Mein Sklavenleben: Die Wüste (German Edition)
The following text is the transcript by V. I want to thank V. French Action was largely a newspaper, but it extended out into a political movement between the First and Second World Wars and to a certain extent the second decade of the 20th century just passed, so after the first of those two wars. Maurras was born in Provence. He was an intellectual who was drawn to a kind of revolutionary tradition in French life. France had always been characterized until the later 19th century by a significant quadrant of the population who rejected the logic of the French Revolution.
These were known as the Whites, or the counter-revolutionaries. This tradition of regretting the French Revolution was part of High Catholicism and part of the deep social conservatism of sections of the bourgeoisie that existed in France throughout the existence of the Third Republic. The emergence and unification of Prussia on the disemboweled and disinherited torso of modern France was something the French took very much to heart.
Particularly in , there was a communistic uprising in Paris known as the Commune which started in a particular period and which French troops put down in an extremely bloody and savage way with the sponsorship of German arms behind them in the rear. This is the idea that France came first in all things. The trial that Maurras had at this particular time was truncated and was laughable in terms of French statute then or since. The Resistance was very much enamored with the prospect of guillotining Maurras, seeing him as the spiritual father of Vichy.
Maurras was released from prison into a hospital in the early s and died soon after. We shall come on to the view that politics was primary for Maurras, unlike spirituality and religion, in a moment. He perceived all of France as essentially sacred and universal in expectancy and energy. He believed that the Third Republic was a rotten, bourgeois counterpace that needed to be ripped down and replaced by absolutist, legitimist, and monarchical tendencies. Unlike the post-war radical Right in France which has made peace with the Republic for reasons of electoral viability, such as the Front National for example which never even intimates that it would like to restore the monarchy if it was ever put anywhere near power, Maurras and his associates were obsessed with monarchical restoration.
This gave their type of Rightism a deeply reactionary and deeply counter-revolutionary cast of thought, but it is important to realize that these things were significantly popular in large areas of French national life. Large areas of the unassimilated aristocracy, the upper middle class, most of the upper class, and even parts of the essentially middle bourgeoisie, retained a suspicion of the legacy of the French Revolution and wished to see the recomposition of France along monarchical lines. These policies even lasted well into the 20th century, even beyond the Second World War.
Maurras believed that France needed a strong and social Catholicism in order to be viable. This is complicated given his own tendentious hold on religious belief. Maurras, though never an atheist, rejected the early, comforting Catholicism of his childhood youth and was an agnostic for most of his life. This did not prevent him from adopting a viewpoint which was fundamentalist in relation to Catholic rigor and in the belief of what would now be called traditionalist Catholicism since the Vatican II settlement of the early s, which in Catholic terms began to liberalize the Church and adapted it to a modern, secular age inside of France and beyond its borders.
Maurras believed that spirituality was intensely important for a people and without it a people rotted and became as nothing. He therefore supported radical religion as a maximalizing social agenda whilst not believing in it himself. Indeed, he implicitly distrusted much of the Gospel message and found the Old Testament disastrous in its pharisaical illumination. Maurras believed that Christianity was a useful tool that an elite would make use of in order to create a docile, happy, contented and organic society.
This means that the papacy was deeply suspicious of Maurras despite the fact that politically he seemed to be a drummer boy for what they might have been perceived to want. The Vatican was concerned at the agnosticism from the top and the synthetic use of Catholicism as a masking agent and cloaking ideology for Right-wing politics inside France that it otherwise found quite a lot to support in. Maurras believed in anti-Semitism as a core element of his ideology and beliefs.
He believed that Jews should have no role in national life and no role whatsoever in the sort of France which he wished to see. Although they had not been responsible in any sort of way for much of the events of the French Revolution, he believed that their emancipation, as the emancipation had occurred in Germany, Britain, and elsewhere during the 19th century, had led to a collusion of interests which were detrimental to the sacred nature of France.
He was also strongly anti-Protestant and anti-Masonic and had a view of nationality which is regarded almost as simple-minded today. He basically thought that to command a status within the French nation you had to be French in word, in deed, and in prior cultural inheritance.
You had to be French in terms of the self-limiting definitions of what it was to be national. This meant that there were radiating hierarchies within France as within other European societies inside modernity. This was the idea that some people were more French than others and this implicit elitism was always part and parcel of the nature of his movement.
French Action appealed to an enormous number of intellectuals across the spectrum even though it was sold by quasi-paramilitaries in the street. Maurras believed in action in the streets as a part of politics and disprivileged voting, which he thought was sterile, bourgeois, majoritarian, and anti-elitist. You would have had strong military and other institutions that ramify with other elements of this traditional French power as expressed in Bourbon restorationist and pre-revolutionary and post-revolutionary Romantic royalist France.
Maurras believed that to be happy people had to be content in the structures of their own livery and their own inheritance. The inheritance of the French nation was all-important, and this is why he collaborated with Third Republic politicians such as General Boulanger towards the end of the 19th century. He did this in order to undermine the nature of the liberal republic and lead to reforms and authoritarian constitutions within it which would have served his purpose. He supported a large range of bourgeois, radical, and liberal politicians at the time of the First World War, which he thought was a national surprise of glory and a chance for France to redeem herself on the battlefield against a traditional enemy, which he always perceived as Germany.
This is the area where Maurras is most disprivileged by contemporary nationalist thinkers across Europe and even beyond. Of course, by the time de Gaulle became supreme commander of French forces, France would be decimated on the battlefield and there was nothing left to repair or even to defend. Guderian, who had read all of the theory which de Gaulle had based his own warfare predictions upon, had already trumped that particular card, and the Germans used British and French ideas about tank warfare to defeat both the British Expeditionary Force and the French army in France.
Seizing with revolutionary energy the generational gap in the conduct of warfare, the Germans routed and humiliated the French, who had fought them to a standstill in the past in the Great War, in a matter of weeks, by maneuvering around the Maginot Line and by passing through the allegedly impassable Ardennes Forest to appear behind French lines with roving and energetic Panzer squadrons backed by Stuka bombers. This catastrophe became a divine and a national surprise to Maurras. Maurras never actively collaborated although nearly all those in his circle would find themselves involved in the Vichy government at one time or another.
Vichy began an institutionalization of a revolution from above and a national revolution within France largely permitted under German auspices, particularly in the early years before the radicalization and momentum building of what became the French Resistance under British artillery and the Gaullist movement in opposition and exile.
Maurras believed that the only true purpose of a Frenchman was to enhance the glory of France and all other was tackle and blither. He believed that during the German occupation it was best for French ideologues such as themselves to retreat to his family estate and live there in quietude even though many of his philosophical children collaborated openly with German arms both within and beyond Vichy. He was truly the great old man of the French Right by this time.
After the war, the resistance sought to blame Maurras for much of the collaboration that had gone on, including the expulsion of some Jews from France, the international humiliation, as they perceived it, of French subjection to German arms, and the neo-colonial aspects within Europe of German policy in the French nation-state. So, they gave him life imprisonment instead which, as an old man, was effectively a death sentence in and of itself. This is again an important disjunction between Maurras and much of the rest of the Right. Maurras was not concerned whether Dreyfus was guilty or not of passing secrets and engaging in espionage, of helping a foreign power, and so on.
What he was concerned with is the dishonor done to the French judiciary if he was not found guilty and done to the French army and national state society if he was now to get away with this. This idea that an individual could be found guilty for connective and social-organic reasons irrespective of whether they were actually guilty of the offense one-to-one and in the customary nature of normal life is anathema to liberal ideas of the sovereignty of the individual that should be placed in a premium position in relation to all social actions.
Maurras was a fundamentalist anti-Dreyfusard and was part of a campaign spearheaded by elements of the revanchist Catholic Church and post-Boulanger elements in the French Republic to the extent that Dreyfus should be found guilty and executed if possible. It was truly one of those instances which define a generation. Maurras believed that the English were always perfidious and were always against the divine France, although there were moments when he sought collaboration with English and British figures but always against the more dreaded bogey of Germany.
His views were not particularly racial beyond the fact that France was the leading light of world civilization and had to be treated as such. It was quite clear what he meant by who he was and who he was not, a Frenchman or a French woman, in the era in which he lived. You inherited genealogically what you were from the generations that had lived in the society prior to you and you were a Catholic and you were, to all intents and purposes, a reasonably pious one and you yearned for the return of the monarchy in France as against the secular republican institutions which replaced the monarchical structures of the Bourbon era after the Revolution and again after the Restoration which followed after the Revolution.
You were not Protestant and you were not a Mason and you were not a Jew and you were not a foreigner and you were not of foreign mixture, namely of non-national French admixture. These things are quite clear and quite capacious in their reasonableness. His thinking is also most crucial to the development of Catholic societies and, of course, he has little social interplay with the Anglo-Saxon world.
Maurras seems to have little to say to Anglo-Saxony, though much to say to the integral nature of the nation which is always the defiant and unyielding France. Where did Maurras get his opinions from? Maurras believed that France had a new destiny amongst all of the nations on Earth not to bring people together, not to supervise people and not to be loyal to Swiss institutional ideas, as he dismissed the ideas of Rousseau, who was Swiss and strongly influenced by Calvinist and Protestant thinking which he blamed for the French Revolution.
This uniquely Protestant idea whereby even the social organs of direction are there to free the individual from bondage. You are being beaten over the head with freedom. You are being beaten into freedom! And this uniquely, sort of sado-masochistic and ultra-Protestant view whereby you are being punished in freedom, for freedom, by freedom is a uniquely American take upon the French Revolution. So, as you are handcuffed and beaten you are receiving both liberty and freedom.
