphins. Some extinct marine reptiles, such as ichthyosaurs , evolved to be viviparous and had no requirement to return to land. Ichthyosaurs resembled dolphins. They first appeared about million years ago and disappeared about 90 million years ago.
The terrestrial ancestor of the ichthyosaur had no features already on its back or tail that might have helped along the evolutionary process. Yet the ichthyosaur developed a dorsal and tail fin which improved its ability to swim. During the Mesozoic many groups of reptiles became adapted to life in the seas, including ichthyosaurs , plesiosaurs , mosasaurs , nothosaurs , placodonts , sea turtles , thalattosaurs and thalattosuchians. Marine reptiles were less numerous after mass extinction at the end of the Cretaceous. Marine birds are adapted to life within the marine environment.
They are often called seabirds. While marine birds vary greatly in lifestyle, behaviour and physiology, they often exhibit striking convergent evolution , as the same environmental problems and feeding niches have resulted in similar adaptations. Examples include albatross , penguins , gannets , and auks. In general, marine birds live longer, breed later and have fewer young than terrestrial birds do, but they invest a great deal of time in their young. Most species nest in colonies , which can vary in size from a few dozen birds to millions.
Many species are famous for undertaking long annual migrations , crossing the equator or circumnavigating the Earth in some cases. They feed both at the ocean's surface and below it, and even feed on each other. Marine birds can be highly pelagic , coastal, or in some cases spend a part of the year away from the sea entirely. Some marine birds plummet from heights, plunging through the water leaving vapour-like trails, similar to that of fighter planes.
They have air sacs under their skin in their face and chest which act like bubble-wrap , cushioning the impact with the water. European herring gull attack herring schools from above. The first marine birds evolved in the Cretaceous period , and modern marine bird families emerged in the Paleogene. Mammals from Latin for breast are characterised by the presence of mammary glands which in females produce milk for feeding nursing their young. There are about living and recently extinct marine mammal species such as seals , dolphins , whales , manatees , sea otters and polar bears.
Both cetaceans and sirenians are fully aquatic and therefore are obligate water dwellers. Seals and sea-lions are semiaquatic; they spend the majority of their time in the water, but need to return to land for important activities such as mating , breeding and molting. In contrast, both otters and the polar bear are much less adapted to aquatic living. Their diet varies considerably as well: some may eat zooplankton ; others may eat fish, squid, shellfish, and sea-grass; and a few may eat other mammals.
In a process of convergent evolution , marine mammals, especially cetaceans redeveloped their body plan to parallel the streamlined fusiform body plan of pelagic fish. Front legs became flippers and back legs disappeared, a dorsal fin reappeared and the tail morphed into a powerful horizontal fluke. This body plan is an adaptation to being an active predator in a high drag environment. A parallel convergence occurred with the now extinct marine reptile ichthyosaur. Endangered blue whale , largest animal ever . Bottlenose dolphin , highest encephalization of any animal after humans .
Dugong grazing on seagrass. Primary producers are the autotroph organisms that make their own food instead of eating other organisms. This means primary producers become the starting point in the food chain for heterotroph organisms that do eat other organisms. Some marine primary producers are specialised bacteria and archaea which are chemotrophs , making their own food by gathering around hydrothermal vents and cold seeps and using chemosynthesis.
However most marine primary production comes from organisms which use photosynthesis on the carbon dioxide dissolved in the water. This process uses energy from sunlight to convert water and carbon dioxide  : — into sugars that can be used both as a source of chemical energy and of organic molecules that are used in the structural components of cells. The principal marine primary producers are cyanobacteria , algae and marine plants.
The oxygen released as a by-product of photosynthesis is needed by nearly all living things to carry out cellular respiration. In addition, primary producers are influential in the global carbon and water cycles. They stabilize coastal areas and can provide habitats for marine animals. The term division has been traditionally used instead of phylum when discussing primary producers, although the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants now accepts the terms as equivalent.
Cyanobacteria are a phylum division of bacteria which range from unicellular to filamentous and include colonial species. They are found almost everywhere on earth: in damp soil, in both freshwater and marine environments, and even on Antarctic rocks. The first primary producers that used photosynthesis were oceanic cyanobacteria about 2. Because oxygen was toxic to most life on Earth at the time, this led to the near-extinction of oxygen-intolerant organisms , a dramatic change which redirected the evolution of the major animal and plant species.
