The Second Conflict
Hitler intended to invade Poland anyway, but first he had to neutralize the possibility that the Soviet Union would resist the invasion of its western neighbour. In a secret protocol of this pact, the Germans and the Soviets agreed that Poland should be divided between them, with the western third of the country going to Germany and the eastern two-thirds being taken over by the U.
Having achieved this cynical agreement, the other provisions of which stupefied Europe even without divulgence of the secret protocol, Hitler thought that Germany could attack Poland with no danger of Soviet or British intervention and gave orders for the invasion to start on August News of the signing, on August 25, of a formal treaty of mutual assistance between Great Britain and Poland to supersede a previous though temporary agreement caused him to postpone the start of hostilities for a few days.
Bushel of apples, truckload of oranges
He was still determined, however, to ignore the diplomatic efforts of the western powers to restrain him. Finally, at pm on August 31, , Hitler ordered hostilities against Poland to start at the next morning. The invasion began as ordered. In response, Great Britain and France declared war on Germany on September 3, at am and at pm , respectively. World War II had begun. World War II — Top Questions. Read more below: Axis initiative and Allied reaction: The outbreak of war.
Pacific War. Operation Barbarossa. Read more below: Axis initiative and Allied reaction: Forces and resources of the European combatants, Tripartite Pact. Third Reich. Read more below: Axis initiative and Allied reaction: Japanese policy, — Battle of Midway. Battle of Stalingrad. Atomic bomb. World War II events. Start Your Free Trial Today. The role of the ACC is to report potential conflict, regardless of its nature, to the frontal cortex where the actual process of conflict resolution takes place.
Together with the left inferior frontal gyrus, the left striatum, and the left inferior parietal lobe are part of a neural network in charge of controlling language use in multilingual speakers Abutalebi et al. In our study, differences between the two bilingual groups and the monolinguals were only found in the bilateral cingulate cortex for S—S conflict resolution.
The cingulate cortex is reliably activated in different tasks involving language use monitoring in bilingual speakers. These tasks entail both language production, such as word translation Price et al. The anterior part of the cingulate cortex is also involved in managing language use when bilinguals process identically spelled words with different meanings van Heuven et al. The linguistic tasks reported in the above-mentioned studies include both language control conflict resolution stages as they cover both language identification and language production.
Our findings report the activation of cingulate gyrus in both S—R and S—S conflict monitoring and affirm our hypothesis that encountering language conflicts in daily life affects general cognitive control processes. In our study, which compared the contrast incongruent—congruent for the two conflict tasks between bilingual children and monolingual controls, we have found extra activated regions in the bilinguals. One of the activated regions was the caudate nucleus, which is known to be active during learning and linking stimuli and responses Seger and Cincotta Caudate nucleus activation was found in L2L group when they were compared to 1L1s during the performance of Simon task, and in the 2L1s when they are compared to the L2L group during the Stroop task.
Based on the previous findings concerning the involvement of the caudate head in inhibition tasks Shadmehr and Holcomb ; Ray Li et al. Further, in a study investigating language control in bilingual brains Crinion et al. In their study, in which sequential word pairs were presented in German or English, they showed that semantically related words were associated with a reduced activation in the left caudate when prime 1st word and target 2nd word were in the same language, but not when they were in different languages.
In another study, Schouppe et al. This may imply that stimulus-based general conflicts lead to more activation in 2L1s than in L2L children. This conflict type may occur in semantic-priming tasks found in the word identification system van Heuven et al. In view of the study by van Heuven et al. Another added region is the posterior cingulate gyrus which showed increased activation in most of the comparisons in this study see Tables S2 and S3 , and is associated with the task-related role of working memory or retrieval processes Sakai et al.
The superior temporal gyrus STG was also found to be additionally activated in the group comparisons of the Simon task. The STG is responsible for auditory processing Bigler et al. The comparison between 2L1s and 1L1s during the performance of Simon task showed an increased activation in precuneus in 2L1s, this area is known to play a role in high-order cognitive tasks Cavanna and Trimble , it has been also reported to be involved in recollection of words Krause et al. One possible explanation for these findings may be that brain regions involved in solving language conflict situations or general language processing, are automatically activated when bilinguals carry out cognitive control tasks.
Bilinguals from birth who have to manage their language systems more extensively than L2 learners, as a consequence show more activity in language control regions such as the caudate nucleus Hernandez et al. Similar differences in all above-mentioned regions were observed between the two bilingual groups and the monolinguals. The behavioral and functional differences between the two bilingual groups see Figs.
Nevertheless, a limitation of our current study is the absence of language control tasks.
Hence, a direct comparison between our findings on nonverbal conflict processing and language control in the brain of children could not be made. Another limitation of our study is the slight difference in sample sizes between the groups. Even though we controlled for language use, it was impossible to exclude children who had minimal exposure to a second language from our 1L1sample. The reason for this is that, by the age of ten, almost all children in the multilingual Brussels Region have to some extent been exposed to other languages than their mother tongue.