These are very important ideas which come from the French Revolution. When you stand before a French court you have to prove your innocence. As everybody knows, the British idea, which transcends the Atlantic and is visible in the jurisprudence of the United States, is that you are innocent before the bar of the courts and you have various barristers there to defend your rights. In France, the opposite is true.
In accordance with revolutionary jurisprudence, the state knows best. The state has divulged religiosity to itself. The state is the residual legatee of all ideas of liberty and dispassionate justice. You have to prove your innocence to the state, because if the state argues in a prior way for the possibility of your guilt you must be guilty of something or why else would the state dare to accuse you. This means that Maurras seeks help from German and English intellectual critics even as he is unmasking French intellectual culture for its support and tolerance of the French Revolution.
The French Revolution remains the most cardinal event in history as regards the modern history of France. The French Revolution characterized an enormous range of change in European society and in the lifestyle of European man. If you remember, the revolution had quite timid beginnings with the desire for bourgeois reformism and the integration of politicians like Mirabeau in It then morphed into a more legalistic liberal assembly with a legislative assembly in which then became the much more revolutionary Convention in This is the period associated with the Terror and the dominion of Maximilien Robespierre.
For much of French history, Paris had always been the center of revolution even though the French revolutionary anthem, La Marseillaise , came from Marseille to Paris in order to save revolutionary Paris by adding fuel from the most revolutionary and violent part of the provinces who were then fighting against the Whites, or the counter-revolutionaries, as they came to be known.
Napoleon Bonaparte was an equivocal figure for Maurras. This meant that there was if not a pacifist then a limit to national aggrandizement in Maurras scheme of things. If the nation was crucial to all social development, the nation had borders, and the nation had limits, and authoritarianism inevitably put constraints upon social action, which reminds people that Maurras remains a sort of radical or revolutionary conservative. Indeed, he supported de Gaulle, and he supported mainstream Third Republican politicians who were anti-Hitler just as he supported Clemenceau in the First World War because he was anti-Kaiser.
The threat to France from Germany and the helplessness of France in the face of German military might were abiding themes for Maurras who saw the possibility of defeat on the battlefield as a moral and spiritual defeat for France, although like all quixotic and intuitive nationalists, Maurras believed that France could never be totally defeated. A political system had gone down under the Panzers, a political system had gone down under the Stuka bombers, but France itself was irrational and eternal and would always spring up again.
Initially, he supported the de Gaullist fight against the Germans. He immediately switched to Vichy and national liberation when he saw that much of what he wanted in policy terms could be instituted under German aegis. The fact that it was under German aegis caused him great psychic pain and wanton disregard. He therefore retreated to his own estates to cover the dichotomy of supporting Vichy at a distance without wishing to be seen to champion its German precursor.
Maurras lived in an era of tumultuous change and violent excess. None more so than the events of the 6th of February These events, unlike the Paris events of which have been emblazoned in world history and have counter-parts in Berkeley, California and the streets of Britain and the streets of West Germany as it then was and elsewhere throughout the Western world, have largely been forgotten and have been deliberately dropped down the memory hole, collectively and historically.
Maurras, however, was deeply involved in the events of which were nothing more or less than an attempt to overthrow the French Third Republic by revolution from the Right-wing. Riddled with scandal and approximating to extreme decay due to the economic lashings of depression from the United States and elsewhere who were beginning to humiliate the French exchequer, the radical Right decided to depose by going onto the streets the French Third Republic in early February This was awful rioting, and it was very serious and very destructive social rioting by about , demonstrators from all of the French combat action leagues that then existed in the country.
All of these movements marched on Paris and marched on the National Assembly and marched on the presidential buildings in an attempt to overthrow the Third Republic with violent revolutionary activism from the streets. One of the interesting examples of this period is the fact that, unlike today where the radical Right is shunted off to the side and all the areas of political thought including the moderate Right strive to have nothing to do with it whatsoever, in that era the radical Right infused the mainstream Right and even liberal, center Right elements of the Right were not immune to radical Right-wing ideas.
This shows you that politics is about energy and about how you corral and contrast various forms of energy over time. It all depends upon the timing, the character of the men involved and the secondary forces which they can put into play. No one knew this better than Maurras who influenced these structured, highly controlled Right-wing mobs, which is what they essentially amounted to, in their assaults on French liberal bourgeois power at this time.
Sixteen died as a result of the rioting, and over 2, were injured, which is a large number of injuries to be sustained in endless fighting with French riot police and French police who turned out en masse to defend the Third Republic. Communists and socialists and trade unionists of the Left also mobilized large counter-demonstrations.
It should be noticed that both societies had a penchant for political violence and for the rhetoric of extremism in the street and both were Roman Catholic societies unlike Britain, which existed of course halfway between these two polities. However, the radical Right had an enormous transforming impact upon the entire Right wing which led a large element of the pre-collaborationist cabinet in the mid- to lates to collaborate once the Vichy government was set up. Vichy is always described as a regime by historians in an attempt to discredit it in relation to a proper government which is so described.
Yet there is a degree to which the Vichy government had the support actively of at least a third of the French. De Gaulle, through a remarkable piece of political [inaudible] to make after the war, said that no one ever collaborated. This is after the purification, of course, which killed many thousands of those who were alleged to have done so.
But the trick of saying that no one collaborated allowed the post-war generations to unite over the fact that there was a German occupation, no French collaboration except for a few purists and traitors and a Resistant movement activated from home and abroad. It was a clever and intellectual and ideological start to enable France to recover more quickly after the war and settle differences without being too hawkish or squeamish about it. But there is a degree to which it was a lie and a blatant untruth.
France bore quite a large price for its staunching of social peace after You have to remember that after there was no effective Right in France, because the whole of the Right had been allegedly discredited by collaboration. This meant that there was an enormous gap and only classic centrist, conservative movements fielded candidates against the center and Left in the immediate post-war elections. De Gaulle, of course, was trying to capture the market for existing Right-wing opinion with his movement [inaudible]. De Gaulle had subliminally fascistic credentials for some of his policies and went back to yearnings for a hard man and a strong man to govern France with an iron hand.
These go back to General Boulanger and back to the Bonapartism of the 19th century. No internal warfare on the Right has been more striking than the one in France between the legacy of de Gaullist historical tradition and the legacy of collaboration. In the end, the division had to occur, but at least a million French Algerians, who were totally French of course, pieds noirs , black feet, came back from North Africa to live in the south of France where they became the bedrock for the Front National vote in the deep south of the country in generations to come.
At every large FN event there is a ferverous mass. For those not in the know, this is a traditionalist type of Catholicism that rejects Vatican II and settlements around it in the contemporary Catholic Church. Maurras believed that if politics was put first all the other problems that beset France and lead to spiritual difficulties could be changed retrospectively.
However, there was a degree to which this put the cart before the horse. He was also guilty of the anti-legitimist claim put forward by many deeply conservative apolitical and asocial French Catholics. This was the view that they should have nothing to do with the bourgeois Third Republic and that they should remain French and Catholic forever irrespective of a wicked regime that could not be stopped from sinning in its own right. Maurras would have nothing to do with this and believed that politics first, second, and third was necessary for the redemption of France.
The idea of monarchical restoration and a return of the French monarchy was not a quaint political ideal as far as Maurras and his immediate supporters were concerned. They believed that only by repudiating the Republic, only by ripping out the accretions of what could be described as the French version of the Bolshevik regime, namely the latter day inheritance of the French republican, revolutionary tradition and all its structures, could the France that he wanted be brought about.
Although post-war forms of the radical Right-wing in France have had to make peace with republicanism in order to survive and contest democratic elections where they have had considerable support, more so than in most other Western European countries, there is a degree to which Maurras was quite technically direct in the issue of the French republican experiment and the mass terror that it induced between and which cast the shadow of a guillotine across French revolutionary rhetoric.
Most of the great Right-wing figures, such as Abel Bonnard, look back through Maurras to the great ultramontanist figure, Joseph de Maistre. Joseph de Maistre, who wrote in the late 18th century and earlier, is responsible for the doctrine of papal infallibility up to a point at least in terms of its theoretical mark when it was introduced quite late in the day in in recognition of extra-Catholic and intra-Catholic disputes. Maurras was determined to see Catholicism revived within France and put at the heart of the French nation, and he did residually return to the Catholicism of his childhood near to his own deathbed.
Whether this was just an insurance policy or was a genuine conversion to the faith with which he had always lingered is open for his biographers to contest. Maurras was a peppery individual with a sort of reynardical moustache and trimmed beard. He was splenetic and outrageous in debate and commentary. He called for the assassination of many public figures from the editorial mouthpiece of his magazine for which he was given many suspended sentences. When a French politician argued that all of the Right-wing combat leagues should be disarmed in France because he saw the danger of the events of , Maurras called for his assassination in print, which as the calling for an execution of a government minister he was jailed 8 months for his transgression.
Maurras was never afraid to speak his mind about any of the problems that beset France from the Dreyfus case through to the French armies in the First World War to the conduct of the Treaty of Versailles. He also wanted France to impose more rigorous and more judgmental and more harsh and caustic sanctions on Germany, long considered by most historians to be a disastrous maneuver.
But there is nothing in relation to what it is to be French beyond which Charles Maurras would not go. Maurras saw himself as the quiet leader of a counter-revolutionary force in French life that would lead to the institution of an integral nation and an integral nationality above sectional interests and above party interests, which he always despised.