Originally, biologists thought cyanobacteria was algae, and referred to it as "blue-green algae". The more recent view is that cyanobacteria is a bacteria, and hence is not even in the same Kingdom as algae. Most authorities exclude all prokaryotes , and hence cyanobacteria from the definition of algae.
Algae is an informal term for a widespread and diverse group of photosynthetic eukaryotic organisms which are not necessarily closely related and are thus polyphyletic. Algae can be divided into six groups:. Unlike higher plants, algae lack roots, stems, or leaves. They can be classified by size as microalgae or macroalgae.
Microalgae are the microscopic types of algae, not visible to the naked eye. They are mostly unicellular species which exist as individuals or in chains or groups, though some are multicellular. Microalgae are important components of the marine protists discussed above , as well as the phytoplankton discussed below.
They are very diverse. It has been estimated there are ,, species of which about 50, species have been described. They are specially adapted to an environment dominated by viscous forces. Macroalgae are the larger, multicellular and more visible types of algae, commonly called seaweeds. Seaweeds usually grow in shallow coastal waters where they are anchored to the seafloor by a holdfast.
Classics in the History of Psychology -- Thorndike () Chapter 2
Seaweed that becomes adrift can wash up on beaches. Like microalgae, macroalgae seaweeds are technically marine protists since they are not true plants. A seaweed is a macroscopic form of red or brown or green algae. Sargassum seaweed is a brown alga with air bladders that help it float. Sargassum fish are camouflaged to live among drifting Sargassum seaweed.
Back in the Silurian , some phytoplankton evolved into red , brown and green algae. These algae then invaded the land and started evolving into the land plants we know today. Later, in the Cretaceous , some of these land plants returned to the sea as mangroves and seagrasses. Marine plants can be found in intertidal zones and shallow waters, such as seagrasses like eelgrass and turtle grass , Thalassia. These plants have adapted to the high salinity of the ocean environment. Plant life can also flourish in the brackish waters of estuaries , where mangroves or cordgrass or beach grass beach grass might grow.
Sea dragons camouflaged to look like floating seaweed live in kelp forests and seagrass meadows . Mangroves and seagrasses provide important nursery habitats for marine life, acting as hiding and foraging places for larval and juvenile forms of larger fish and invertebrates. Plankton from Greek for wanderers are a diverse group of organisms that live in the water column of large bodies of water but cannot swim against a current. As a result, they wander or drift with the currents. They are a crucial source of food for many marine animals, from forage fish to whales.
Plankton can be divided into a plant-like component and an animal component. Phytoplankton are the plant-like components of the plankton community "phyto" comes from the Greek for plant. They are autotrophic self-feeding , meaning they generate their own food and do not need to consume other organisms. Phytoplankton consist mainly of microscopic photosynthetic eukaryotes which inhabit the upper sunlit layer in all oceans.
They need sunlight so they can photosynthesize. Most phytoplankton are single-celled algae, but other phytoplankton are bacteria and some are protists. They form the base of the primary production that drives the ocean food web , and account for half of the current global primary production, more than the terrestrial forests. Diatoms are one of the most common types of phytoplankton.
Euglena mutabilis , a photosynthetic flagellate. Green cyanobacteria scum washed up on a rock in California. The coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi. Algae bloom of Emiliania huxleyi off the southern coast of England. Zooplankton are the animal component of the planktonic community "zoo" comes from the Greek for animal. They are heterotrophic other-feeding , meaning they cannot produce their own own food and must consume instead other plants or animals as food. In particular, this means they eat phytoplankton. Zooplankton are generally larger than phytoplankton, mostly still microscopic but some can be seen with the naked eye.
Many protozoans single-celled eukaryotes are zooplankton, including dinoflagellates, zooflagellates , foraminiferans , and radiolarians. Some of these, such as dinoflagellates, can also be classified as phytoplankton; the distinction between plants and animals often breaks down in very small organisms. Other zooplankton include cnidarians , ctenophores , chaetognaths , molluscs , arthropods , urochordates , and annelids such as polychaetes.