The interesting thing about his form of Frenchness is that everyone could have a role in it. Ultimately, his vision was conservative. If you were more French than somebody else, you had more of a say and more of a role. If you were Catholic rather than Protestant or Jewish or something, you had more of a role in France. It is not to say the others would have no role, but they would have a severely restricted and reduced role in relation to those who would supervene over the goddess.
The goddess was one of his private terms for France and for the French nation, which was always perceived as a feminine creation and identity by all of its proponents and detractors. This is arguably true. Maurras has to be seen and judged in French terms and in French terms alone. Although he never succeeded in the most radical of his aims, part of the regime that existed under Vichy can be seen as the endorsement of many of his ideas although the resistance groups would pitch and the Allied invasion pulled back upon Vichy and led to the end of the collaboration.
This is part of the irony of history, which would not be forgotten on somebody as literate and carefully minded as Charles Maurras. When he was asked by a certain dumbfounded bohemian who had met his acquaintance why he did this, he said he did it because it was the most interesting paper in France. This is something which is key to an understanding of people like Maurras and the radical Right cultural tradition that they represented.
This is why he was elected to the French Academy, the most august and antiquated of French cultural institutions. So, I think it falls upon us, as largely non-French people, to look back upon this traditionalist philosopher of the French radical Right with a degree of quiet appraisal. Maurras was a figure who could be admired as somebody who fought for his own country to the last element of his own breath. To give one cogent example, the Greek play Antigone deals with the prospect of the punishment of a woman by Creon because she wishes to honor the death sacrifice of her brother.
George Steiner once commented in a book looking at the different varieties of Antigone that most critics of the Left have always supported her against Creon and most socially Right-wing commentators like T. Eliot have always supported Creon against Antigone. And yet Maurras supported Antigone against Creon, because she wished to bury her brother for reasons which were ancestral and chthonian and came up from under the ground and were primeval and were blood-related and were therefore more important and more profound than the laws that men had put together with pieces of parchment and bits of writing on paper.
Charles Maurras: hero of France, national collaborator with excellence, we salute you over this time, we remember your contribution to the [inaudible] of a rival nationality! Thank you very much! URLs in this post:. Click here to print. All rights reserved. D abei ist die Metapolitik bei weitem nicht so abgehoben und hochgeistig, wie sie klingt. Das kann sie aber nur leisten, wenn ihr Erkenntnisanspruch wesentlich und bewusst politischer Natur ist, also zur objektiven Erkenntnis die richtigen Ziele und Wege politischen Handelns vorgibt. Diese geistige Arbeit betrifft z. Gerade deshalb befindet sie sich an einem Scheideweg.
Am Ende verschwinden sie ganz. Das reicht schon an sich aus, die Spreu vom Weizen zu trennen. Vom Ganzen, nicht von den Teilen auszugehen, ist radikal. Von der Ursache, nicht von den Wirkungen auszugehen, ist radikal. Und das geht, indem betont offensiv vorgegangen wird. Sie zeitigt den Kampf aus Notwehr, aber auch aus politischem Realismus: der Kampf ist aus keinem Leben, weder aus dem sozialen noch aus dem politischen, wegzudenken. Das ist eine wahrhaft metapolitische Erkenntnis. Carl Schmitt in China.
Schmitt joined the German National Socialist, Nazi, party in when Adolf Hitler became Reichskanzler of the Third Reich and enthusiastically participated in the purge of Jews and Jewish influence from German public life. Thinkers on the left are ambivalent about his legacy, although despite the odeur of his Nazi past, he remains popular among theory-seeking academics. Her research is focused on criminal justice and legal philosophy.
We set up an ideal form [ eidos ], which we take to be a goal [ telos ], and we then act in such a way as to make it become fact. The Schmittian intellectual likes to play Russian roulette but with an intriguing new twist: she believes that a single round has been placed in the revolver but she also knows this may not be the case.
In fact, the only one who knows the truth is the Sovereign, a figure whose will the Schmittian cannot fathom. The Sovereign decides who plays the game and how many times. Given how this intellectual predicament, masquerading as a position, commits one to always comply with the Diktat of the Sovereign, we must ask ourselves: why have several prominent Chinese intellectuals elected Herr Professor Carl Schmitt, Crown Jurist of the Third Reich, to be their intellectual patron saint?
Fulfilling a dream of wealth and power has been a feature of Chinese history and intellectual life since the late-nineteenth century. The national essence is to China what the soul is to man. Just as religious man seeks to ascend to heaven by cultivating and purifying his soul, China can become wealthy and powerful if its national essence is enhanced and cleansed of polluting influences.
The New Enlightenment Movement which emerged following the ideological thaw of the late s saw traditionalism and feudalism being accused of holding China back. Telling Friend from Enemy. Liu Xiaofeng. Christian thought, so conceived, could thus be put in dialogue with other disciplines and contribute, among other things, to the modernisation of Chinese society.
Liu argued that in China Christianity took root in a unique way and was independent of missionary evangelisation. It is no surprise then that by understanding research in these terms, Liu soon developed a fervid interest in Carl Schmitt. To Carl Schmitt, the state has a theological origin — it must be conceived of as a divine-like entity if it is to hold back chaos and disorder so as to secure peace and prosperity. We must also note the ease with which the writings of Carl Schmitt succeeded in China.
This was a distinction that could be used to name any pair of antagonists, as long as the attributes of the named antagonists could be demonstrated to be so thoroughly incommensurable as to make them want to destroy each other, in order for each to preserve its own identity. Liberal democracies, Schmitt held, were trapped in false political categories: they ignored the crucial distinction between friend and enemy and therefore exposed themselves to the risk of capture by the interests of wealthy individuals and factions, who would use the state for their own goals rather than for the greater good of the people.
According to Schmitt, liberal polities pretended that the government and the people were subject to the demands of reliable legal norms but the pretence was shattered whenever an internal or external enemy threatened the nation and national security. Reliance on parliamentary debates and legal procedures, he argued, posed the risk of throwing a country into chaos because they hampered the adoption of an effective and immediate response. Schmitt held that sovereignty resides not in the rule of law but in the person or the institution who, in a time of extreme crisis, has the authority to suspend the law in order to restore normality.
Yet how can a sovereign power that exists above and outside the law enjoy any legitimacy? According to Schmitt, the legitimacy of such a power can be defended if one delinks the concepts of liberalism and democracy. He held that the two were substantially distinct and set about redefining the latter. Schmitt argued that a polity founded on the sways of popular opinion could hardly be legitimate.
He appealed instead to ideas about equality and the will of the people. Such a popular will need not be formed or expressed in terms of universal suffrage: the demands made at a public rally were sufficient to convey a popular will at work. This way of thinking was very attractive to intellectuals who favoured statist and nationalist solutions to political problems and issues of international relations.
Why Schmitt? Policy advisors and policy-makers can easily apply these concepts in their analysis of situations. These narratives are by no means unique to China but we must note that they are at odds with the universalist and internationalist aspects of Chinese Communism as state doctrine. The gist of the Chinese Schmittian argument is that the world is not politically homogeneous but a pluriverse where radically different political systems exist in mutual antagonism. China, accordingly, is not only entitled to but must find and defend its own path to power and prosperity.
The friend-enemy distinction encourages a stark form of binary thinking. The category of friend, however substantively defined, can be conceived only by projecting its opposite. Religion, language, ethnicity, culture, social status, ideology, gender or indeed anything else can serve as the defining element of a given friend-enemy distinction. The friend-enemy distinction is a public distinction: it refers to friendship and enmity between groups rather than between individuals.
Private admiration for a member of a hostile group is always possible. The markers of identity, however, are relatively fluid because a political community is formed via the common identification of a perceived threat. For Schmitt, the friend-enemy distinction is a purely political distinction and to be treated as entirely separate from ethics. So long as a there is a necessary cause to defend, any number of deaths can be justified. Moreover, necessity is premised on antagonism.
But this is precisely why Schmittian concepts have inspired some of the most effective analyses of Chinese politics and constitutionalism.
Zisska & Schauer Auktion 59/2 by Friedrich Zisska - Issuu
They argued against democratic decision-making processes by outlining their adverse consequences. According to them, such processes can involve lengthy discussions, leading to delays in policy implementation or even to political and institutional paralysis. Quotable and Useful Ideas. Wang Shaoguang. Like Schmitt, Wang rejects representative democracy on the pragmatic and utilitarian grounds that such a system is ultimately incapable of improving the welfare of the entire population.
After Mao, the party-state needed — and to an extent still needs — a distinctively Chinese political ontology. This ontology — or way of conceptualizing and understanding the world — has to include a bipartite political system, in which an extensive party apparatus exists both inside and outside the law, wielding supreme power over the state. Furthermore, this party-state system has to be internally coherent: capable of self-perpetuation to enjoy legitimacy in the eyes of both the Chinese people and foreigners.
When Schmitt is directly quoted, his influence is obvious. These theories belong to different areas of Chinese constitutional scholarship, but they all recast the Schmittian sovereign in Chinese party-state garb. Specifically, each of these theories defends political representation by consensus, linking consensus to broad acceptance of the Diktat of the party-state.
To date, Western legal scholarship has properly examined neither these influential arguments nor their legal and political ramifications. But there are several scholars who have indicated the relevance of these arguments for China. For instance, Randall Pereenboom presents a useful account of the Chinese legal system as a pluriverse populated by different conceptions of the rule of law. At any rate, we can see that Schmittian concepts have become far more dominant than liberal ones in mainland legal scholarship.
But such attempts at accommodation only reveal the weakness of the liberal position by comparison with the Schmittian one. Professor He reflects the quandary of those who seek to defend elements of a liberal democratic model such as judicial independence within an unaccommodating Schmittian friend-enemy paradigm. Schmitt und Xi. The selective revival of the Maoist rhetoric of struggle to launch a new mass line education campaign on 18 June is a good example of how the friend-enemy distinction has been adapted for present-day one-party rule.
You ought to be sold down the river. They were sincere, for like a god he had stretched forth his mighty hand and closed the gates of hell against them. He knew, himself, that he had done a noble and gracious thing, and was privately well pleased with his magnanimity; and that night he set the incident down in his diary, so that his son might read it in after years, and be thereby moved to deeds of gentleness and humanity himself.
He brought death into the world. A profound terror had taken possession of her. Her child could grow up and be sold down the river! The thought crazed her with horror. If she dozed and lost herself for a moment, the next moment she was on her feet flying to her child's cradle to see if it was still there.
Then she would gather it to her heart and pour out her love upon it in a frenzy of kisses, moaning, crying, and saying, "Dey sha'n't, oh, dey sha'nt'! She went and stood over it a long time communing with herself. He hain't done nuth'n. God was good to you; why warn't he good to him? Dey can't sell you down de river. I hates yo' pappy; he hain't got no heart--for niggers, he hain't, anyways. I hates him, en I could kill him! Oh, I got to do it, yo' po' mammy's got to kill you to save you, honey.
But yo' mammy ain't gwine to desert you--no, no, dah, don't cry-- she gwine wid you, she gwine to kill herself too. Come along, honey, come along wid mammy; we gwine to jump in de river, den troubles o' dis worl' is all over--dey don't sell po' niggers down the river over yonder. She had caught sight of her new Sunday gown-- a cheap curtain-calico thing, a conflagration of gaudy colors and fantastic figures. She surveyed it wistfully, longingly. She looked in the glass and was astonished at her beauty. She resolved to make her death toilet perfect. She took off her handkerchief turban and dressed her glossy wealth of hair "like white folks"; she added some odds and ends of rather lurid ribbon and a spray of atrocious artificial flowers; finally she threw over her shoulders a fluffy thing called a "cloud" in that day, which was of a blazing red complexion.
Then she was ready for the tomb. She gathered up her baby once more; but when her eye fell upon its miserably short little gray tow-linen shirt and noted the contrast between its pauper shabbiness and her own volcanic eruption of infernal splendors, her mother-heart was touched, and she was ashamed. German anyways: Sowieso. De angels is gwine to 'mire you jist as much as dey does 'yo mammy. Ain't gwine to have 'em putt'n dey han's up 'fo' dey eyes en sayin' to David and Goliah en dem yuther prophets, 'Dat chile is dress' to indelicate fo' dis place.
Straightway her eyes begun to widen with astonishment and admiration, and she clapped her hands and cried out, "Why, it do beat all! I never knowed you was so lovely. Marse Tommy ain't a bit puttier--not a single bit. Now a strange light dawned in her eyes, and in a moment she was lost in thought. She seemed in a trance; when she came out of it, she muttered, "When I 'uz a-washin' 'em in de tub, yistiddy, he own pappy asked me which of 'em was his'n. She put his coral necklace on her own child's neck. Then she placed the children side by side, and after earnest inspection she muttered: "Now who would b'lieve clo'es could do de like o' dat?
Dog my cats if it ain't all I kin do to tell t' other fum which, let alone his pappy. Dah--now you lay still en don't fret no mo', Marse Tom. Oh, thank de lord in heaven, you's saved, you's saved! Dey ain't no man kin ever sell mammy's po' little honey down de river now!
Yo' pappy would sell him to somebody, sometime, en den he'd go down de river, sho', en I couldn't, couldn't, couldn't stan' it. By and by she sat suddenly upright, for a comforting thought had flown through her worried mind-"'T ain't no sin--white folks has done it! It ain't no sin, glory to goodness it ain't no sin! Dey's done it--yes, en dey was de biggest quality in de whole bilin', too--kings!
At last she said-"Now I's got it; now I 'member. It was dat ole nigger preacher dat tole it, de time he come over here fum Illinois en preached in de nigger church. He said dey ain't nobody kin save his own self-- can't do it by faith, can't do it by works, can't do it no way at all. Free grace is de on'y way, en dat don't come fum nobody but jis' de Lord; en he kin give it to anybody He please, saint or sinner--he don't kyer.
He do jis' as He's a mineter. He s'lect out anybody dat suit Him, en put another one in his place, and make de fust one happy forever en leave t' other one to burn wid Satan. De preacher said it was jist like dey done in Englan' one time, long time ago. De queen she lef' her baby layin' aroun' one day, en went out callin'; an one 'o de niggers roun'bout de place dat was 'mos' white, she come in en see de chile layin' aroun', en tuck en put her own chile's clo's on de queen's chile, en put de queen's chile's clo'es on her own chile, en den lef' her own chile layin' aroun', en tuck en toted de queen's chile home to de nigger quarter, en nobody ever foun' it out, en her chile was de king bimeby, en sole de queen's chile down de river one time when dey had to settle up de estate.
Dah, now--de preacher said it his own self, en it ain't no sin, 'ca'se white folks done it. Dey done it--yes, dey done it; en not on'y jis' common white folks nuther, but de biggest quality dey is in de whole bilin'. Oh, I's so glad I 'member 'bout dat! Does you want me to take somep'n to you?
When I takes de chillen out to git de air, de minute I's roun' de corner I's gwine to gaum dey mouths all roun' wid jam, den dey can't nobody notice dey's changed. Yes, I gwine ter do dat till I's safe, if it's a year. Dey calls him a pudd'nhead, en says he's a fool. My lan, dat man ain't no mo' fool den I is!
He's de smartes' man in dis town, lessn' it's Jedge Driscoll or maybe Pem Howard. Blame dat man, he worries me wid dem ornery glasses o' his'n; I b'lieve he's a witch. But nemmine, I's gwine to happen aroun' dah one o' dese days en let on dat I reckon he wants to print a chillen's fingers ag'in; en if he don't notice dey's changed, I bound dey ain't nobody gwine to notice it, en den I's safe, sho'. But I reckon I'll tote along a hoss-shoe to keep off de witch work.
The master gave her none, for one of his speculations was in jeopardy, and his mind was so occupied that he hardly saw the children when he looked at them, and all Roxy had to do was to get them both into a gale of laughter when he came about; then their faces were mainly cavities exposing gums, and he was gone again before the spasm passed and the little creatures resumed a human aspect.
German awe: Ehrfurcht. Mark Twain 23 Within a few days the fate of the speculation became so dubious that Mr. Percy went away with his brother, the judge, to see what could be done with it. It was a land speculation as usual, and it had gotten complicated with a lawsuit. The men were gone seven weeks. Before they got back, Roxy had paid her visit to Wilson, and was satisfied. Wilson took the fingerprints, labeled them with the names and with the date-- October the first--put them carefully away, and continued his chat with Roxy, who seemed very anxious that he should admire the great advance in flesh and beauty which the babes had made since he took their fingerprints a month before.
He complimented their improvement to her contentment; and as they were without any disguise of jam or other stain, she trembled all the while and was miserably frightened lest at any moment he-But he didn't. He discovered nothing; and she went home jubilant, and dropped all concern about the matter permanently out of her mind. In the case of the children, the bears, and the prophet, the bears got more real satisfaction out of the episode than the prophet did, because they got the children.
Mark Twain 25 and let go scream after scream and squall after squall, then climax the thing with "holding his breath"-- that frightful specialty of the teething nursling, in the throes of which the creature exhausts its lungs, then is convulsed with noiseless squirmings and twistings and kickings in the effort to get its breath, while the lips turn blue and the mouth stands wide and rigid, offering for inspection one wee tooth set in the lower rim of a hoop of red gums; and when the appalling stillness has endured until one is sure the lost breath will never return, a nurse comes flying, and dashes water in the child's face, and--presto!
The baby Tom would claw anybody who came within reach of his nails, and pound anybody he could reach with his rattle. He would scream for water until he got it, and then throw cup and all on the floor and scream for more. He was indulged in all his caprices, howsoever troublesome and exasperating they might be; he was allowed to eat anything he wanted, particularly things that would give him the stomach-ache. Roxy got no rest while he was awake. He would call for anything and everything he saw, simply saying, "Awnt it! When it was brought, he said in a frenzy, and motioning it away with his hands, "Don't awnt it!
What he preferred above all other things was the tongs. This was because his "father" had forbidden him to have them lest he break windows and furniture with them. The moment Roxy's back was turned he would toddle to the presence of the tongs and say, "Like it! Tom got all the delicacies, Chambers got mush and milk, and clabber without sugar. In consequence Tom was a sickly child and Chambers wasn't. Tom was "fractious," as Roxy called it, and overbearing; Chambers was meek and docile.
With all her splendid common sense and practical everyday ability, Roxy was a doting fool of a mother. She was this toward her child-- and she was also more than this: by the fiction created by herself, he was become her master; the necessity of recognizing this relation outwardly and of perfecting herself in the forms required to express the recognition, had moved her to such diligence and faithfulness in practicing these forms that this exercise soon concreted itself into habit; it became automatic and unconscious; then a natural result followed: deceptions intended solely for others gradually grew practically into selfdeceptions as well; the mock reverence became real reverence, the mock homage real homage; the little counterfeit rift of separation between imitation-slave and imitation-master widened and widened, and became an abyss, and a very real one-- and on one side of it stood Roxy, the dupe of her own deceptions, and on the other stood her child, no longer a usurper to her, but her accepted and recognized master.