White-spotted jellyfish. Tomopteris , a planktonic segmented worm with unusual yellow bioluminescence . Test of a planktic foraminiferan. Larger zooplankton can be predatory and eat smaller zooplankton. Many marine animals begin life as zooplankton in the form of eggs or larvae, before they develop into adults. Transparent herring eggs with yolk and eyes visible and one larva hatched. Male star coral releasing sperm into the water. Zoea larva of a crab. In researchers found whales carry nutrients from the depths of the ocean back to the surface using a process they called the whale pump.
There whales defecate a liquid rich in nitrogen and iron. Instead of sinking, the liquid stays at the surface where phytoplankton consume it. In the Gulf of Maine the whale pump provides more nitrogen than the river do. If phytoplankton dies before it is eaten, it descends through the euphotic zone and settles into the depths of sea. Zooplankton make up most of the marine animal biomass , and as primary consumers are the crucial link between primary producers mainly phytoplankton and the rest of the marine food web secondary consumers.
Marine carbon cycle . In a team of microbiologists led by Edward DeLong made a crucial discovery in the understanding of the marine carbon and energy cycles. They discovered a gene in several species of bacteria   responsible for production of the protein rhodopsin , previously unheard of in the domain Bacteria. These proteins found in the cell membranes are capable of converting light energy to biochemical energy due to a change in configuration of the rhodopsin molecule as sunlight strikes it, causing the pumping of a proton from inside out and a subsequent inflow that generates the energy.
Ocean acidification is the increasing acidification of the oceans, caused by the uptake of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it forms hydrogen and carbonate ions. This in turn increases the acidity of the ocean and makes survival increasingly harder for shellfish and other marine organisms that depend on calcium carbonate to form their shells.
Marine pollution results from the entry into the ocean of industrial , agricultural, and residential wastes. Nutrient pollution is a primary cause of eutrophication of surface waters, in which excess nutrients, usually nitrates or phosphates , stimulate algae growth. Toxic chemicals can adhere to tiny particles which are then taken up by plankton and benthic animals , most of which are either deposit feeders or filter feeders.
In this way, toxins are concentrated upward within ocean food chains. Many particles combine chemically in a manner which depletes oxygen, causing estuaries to become anoxic. Pesticides and toxic metals are similarly incorporated into marine food webs, harming the biological health of marine life. Many animal feeds have a high fish meal or fish hydrolysate content.
In this way, marine toxins are transferred back to farmed land animals, and then to humans. Estimates suggest something like 9 million tonnes of plastic is added to the ocean every year. It is thought this plastic will need years or more to biograde. Once in the ocean, plastics are shredded by marine amphipods into microplastics.
There are now beaches where 15 percent of the sand are grains of microplastic. In the oceans themselves, microplastics float in surface waters amongst the plankton, where they are ingested by plankton eaters. Overfishing is occurring in one third of world fish stocks, according to a report by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Habitat loss is occurring in seagrass meadows , mangrove forests , coral reefs and kelp forests , which are in global decline due to human disturbances. Shifting baselines arise in research on marine ecosystems because changes must be measured against some previous reference point baseline , which in turn may represent significant changes from an even earlier state of the ecosystem.
Areas that swarmed with a particular species hundreds of years ago may have experienced long term decline, but it is the level a few decades previously that is used as the reference point for current populations. In this way large declines in ecosystems or species over long periods of time were, and are, masked. There is a loss of perception of change that occurs when each generation redefines what is natural or untouched.
Biodiversity is the result of over three billion years of evolution. Until approximately million years ago, all life consisted of archaea , bacteria , protozoans and similar single-celled organisms. The history of biodiversity during the Phanerozoic the last million years , starts with rapid growth during the Cambrian explosion — a period during which nearly every phylum of multicellular organisms first appeared. Over the next million years or so, invertebrate diversity showed little overall trend and vertebrate diversity shows an overall exponential trend.
However, more than 99 percent of all species that ever lived on Earth, amounting to over five billion species,  are estimated to be extinct. The dramatic rise in diversity has been marked by periodic, massive losses of diversity classified as mass extinction events. Most diversity and biomass on earth is found among the microorganisms , which are difficult to measure. Recorded extinction events are therefore based on the more easily observed changes in the diversity and abundance of larger multicellular organisms , rather than the total diversity and abundance of life.