He was her darling, her master, and her deity all in one, and in her worship of him she forgot who she was and what he had been. In babyhood Tom cuffed and banged and scratched Chambers unrebuked, and Chambers early learned that between meekly bearing it and resenting it, the advantage all lay with the former policy. The few times that his persecutions had moved him beyond control and made him fight back had cost him very dear at headquarters; not at the hands of Roxy, for if she ever went beyond scolding him sharply for "forgett'n' who his young marster was," she at least never extended her punishment beyond a box on the ear.
No, Percy Driscoll was the person. He told Chambers that under no provocation whatever was he privileged to lift his hand against his little master. Chambers overstepped the line three times, and German abyss: Abgrund, Tiefe. Mark Twain 27 got three such convincing canings from the man who was his father and didn't know it, that he took Tom's cruelties in all humility after that, and made no more experiments.
Chambers was strong beyond his years, and a good fighter; strong because he was coarsely fed and hard worked about the house, and a good fighter because Tom furnished him plenty of practice-- on white boys whom he hated and was afraid of. Chambers was his constant bodyguard, to and from school; he was present on the playground at recess to protect his charge.
He fought himself into such a formidable reputation, by and by, that Tom could have changed clothes with him, and "ridden in peace," like Sir Kay in Launcelot's armor. He was good at games of skill, too. Tom staked him with marbles to play "keeps" with, and then took all the winnings away from him. In the winter season Chambers was on hand, in Tom's worn-out clothes, with "holy" red mittens, and "holy" shoes, and pants "holy" at the knees and seat, to drag a sled up the hill for Tom, warmly clad, to ride down on; but he never got a ride himself.
He built snowmen and snow fortifications under Tom's directions. He was Tom's patient target when Tom wanted to do some snowballing, but the target couldn't fire back. Chambers carried Tom's skates to the river and strapped them on him, the trotted around after him on the ice, so as to be on hand when he wanted; but he wasn't ever asked to try the skates himself.
In summer the pet pastime of the boys of Dawson's Landing was to steal apples, peaches, and melons from the farmer's fruit wagons-- mainly on account of the risk they ran of getting their heads laid open with the butt of the farmer's whip. Tom was a distinguished adept at these thefts--by proxy. Chambers did his stealing, and got the peach stones, apple cores, and melon rinds for his share.
Tom always made Chambers go in swimming with him, and stay by him as a protection. When Tom had had enough, he would slip out and tie knots in Chamber's shirt, dip the knots in the water and make them hard to undo, then dress himself and sit by and laugh while the naked shiverer tugged at the stubborn knots with his teeth. Tom did his humble comrade these various ill German adept: Erfahren, Eingeweihter, Meister, bewandert, geschickt, gewiegt, kundig, Adept.
Tom couldn't dive, for it gave him splitting headaches.
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Chambers could dive without inconvenience, and was fond of doing it. He excited so much admiration, one day, among a crowd of white boys, by throwing back somersaults from the stern of a canoe, that it wearies Tom's spirit, and at last he shoved the canoe underneath Chambers while he was in the air--so he came down on his head in the canoe bottom; and while he lay unconscious, several of Tom's ancient adversaries saw that their long-desired opportunity was come, and they gave the false heir such a drubbing that with Chamber's best help he was hardly able to drag himself home afterward.
It was a common trick with the boys--particularly if a stranger was present--to pretend a cramp and howl for help; then when the stranger came tearing hand over hand to the rescue, the howler would go on struggling and howling till he was close at hand, then replace the howl with a sarcastic smile and swim blandly away, while the town boys assailed the dupe with a volley of jeers and laughter. Tom had never tried this joke as yet, but was supposed to be trying it now, so the boys held warily back; but Chambers believed his master was in earnest; therefore, he swam out, and arrived in time, unfortunately, and saved his life.
This was the last feather. Tom had managed to endure everything else, but to have to remain publicly and permanently under such an obligation as this to a nigger, and to this nigger of all niggers--this was too much. He heaped insults upon Chambers for "pretending" to think he was in earnest in calling for help, and said that anybody but a blockheaded nigger would have known he was funning and left him alone.
Tom's enemies were in strong force here, so they came out with their opinions quite freely. The laughed at him, and called him coward, liar, sneak, and other sorts of pet names, and told him they meant to call Chambers by a new name after this, and make it common in the town--"Tom Driscoll's nigger German adversaries: Gegner. Mark Twain 29 pappy,"--to signify that he had had a second birth into this life, and that Chambers was the author of his new being.
Tom grew frantic under these taunts, and shouted: "Knock their heads off, Chambers! Knock their heads off! What do you stand there with your hands in your pockets for? Dey's so many of 'em Tom sprang at him and drove his pocketknife into him two or three times before the boys could snatch him away and give the wounded lad a chance to escape. He was considerably hurt, but not seriously. If the blade had been a little longer, his career would have ended there.
Such things, from a "nigger," were repulsive to him, and she had been warned to keep her distance and remember who she was. She saw her darling gradually cease from being her son, she saw that detail perish utterly; all that was left was master--master, pure and simple, and it was not a gentle mastership, either. She saw herself sink from the sublime height of motherhood to the somber depths of unmodified slavery, the abyss of separation between her and her boy was complete. She was merely his chattel now, his convenience, his dog, his cringing and helpless slave, the humble and unresisting victim of his capricious temper and vicious nature.
Sometimes she could not go to sleep, even when worn out with fatigue, because her rage boiled so high over the day's experiences with her boy. She would mumble and mutter to herself: "He struck me en I warn't no way to blame--struck me in de face, right before folks. Oh, Lord, I done so much for him--I lif' him away up to what he is-- en dis is what I git for it. So her schemes always went for nothing, and she laid them aside in impotent rage against the fates, and against herself for playing the fool on that fatal September day in not providing herself with a witness for use in the day when such a thing might be needed for the appeasing of her vengeance-hungry heart.
There were two grand funerals in Dawson's Landing that fall--the fall of On his deathbed Driscoll set Roxy free and delivered his idolized ostensible son solemnly into the keeping of his brother, the judge, and his wife. Those childless people were glad to get him. Childless people are not difficult to please. Judge Driscoll had gone privately to his brother, a month before, and bought Chambers. He had heard that Tom had been trying to get his father to sell the boy down the river, and he wanted to prevent the scandal--for public sentiment did not approve of that way of treating family servants for light cause or for no cause.
Percy Driscoll had worn himself out in trying to save his great speculative landed estate, and had died without succeeding. He was hardly in his grave before the boom collapsed and left his envied young devil of an heir a pauper. Mark Twain 31 But that was nothing; his uncle told him he should be his heir and have all his fortune when he died; so Tom was comforted. Roxy had no home now; so she resolved to go around and say good-by to her friends and then clear out and see the world--that is to say, she would go chambermaiding on a steamboat, the darling ambition of her race and sex.
She found him chopping Pudd'nhead Wilson's winter provision of wood. Wilson was chatting with him when Roxy arrived. He asked her how she could bear to go off chambermaiding and leave her boys; and chaffingly offered to copy off a series of their fingerprints, reaching up to their twelfth year, for her to remember them by; but she sobered in a moment, wondering if he suspected anything; then she said she believed she didn't want them.
Wilson said to himself, "The drop of black blood in her is superstitious; she thinks there's some devilry, some witch business about my glass mystery somewhere; she used to come here with an old horseshoe in her hand; it could have been an accident, but I doubt it. The peach was once a bitter almond; cauliflower is nothing but cabbage with a college education. Baldwin's, concerning upstarts: We don't care to eat toadstools that think they are truffles. York Driscoll enjoyed two years of bliss with that prize, Tom--bliss that was troubled a little at times, it is true, but bliss nevertheless; then she died, and her husband and his childless sister, Mrs.
Pratt, continued this bliss-business at the old stand. Tom was petted and indulged and spoiled to his entire content-or nearly that. This went on till he was nineteen, then he was sent to Yale. He went handsomely equipped with "conditions," but otherwise he was not an object of distinction there. He remained at Yale two years, and then threw up the struggle.
He came home with his manners a good deal improved; he had lost his surliness and brusqueness, and was rather pleasantly soft and smooth, now; he German almond: Mandel, Mandelbaum. Mark Twain 33 was furtively, and sometimes openly, ironical of speech, and given to gently touching people on the raw, but he did it with a good-natured semiconscious air that carried it off safely, and kept him from getting into trouble.
He was as indolent as ever and showed no very strenuous desire to hunt up an occupation. People argued from this that he preferred to be supported by his uncle until his uncle's shoes should become vacant. He brought back one or two new habits with him, one of which he rather openly practiced--tippling--but concealed another, which was gambling.
It would not do to gamble where his uncle could hear of it; he knew that quite well. They could have endured it, perhaps, if Tom had stopped there; but he wore gloves, and that they couldn't stand, and wouldn't; so he was mainly without society. He brought home with him a suit of clothes of such exquisite style and cut in fashion-Eastern fashion, city fashion--that it filled everybody with anguish and was regarded as a peculiarly wanton affront.
He enjoyed the feeling which he was exciting, and paraded the town serene and happy all day; but the young fellows set a tailor to work that night, and when Tom started out on his parade next morning, he found the old deformed Negro bell ringer straddling along in his wake tricked out in a flamboyant curtain-calico exaggeration of his finery, and imitating his fancy Eastern graces as well as he could. Tom surrendered, and after that clothed himself in the local fashion. But the dull country town was tiresome to him, since his acquaintanceship with livelier regions, and it grew daily more and more so.
He began to make little trips to St. Louis for refreshment. There he found companionship to suit him, and pleasures to his taste, along with more freedom, in some particulars, than he could have at home. So, during the next two years, his visits to the city grew in frequency and his tarryings there grew steadily longer in duration. He was getting into deep waters.
He was taking chances, privately, which might get him into trouble some day--in fact, did. Judge Driscoll had retired from the bench and from all business activities in , and had now been comfortably idle three years. He was president of the German acquaintanceship: Bekanntschaft. The society's weekly discussions were now the old lawyer's main interest in life.
Pudd'nhead was still toiling in obscurity at the bottom of the ladder, under the blight of that unlucky remark which he had let fall twenty-three years before about the dog. Or rather, that was one of the reason why it failed, but there was another and better one. If the judge had stopped with bare assertion, it would have had a good deal of effect; but he made the mistake of trying to prove his position.
For some years Wilson had been privately at work on a whimsical almanac, for his amusement--a calendar, with a little dab of ostensible philosophy, usually in ironical form, appended to each date; and the judge thought that these quips and fancies of Wilson's were neatly turned and cute; so he carried a handful of them around one day, and read them to some of the chief citizens.
But irony was not for those people; their mental vision was not focused for it. They read those playful trifles in the solidest terms, and decided without hesitancy that if there had ever been any doubt that Dave Wilson was a pudd'nhead-- which there hadn't--this revelation removed that doubt for good and all. That is just the way in this world; an enemy can partly ruin a man, but it takes a good-natured injudicious friend to complete the thing and make it perfect.
After this the judge felt tenderer than ever toward Wilson, and surer than ever that his calendar had merit. Judge Driscoll could be a freethinker and still hold his place in society because he was the person of most consequence to the community, and therefore could venture to go his own way and follow out his own notions. The other member of his pet organization was allowed the like liberty because he was a cipher in the estimation of the public, and nobody attached any importance to what he thought or did.
He was liked, he was welcome enough all around, but he simply didn't count for anything. German almanac: Almanach, Jahrbuch. Mark Twain 35 The Widow Cooper--affectionately called "Aunt Patsy" by everybody-- lived in a snug and comely cottage with her daughter Rowena, who was nineteen, romantic, amiable, and very pretty, but otherwise of no consequence. Rowena had a couple of young brothers-- also of no consequence. Her income was only sufficient for the family support, and she needed the lodging money for trifling luxuries.
But now, at last, on a flaming June day, she found herself happy; her tedious wait was ended; her year-worn advertisement had been answered; and not by a village applicant, no, no! She sat on her porch gazing out with unseeing eyes upon the shining reaches of the mighty Mississippi, her thoughts steeped in her good fortune. Indeed it was specially good fortune, for she was to have two lodgers instead of one. She had read the letter to the family, and Rowena had danced away to see to the cleaning and airing of the room by the slave woman, Nancy, and the boys had rushed abroad in the town to spread the great news, for it was a matter of public interest, and the public would wonder and not be pleased if not informed.
Presently Rowena returned, all ablush with joyous excitement, and begged for a rereading of the letter. We are twenty-four years of age and twins. We are Italians by birth, but have lived long in the various countries of Europe, and several years in the United States. Our names are Luigi and Angelo Capello. You desire but one guest; but, dear madam, if you will allow us to pay for two, we will not incommode you. We shall be down Thursday. German ablush: rot.
Just think, Ma--there's never been one in this town, and everybody will be dying to see them, and they're all ours! Think of that!
The whole town will be on its head! Think--they've been in Europe and everywhere! There's never been a traveler in this town before, Ma, I shouldn't wonder if they've seen kings! They're lovely names; and so grand and foreign--not like Jones and Robinson and such. Thursday they are coming, and this is only Tuesday; it's a cruel long time to wait. Here comes Judge Driscoll in at the gate. He's heard about it.
I'll go and open the door. The letter was read and discussed. Soon Justice Robinson arrived with more congratulations, and there was a new reading and a new discussion. This was the beginning. Neighbor after neighbor, of both sexes, followed, and the procession drifted in and out all day and evening and all Wednesday and Thursday.
The letter was read and reread until it was nearly worn out; everybody admired its courtly and gracious tone, and smooth and practiced style, everybody was sympathetic and excited, and the Coopers were steeped in happiness all the while. The boats were very uncertain in low water in these primitive times. This time the Thursday boat had not arrived at ten at night-- so the people had waited at the landing all day for nothing; they were driven to their homes by a heavy storm without having had a view of the illustrious foreigners. Eleven o'clock came; and the Cooper house was the only one in the town that still had lights burning.
The rain and thunder were booming yet, and the anxious family were still waiting, still hoping. At last there was a knock at the door, and the family jumped to open it. Two Negro men entered, each carrying a trunk, and proceeded upstairs toward the guest room. Then entered the twins-the handsomest, the best dressed, the most distinguished-looking pair of young German admired: bewunderte, bewundertet, bewunderten, bewundert, bewundertest. Mark Twain 37 fellows the West had ever seen. One was a little fairer than the other, but otherwise they were exact duplicates.
All constraint and formality quickly disappeared, and the friendliest feeling succeeded. Aunt Patsy called them by their Christian names almost from the beginning. She was full of the keenest curiosity about them, and showed it; they responded by talking about themselves, which pleased her greatly. It presently appeared that in their early youth they had known poverty and hardship. As the talk wandered along, the old lady watched for the right place to drop in a question or two concerning that matter, and when she found it, she said to the German bearing: Lager, tragend, Peilung.
Mark Twain 39 blond twin, who was now doing the biographies in his turn while the brunette one rested: "If it ain't asking what I ought not to ask, Mr. Angelo, how did you come to be so friendless and in such trouble when you were little? Do you mind telling? But don't, if you do. Our parents were well to do, there in Italy, and we were their only child.
We were of the old Florentine nobility"-- Rowena's heart gave a great bound, her nostrils expanded, and a fine light played in her eyes--"and when the war broke out, my father was on the losing side and had to fly for his life. His estates were confiscated, his personal property seized, and there we were, in Germany, strangers, friendless, and in fact paupers. My brother and I were ten years old, and well educated for that age, very studious, very fond of our books, and well grounded in the German, French, Spanish, and English languages.
Also, we were marvelous musical prodigies--if you will allow me to say it, it being only the truth. Our parents could have made themselves comfortable by exhibiting us as a show, and they had many and large offers; but the thought revolted their pride, and they said they would starve and die first. But what they wouldn't consent to do, we had to do without the formality of consent. We were seized for the debts occasioned by their illness and their funerals, and placed among the attractions of a cheap museum in Berlin to earn the liquidation money.
It took us two years to get out of that slavery. We traveled all about Germany, receiving no wages, and not even our keep. We had to be exhibited for nothing, and beg our bread. When we escaped from that slavery at twelve years of age, we were in some respects men. Experience had taught us some valuable things; among others, how to take care of ourselves, how to avoid and defeat sharks and sharpers, and how to conduct our own business for our own profit and without other people's help.
We traveled German biographies: Biographien, Lebensbeschreibungen. It was a pleasant life. We went to Venice--to London, Paris, Russia, India, China, Japan--" At this point Nancy, the slave woman, thrust her head in at the door and exclaimed: "Ole Missus, de house of plum' jam full o' people, en dey's jes a-spi'lin' to see de gen'lemen! Yet her feeling was moderate indeed when contrasted with Rowena's.
Rowena was in the clouds, she walked on air; this was to be the greatest day, the most romantic episode in the colorless history of that dull country town. She was to be familiarly near the source of its glory and feel the full flood of it pour over her and about her; the other girls could only gaze and envy, not partake. The widow was ready, Rowena was ready, so also were the foreigners.
The party moved along the hall, the twins in advance, and entered the open parlor door, whence issued a low hum of conversation. The twins took a position near the door, the widow stood at Luigi's side, Rowena stood beside Angelo, and the march-past and the introductions began. The widow was all smiles and contentment. She received the procession and passed it on to Rowena. Higgins"-handshake, followed by a devouring stare and "I'm glad to see ye," on the part of Higgins, and a courteous inclination of the head and a pleasant "Most happy!
Mark Twain 41 "Good morning, Mr. Higgins--present you to Count Angelo Capello. None of them had ever seen a person bearing a title of nobility before, and none had been expecting to see one now, consequently the title came upon them as a kind of pile-driving surprise and caught them unprepared. A few tried to rise to the emergency, and got out an awkward "My lord," or "Your lordship," or something of that sort, but the great majority were overwhelmed by the unaccustomed word and its dim and awful associations with gilded courts and stately ceremony and anointed kingship, so they only fumbled through the handshake and passed on, speechless.
Now and then, as happens at all receptions everywhere, a more than ordinary friendly soul blocked the procession and kept it waiting while he inquired how the brothers liked the village, and how long they were going to stay, and if their family was well, and dragged in the weather, and hoped it would get cooler soon, and all that sort of thing, so as to be able to say, when he got home, "I had quite a long talk with them"; but nobody did or said anything of a regrettable kind, and so the great affair went through to the end in a creditable and satisfactory fashion.