Based on the fossil record , the background rate of extinctions on Earth is about two to five taxonomic families of marine animals every million years. The Great Oxygenation Event was perhaps the first major extinction event. Since the Cambrian explosion five further major mass extinctions have significantly exceeded the background extinction rate.
Vertebrates took 30 million years to recover from this event. During the sixth century BC, the Greek philosopher Xenophanes BC recognised that some fossil shells were remains of shellfish. He used this to argue that what was at the time dry land was once under the sea. Later, during the fourth century BC, another Greek philosopher Aristotle — BC attempted a comprehensive classification of animals which included systematic descriptions of many marine species,   and particularly species found in the Mediterranean Sea. The most striking passages are about the sea-life visible from observation on Lesbos and available from the catches of fishermen.
His observations on catfish , electric fish Torpedo and angler-fish are detailed, as is his writing on cephalopods , namely, Octopus , Sepia cuttlefish and the paper nautilus Argonauta argo. His description of the hectocotyl arm , used in sexual reproduction, was widely disbelieved until its rediscovery in the 19th century. What the modern zoologist would call vertebrates and invertebrates, Aristotle called "animals with blood" and "animals without blood" he did not know that complex invertebrates do make use of hemoglobin , but of a different kind from vertebrates.
He divided animals with blood into live-bearing mammals , and egg-bearing birds and fish. Invertebrates "animals without blood" he divided into insects, crustacea further divided into non-shelled — cephalopods — and shelled and testacea molluscs. In contemporary times, marine life is a field of study both in marine biology and in biological oceanography. In biology many phyla, families and genera have some species that live in the sea and others that live on land. Marine biology classifies species based on the environment rather than on taxonomy. For this reason marine biology encompasses not only organisms that live only in a marine environment, but also other organisms whose lives revolve around the sea.
Biological oceanography is the study of how organisms affect and are affected by the physics , chemistry , and geology of the oceanographic system. Biological oceanography mostly focuses on the microorganisms within the ocean; looking at how they are affected by their environment and how that affects larger marine creatures and their ecosystem. Biological oceanography takes a bottom up approach in terms of the food web, while marine biology studies the ocean from a top down perspective. Biological oceanography mainly focuses on the ecosystem of the ocean with an emphasis on plankton: their diversity morphology, nutritional sources, motility, and metabolism ; their productivity and how that plays a role in the global carbon cycle; and their distribution predation and life cycle.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. The plants, animals and other organisms that live in the salt water of the sea or ocean, or the brackish water of coastal estuaries. Elevation histogram showing the percentage of the Earth's surface above and below sea level. See also: Hydrosphere. The Earth's water cycle. Life timeline. This box: view talk edit. Single-celled life. Multicellular life. Earliest water. Earliest life.
Earliest oxygen. Atmospheric oxygen. Oxygen crisis. Sexual reproduction. Earliest plants. Ediacara biota. Cambrian explosion. Earliest apes. See also: Human timeline , and Nature timeline. Further information: Evolutionary history of life and Timeline of evolutionary history of life.
Microbial mats are the earliest form of life on Earth for which there is good fossil evidence. The image shows a cyanobacterial -algal mat. Stromatolites are formed from microbial mats as microbes slowly move upwards to avoid being smothered by sediment. Main article: Marine microorganism. See also: Evolution of cells. Marine microbial loop. See also: Marine bacteriophage and Viral evolution. Bacteriophages phages. Multiple phages attached to a bacterial cell wall at ,x magnification.
Diagram of a typical tailed phage. These are cyanophages , viruses that infect cyanobacteria scale bars indicate nm. In terms of individual counts, tailed phage are the most abundant biological entities in the sea. See also: Bacterioplankton. See also: Microalgae. Red algae, Cyanidium sp. Play media. See also: Microanimal and Ichthyoplankton. Marine ascomycete fungus. Main article: Marine fungi. See also: Evolution of fungi. Main article: Marine invertebrates.
See also: Avalon explosion and Cambrian explosion. Barrel sponge. Stove-pipe sponge. Their tentacles sting and paralyse small fish. Porpita porpita. Further information: Marine worm and Sea worm. Bigfin reef squid displaying vivid iridescence at night. Cephalopods are the most neurologically advanced invertebrates. See also: Evolution of molluscs and Evolution of cephalopods. Generalized or hypothetical ancestral mollusc. See also: Evolution of brachiopods.
Colorful sea lilies in shallow waters. Ray-finned fish. Marine tetrapod sperm whale. Skeletal structures showing the vertebral column running from the head to the tail. Main article: Marine vertebrate. Further information: Fish , diversity of fish , and evolution of fish. Main article: Cartilaginous fish. Further information: Bony fish and Teleost. Ocean sunfish. Clown triggerfish. See also: Tetrapods and evolution of tetrapods. Main article: Marine reptile. See also: Evolution of reptiles.
Marine iguana. Leatherback sea turtle. Saltwater crocodile. Main article: Seabird. Waterbird food web in Chesapeake Bay. Gentoo penguin swimming underwater. Albatrosses range over huge areas of ocean and regularly circle the globe. Main article: Marine mammal.
See also: Evolution of cetaceans , Evolution of sirenians , and List of marine mammal species. Beluga whale. Main articles: Algae and Marine plants. See also: Evolutionary history of plants , Plant evolution , Timeline of plant evolution , and Evolution of photosynthesis. Cyanobacteria from a microbial mat. Cyanobacteria were the first organisms to release oxygen via photosynthesis. Prochlorococcus marinus.
Evolution of mangroves and seagrasses. Seagrass meadow. Further information: Plankton , Bacterioplankton , and Ichthyoplankton. Colonial phytoplankton. Radiolarian protist drawn by Ernst Haeckel in Marine amphipod. Ocean sunfish larva. Whale pump nutrient cycle. See also: Ocean food web. Marine food web. See also: Fish migration , Freshwater ecosystem , and Freshwater fish. See also: Biogeochemical cycle , Hydrogen cycle , Mercury in fish , and Sulfur cycle. Biological pump.
Oxygen cycle. Marine nitrogen cycle. Marine phosphorus cycle. Mercury cycle. Energy gathering mechanism in marine bacteria via Proteorhodopsin . Fishing down the foodweb Overfishing of high trophic fish like tuna can result in them being replaced by low trophic organisms, like jellyfish. We are gradually winning this war to exterminate them. Marine extinction intensity during the Phanerozoic. Millions of years ago. Late D. Apparent extinction intensity, i. Further information: History of marine biology. Marine life portal. See the Challenger Deep article for more details.
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Kraft, L. The manufacture, shipping and receiving, and quality control of rodent bedding materials. Lacy, R. Analysis of founder representation in pedigrees: Founder equivalents and founder genome equivalents. Zoo Biology Lanum, J. The damaging effects of light on the retina: Empirical findings. Larson, R. Feedlot and Ranch Equipment for Beef Cattle. Farmers Bulletin No. Department of Agriculture.
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Science Pfaff, J. Loudness levels and frequency content of noise in the animal house. London 10 2 : Poiley, S. A systematic method of breeder rotation for non-inbred laboratory animal colonies. Care Panel 10 4 Reinhardt, V. Houser, S. Eisele, D. Cowley, and R. Behavioral responses of unrelated rhesus monkey females paired for the purpose of environmental enrichment.
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Wax, T. Effects of age. Weichbrod, R. Hall, R. Simmonds, and C. Selecting bedding material. Cisar, J. Miller, R. Simmonds, A. Alvares, and T. Effects of cage beddings on microsomal oxidative enzymes in rat liver. Whary, M. Peper, C. Borkowski, W. Lawrence, and F. The effects of group housing on the research use of the laboratory rabbit. White, W. The effects of cage space and environmental factors. Proceedings from a conference organized by the Scientists Center for Animal Welfare and held December 9. North Carolina. Balk, and C. Use of cage space by guinea pigs. London Williams-Blangero, S.
Recent trends in genetic research on captive and wild nonhuman primate populations. Research-oriented genetic management of nonhuman primate colonies. Wolff, A. A practical assessment of a nonhuman primate exercise program. Wostman, B. Nutrition and metabolism of the germ-free mammal. World Rev. Zondek, B. Effect of audiogenic stimulation on genital function and reproduction. Infertility induced by auditory stimuli prior to mating. Acta Endocrinol. A respected resource for decades, the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals has been revised by a committee of experts, based on input from scientists and the public.
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