General conversation followed, and the twins drifted about from group to group, talking easily and fluently and winning approval, compelling admiration and achieving favor from all. The widow followed their conquering march with a proud eye, and every now and then Rowena said to herself with deep satisfaction, "And to think they are ours--all ours! Eager inquiries concerning the twins were pouring into their enchanted ears all the time; each was the constant center of a group of breathless listeners; each recognized that she knew now for the first time the real meaning of that great word Glory, and perceived the stupendous value of it, and understand why men in all ages had been willing to throw away meaner happiness, treasure, life itself, to get a taste German admiring: bewundernd.
Napoleon and all his kind stood accounted for-and justified. Again she was besieged by eager questioners, and again she swam in sunset seas of glory. When the forenoon was nearly gone, she recognized with a pang that this most splendid episode of her life was almost over, that nothing could prolong it, that nothing quite its equal could ever fall to her fortune again. But never mind, it was sufficient unto itself, the grand occasion had moved on an ascending scale from the start, and was a noble and memorable success. If the twins could but do some crowning act now to climax it, something usual, something startling, something to concentrate upon themselves the company's loftiest admiration, something in the nature of an electric surprise-Here a prodigious slam-banging broke out below, and everybody rushed down to see.
It was the twins, knocking out a classic four-handed piece on the piano in great style. Rowena was satisfied--satisfied down to the bottom of her heart. The young strangers were kept long at the piano. The villagers were astonished and enchanted with the magnificence of their performance, and could not bear to have them stop. All the music that they had ever heard before seemed spiritless prentice-work and barren of grace and charm when compared with these intoxicating floods of melodious sound.
They realized that for once in their lives they were hearing masters. German ascending: Steigend, Aufsteigend, hinaufsteigend, ersteigend, Emporsteigend, Aufsteigende, ansteigend. The twins had accepted several invitations while the reception was in progress, and had also volunteered to play some duets at an amateur entertainment for the benefit of a local charity. Society was eager to receive them to its bosom. Judge Driscoll had the good fortune to secure them for an immediate drive, and to be the first to display them in public.
They entered his buggy with him and were paraded down the main street, everybody flocking to the windows and sidewalks to see. He told them a good many humorous anecdotes, and always forgot the nub, but they were always able to furnish it, for these yarns were of a pretty early vintage, and they had had many a rejuvenating pull at them before. And he told them all about his several dignities, and how he had held this and that and the other place of honor or profit, and had once been to the legislature, and was now president of the Society of Freethinkers. He said the society had been in existence four years, and already had two members, and was firmly established.
He would call for the brothers in the evening, if they would like to attend a meeting of it. Accordingly he called for them, and on the way he told them all about Pudd'nhead Wilson, in order that they might get a favorable impression of him in advance and be prepared to like him. This scheme succeeded-- the favorable impression was achieved. Later it was confirmed and solidified when Wilson proposed that out of courtesy to the strangers the usual topics be put aside and the hour be devoted to conversation upon ordinary subjects and the cultivation of friendly relations and good-fellowship--a proposition which was put to vote and carried.
The hour passed quickly away in lively talk, and when it was ended, the lonesome and neglected Wilson was richer by two friends than he had been when it began. He invited the twins to look in at his lodgings presently, after disposing of an intervening engagement, and they accepted with pleasure. German anecdotes: Anekdoten. Pudd'nhead was at home waiting for them and putting in his time puzzling over a thing which had come under his notice that morning.
Bei deinen Freunden ist er ganz normal gewachsen, aber bei dir hat sich seitdem nicht viel getan und jetzt musst du mit dem peinlichen Ding leben. Aren't you ashamed, dumbass? Your fucking life ist just about jerking off and work; but you are never good enough for me. I am a goddess and I am used to blow money, loser!! As adorable alpha princess it's normal for me to rule; I milk you and throw you away when I'm done.
Don't worry, there are so many cashcows waiting for me. Ein Sklave, der nichts einbringt - wozu? Erl dich doch am besten selbst von deinem Sinn befreiten Versager Dasein und mach dir keine Sorgen um mich - es stehen genug Geldschweine schlange. Since your whole life your submissive soul dreams to belong to a real, young and adorable goddess. Say goddbye to your fucking loser life and leave your family to focus only on your fetish and on ME. As my bond-slave you won't have any rights; I'll be your legal guadrian and you will decide nothing on your own.
Lass dein beschissenes loser Leben hinter dir, verlass deine Familie und lass dich voll und ganz von deinem Fetisch und vor allem von MIR einnehmen. Als mein Leibeigener trittst du alle Rechte an mich ab; ich bin dein Vormund und du wirst nichts mehr selbst entscheiden! You finally realized it, loser; you will be my paypig for ever!! Naive as you are you thought beeing able to get rid of ur sick fetish when things are getting rough but now you see it's imposible to switch out.
You'll pay me, work for me and give up everything for the rest of your fucking life. As a slave you are born to worship me down on your knees and your money is ment to be all mine, bitch!! Like every loser you dream to visit your goddess some day. Come on over - I planed something real cool: You'll spend the day bound in handcuffs down on my floor. While you're fixed I rip your wallet and your mobile phone, leave you back and go shopping with your credit card.
But I'm not done with you yet, bitch Gefesselt, wehrlos und abgezockt - du bist mir ausgeliefert Zahlsau!!! An und fsich kein Problem und ich habe mir auch schon was nettes ausgedacht fdich; du wirst den Tag in Handschellen an meine Heizung gefesselt verbringen. Ich fixiere dich dort, trete dich noch eine Runde zusammen und nehme dir erstmal deinen Geldbeutel ab - Ec Karte, Kreditkarte, Perso alles drin, wie lustig!
Das alleine ist schon extrem geil aber ich bin noch nicht fertig mit dir Bitch This nice jerk off instruction is for all kittyjunkies but also suitable to my new paypigs. Jerking off to your bank statements - that's what you gotta do right now, bimbo! Buy the clip and do what I'm telling you; you gonna like it bitch - the more money you gave to me the more it's fucking your brain and you don't wanna stop.
Kontoauszug-wichsen ist jetzt angesagt, Bimbo!! Submissive losers like you get brainfucked limp every time you see your sexy goddess. When you reached that level it's real easy to get all information i need to get you under control. And the funny part: YOU want it like that cause you dream to become my blackmail slut! So come on sucker - tell me what I wanna know Na komm miez miez - gib mir deine Daten, willenloses Opfer Es ist so easy dir in diesem Zustand all Dinge zu entlocken ich brauche um dich richtig unter Kontrolle zu haben Und das schlimme ist: DU willst es doch auch; willst nichts lieber als endlich meine Blackmeilfotze sein - erpressbar, hilflos und Opfer meiner Gier.
Es macht dich wahnsinnig geil mir deine Daten zu geben, du hst es kaum noch aus, stimmts Geldsau? Na koooomm miez miez verrate mir was ich wissen will Do you like my boots, shithead? Now, you are served a very special treat: you may watch me trampling and crushing some oranges in these beautiful, sexy boots. At first, I'll play a little with them, let them roll back and forth only to crush them nicely to a squishy, pulpy mass - no chance against me; Finally, I jump and stomp and have real fun - rien ne va plus!
Well, and what do you think who will clean up all the mess afterwards? It's you, Sucker! Du bekommst jetzt einen ganz besonderen Leckerbissen serviert und darfst zusehen wie ich in diesen sexy Boots ein paar Orangen zertrampele. Und wer macht Sauerei danach weg?
Na DU, Fotze!! You dream to be my whore; getting mouth fucked and explore ulimate humiliation just to satisfy your greedy princess. Cause that's not that easy in reality here comes a light version for you lil pussy: You will become my webcam! You have to do erverything your useres command to please them and make money. A perfect training for you slut and a good way for student losers with no cash to be useful for me!!
This is all you ever wanted: Get down on your knees and worship my new, hot boots - they gonna fuck what ever is left out of your head. From now on you are my boot jack and you have to make sure my boots are clean all the time. You will suck the dirt form the soles, lick the leather form bottom to top and of course blow the heels - a dream come true, right loser? But things will come different Sei mein Stiefelknecht! Freu dich Fotze: Ab sofort bist du mein neuer Stiefelknecht! Aber wie so oft kommt es anderes als du denkst Look, where we are today, loser I have constandly new funny nice tasks for you my little victim.
And today it's getting exeptionally delicious for you! You always say you would do anything for me. Well, today I'll allow you to proove it. You will clean my toilet and - clever little pigs concieve that allready - you won 't get any cleaning things. It's gonna be really digusting and humiliating. And the more you nauseate, the more fun for me! Jetzt darfst du es einmal mehr beweisen! Du wirst mein Klo sauber machen und - schlaue Schweinchen denken es sich bereits - du wirst kein Putzzeug dafbekommen. Welcome to miniwillie loser's club and step on to dick measuring contest!!
To make clear what you didn't got and nerver will get I will show you my hot heels and fuck your brain with my perfect legs. Dann reih dich ein in den Club der minipimmel Vollvergsager und trete an zum Schwanzvergleich!! Getting envious, dumbass? Well, a princess like me has no need to work but lots of time for lazy lying in the sun. Because I let others do the dirty work for me, stupid! You don't know what I'm talking about, I know But surprise, sucker: now, you may watch me!
Lay at my feet and let me fuck your brain out!!! Be my ashtray, take care of my sneakers but never forget: bimbos have to keep their trap shut! I chill, you slave - equitable distribution of roles, am I right, loser?
Of course I am!! Neidisch Pisser? Can't get hold of yourself, blackmailbitch - you want to send me embarrasing pictures and information so badly cause nothing elese kicks your mind that hot!! But I want access to your facebook acount too - let's see who you got in ur friends list. It was never that easy to ruin a paypigs life - just a few klicks!! That's what will happen to my bm bitch Michi as well - I will show you his brand new profile pic and more Ja, mit Facebook kann man wirklich eine Menge anstellen; mal sehen wen du so alles in deiner Freundesliste hast.
That's the way things are, loser: badly equipped with a failure cocklet you barely used it for anything other than taking a piss and meanwhile you even can't get it up anymore. Did you ever fuck at all with that useless gimmick? It's hardly conceivable that even the cheapest ever let you screw her. Anyway, you abject coward have a gigantig complex about your peewee thingy in your trousers. And by now, payment is your new sexual activity. As soon as you see me, your crotch starts to twitch - extremely seductive I will squeeze every single euro out of you Impotenter Zahlschlaffi!!
Es ist wie es ist, Loser: Ausgestattet mit einem Versagerpimmel hast du ihn kaum zu was anderem als zum pissen benutzt und mittlerweile bekommst du ihn auch nicht mehr hoch. Hast du mit dem Teil rhaupt schon mal gefickt?
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You love to drink for your princess? Perfect - I realy like to get my subs Tipsy and weak-willed. Cheapest booze is your choice and you'll soak it just like I command until you the bottle. Now you're in the right mood to get cashed out real hard; you lose all inhibitions and selfcontrol and I will do what ever I want with you Tipsy idiot Du hast zu saufen so oft und soviel ich es will; Schluck fSchluck und Glas fGlas - solange bis dir schwindelig wird und das tippen schwer ft.
Hemmungen und Selbstkontrolle verschwinden; ich mache mit dir was ich will besoffenes St The very title alone fucks your brain. Am I right, loser? After you have seen this clip, you'll be lost. In my new bikiny, I'll lure you very seductively more and more towards blackmail. You want it. We both know it. And I want you to do what you are good for: surrender yourself to my beauty Lass dich fallen, liefere dich mir aus Nobody cares about you, nobody listens - don't you dream living the life like other men do?
They got money, girls and sex - all the things you never had. Instead you got lost in that sick fetish which fucks up you loserlife. Go ahead and cry sucker!! Heul doch du Trottel!! Do you like my hot boots, pussy? I know what comes to your sick mind right now; you realy want me to wreck your balls with that shoes. Cattle like you doesn't need balls cause you're not allowed to fuck - you just have to work!! That's why the ballast between your legs gotta go; it will be very painful however you'll beg for more untill you became my ball wrecked, castrated pussy.
Ich mache dich zu meiner eierlosen Zahlpussy!! Na gefallen dir meine geilen Stiefletten, Pussy? Es wird verdammt schmerzhaft sein; du wirst schreien, du wirst heulen aber dennoch wirst du drum betteln, dass ich weiter mache und dann - wenn du endlich meine eierlose, kastrierte Muschi bist wirst du mir unendlich dankbar sein! Watch my new leggins, bitch - isn't it nice? Needy bastard you're realy into me wearing shiny stuff like this however you adore my devine, perfect ass the most.
Now I will use your osession with my butt to cash you out once again -you gotta pay every price! Immediately you're down on your knees bagging to see my ass close in front of you're ugly mug; do you want me to turn around. Ur cock is just that tiny I'm asking myself if you are able to jerk it off the right way.
Because there's nothing in your pants you feel ashamed and got no self-convidence. Not for you! Only alphas like me have fun in bed with real men! Do you see my high heels, bitch? Suck my heel all the way in, loser and don't forget: Miniwillies have to pay extra hard!! Vergiss es! Siehst du meine geilen Heels, Fotze?
Longingly waiting for new dope from your queen, loser? Well, today you got the honour and the very special pleasure to adore me in my filthy old slippers; But that's not all, slut: you may even lick the soles clean! Dust, dirt, doghairs - a perfect dinner for you. Swollow everything and than go on with my worn socks. The scent will you and make you completely spineless - how would you like me stuffing them into your disgusting mouth? You would love that - right?
Be careful not to leak, dirt guzzler! Schluck alles und dann machst du mit meinen getragenen Socken weiter. Stupid junkie dumbass - you wanna know how I feel about you? You are nothing! I don't give a on your loser existence and I fucking hate you crying; paybitches gotta shut the fuck up - do you think I'd care about the situation you're in?! Doesn't matter to me if you're broke, getting kicked off your gaff or owe still cash to mommy. You have to pay and not to cry out, bastard - I'll fuck your loser life and you will do whatever I want just to see my middle finger!
Nichts - gar nichts! Zahlfotzen haben Fresse zu halten - denkst du etwa deine Situation interessiert mich?! Es ist mir egal ob du pleite bist, aus deiner Bude fliegst oder deiner Mama noch Geld schuldest; du hast abzuliefern und nicht rum zu flennen, Hurensohn!! Attention, loser - after watching this clip you will be hopelessly addicted to me - today you're in for it! I want you on your fucking knees in front of me, spread your legs nicely and do whatever I tell you.
Grunt like the dirty pig, you are! I know exactly, how much the humiliation of becoming my hog fucks your brain! I know exactly how much you want to be nothing more but my pay slut - and what could make you hornier and at the same time be more satisfying than to dedicate your entire aimless existence to me, your princess? I am your marvellous nemesis, your dark doom, driving you more and more to distraction - you will give everything and then some more just to conjure a little smile on my angelic face And I?
I will lough you down, slut! Ich lache dich aus, Fotze. Do you know what's kind of amusing? It's really amusing to simply keep pay sluts chaste for a couple of days and than, wait what happens That's exactly what I'm currently doing with my Ossi-slut Marco; Marco is a total wank junky and would never stand three days without rubbing his loser cocklet. But this is over now! We started this nice little experiment during Marcos annual family holiday and until now the dork is chaste for me since more than two weeks.
It's really hilarious how is brain's melting away more and more. As a pure victim of his own desires he is even more submissive and humble than ever before and does whatever I command. And you, stupid pisser, you will be the next! Richtig lustig ist es Geldfotzen einfach mal einige Zeit keusch zu halten und dann abwarten was passiert. Opfer seiner Triebe und noch devoter als je zuvor macht er wirklich alles was ich sage.
You stupid little pussy thought that it wouldn't get his far. But by now you are fully conditioned to pay for squirting. Without me, without handing over your cash it is you simply no longer possible to come and from now on the only highlight of your day will additionally be highly costly. Is not nice to be so awesomely addicted to me?? You horny bitch don't last even 24 hours without constantly thinking about your Princess and jerk off. Yes piggy, your sick fetish will be costly to you - enjoy it What is the best slave contract ever, bitch?
No - it's not blackmail but better than that. It's the well known marriage contract. Till do us part, payrat - you will be mine for ever. Schuldschein, Blackmail, Vollmacht? Falsch, Trottel - es ist der gute, alte Ehevertrag. Today I gotta tell you something real funny. Adri, one of my real live bimbos, is now on the game for me.
This is not fiction like most of the other clips treating that topic. The lil fatass just finished his studies and cause it means the world to him paying me more and more tribute he sucks cocks for cash. Pretty cool - at least for me however my whoreboy had to puke after sucking a extra nasty dick. And you,loser? Und du, Opfer? Fucking stalker - did you just follow me? Well, once you're here kneeling in front of me you can make yourself useful. You dumass loser can't stop starring at my dirty boots - they look real tasty right?
It's a great honor for every bimbo to eat my divine shoedirt; lick it all - till my boots look brandnew again! Sounds good, doesn't it? When it comes to wanking you are a expert. While alphas have real sex you unfucked loser gotta fuck ur hand, but today you HAVE to jerk off; yeah right, bitch: I want you to jerk off for me!
You are already leaking, can't wait to get started and of course you have to obey my commands! Do you think you've been a good piggie? Do you think you deserve to cum; to explode for me? Well here comes your countdown Klingt gut, nicht wahr? Denkst du du warst eine brave Melksau? Dann kommt jetzt dein Countdown Nothing is more faszinating than blackmail and right now you're so horny already exploding, yeah?
But wait a minute, sucker - first I want you to imagine how wonderful it would be to send the email with all your informations to me; embarrassing fotos and all that stuff I need to keep you under control. Tempting however dangerous cause after jerking off you will regret deeply. Your life as my blackmailslut is going to start from this moment on always fearing me.
Every orgasm my braifuck causes is raising your aspiration and you already know - the point is near - you will be mine! Nichts fasziniert dich so sehr wie Blackmail und jetzt grade bist du mal wieder so richtig, richtig notgeil und kurz davor zu platzen, stimmts? I took all you had: Your money, your savings, your freedom and the right make ur own decisions. However there's one litte thing left I want from you, bitch - the ultimate proof of your submission: I want you to castrate yourself for me!!
You gotta give up the last bit of masculinity - your fucking balls will! You are a pussy anyway so you don't need them. The balls just distract you from your job of beeing my moneyslut so they have to go. Of course I don't just talk but already found the perfect way to do it - no pain, idiotproof and I will explain it in detail in this video. Mittlerweile habe ich dir alles genommen was du hattest: Dein Geld, deine Ersparnisse, deine Freiheit und das Recht selbst Entscheidungen zu treffen.