Future studies with larger and more equal sample sizes are thus needed to confirm our data. The differences between monolinguals with a little exposure to another language and various types of bilinguals we have found here may show up even more in comparisons involving monolinguals from regions that are less linguistically heterogeneous than Belgium. Although it had been well-established that conflict processing is different in bilinguals and monolinguals, a question that remained unanswered is whether the age of exposure to L2 affects the cognitive impact of bilingualism in children.
So far, all studies on bilingual children include only 2L1s Bialystok et al. Including 2L1s and L2Ls in our study allows a novel comparison between bilingual children that differ on the age of L2 acquisition. Our findings provide preliminary evidence that the age of being exposed to L2 does indeed influence brain activation during nonverbal conflict tasks.
In particular, increased activation in the caudate head during Stroop tasks in 2L1s compared to L2L suggests differential performance in high-conflict situations in 2L1s. This level of conflict in bilinguals arises at the stage of word identification and was shown to be different between sequential and simultaneous bilinguals of primary-school age van Heuven et al. Moreover, during the Simon task response-based conflict we could establish important differences between the two groups of bilinguals in terms of their relationship with 1L1s.
In L2Ls compared to 1L1s, additional activation spots were found in the caudate body and posterior cingulate. Both regions have been reported to be activated during the response-based language conflicts van Heuven et al. These results, together with the behavioral difference between the two bilingual groups noted in this study, provide evidence for the impact of age of L2 acquisition on primary school children's cognitive skills. This study provides first evidence of the effect of language background on two types of conflict resolution in the brains of bilingual children.
In bilingual children compared to monolingual controls matched for age, gender, ethnicity, and socioeconomic background, the behavioral data showed higher congruency effects: reaction times were found to be lengthened and accuracy to be decreased by general cognitive conflict. Although this finding contradicts earlier studies which pointed at a bilingual advantage in conflict resolution, our neuroimaging data also showed a more extensive conflict-related brain activity in bilingual groups in brain regions typically related to language control.
The higher behavioral congruency effect is thus matched by the recruitment of brain regions that are generally used by bilinguals to solve language conflict situations. This coupling of a behavioral disadvantage to the recruitment of extra, language-related, brain areas supports the hypothesis that the specialization of bilinguals in dealing with language conflicts hampers the way they can deal with nonverbal conflict, at least at early stages in life.
The results obtained here are contradictory to the common hypothesis of a bilingual advantage in adults, reported in literature Morton and Harper and pave the way for the assumption that the conflict processing mechanism may be different in bilingual children and adults.
Additional Supporting Information may be found in the online version of this article:. Figure S1. The congruency effect [brain activity for incongruent—congruent trials] in each group for the Simon and Stroop tasks. Figure S2. Accuracy rates for Simon and Stroop tasks and for different conditions. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Brain Behav v. Brain Behav. Published online Jul 4. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer.
Brain and Behavior published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Background In their daily communication, bilinguals switch between two languages, a process that involves the selection of a target language and minimization of interference from a nontarget language. Methods In this study, we have used fMRI to investigate the impact of bilingualism in children performing two nonverbal tasks involving stimulus—stimulus and stimulus—response conflicts.
Results Compared to monolingual controls, bilingual children showed higher behavioral congruency effect of these tasks, which is matched by the recruitment of brain regions that are generally used in general cognitive control, language processing or to solve language conflict situations in bilinguals caudate nucleus, posterior cingulate gyrus, STG, precuneus. Conclusion The coupling of longer reaction times to the recruitment of extra language-related brain areas supports the hypothesis that when dealing with language conflicts the specialization of bilinguals hampers the way they can process with nonverbal conflicts, at least at early stages in life.
Introduction There has been a growing interest in the effects of bilingualism on brain function; one focus lies on the study of generic cognitive control skills like inhibition of task-irrelevant features or switching between tasks. Materials and Methods Population Fifty one right-handed healthy male and female children, aged 96— months mean: , SD: 11 and subdivided into three groups 19 bilinguals from birth [2L1], 18 second language learners [L2L], and 14 monolinguals [1L1] were scanned.
Table 1 Initial group information. Open in a separate window. Simon task S—R conflicts were studied using an adaptation of the color Simon task see Fig. Figure 1. Stroop task S—S conflicts were assessed using a numerical comparison task. Figure 2. Analysis Seven subjects four 2L1s, two L2ls, and one 1L1 were discarded from the analysis due to high error rates in one of the tasks or excessive motion more than 3 mm shift with respect to their first fMRI volume.
Behavioral data analysis The accuracy of the responses success rate or percentage of correct responses and the response times RT were logged and compared between the groups ANOVA. Statistical analysis of the images Fixed effects level A design matrix based on the information about the conditions and the onsets of the trials was constructed. Random effects level A repeated- measures one-way ANOVA of the three contrast maps was used to estimate the main effect of the group for both the Simon and Stroop tasks.
Table 3 Post hoc t -test results comparing the congruence effects between groups for the two tasks. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 6. Figure 5. Between-group comparison for the incongruent— congruent contrast in the Stroop task The numerical Stroop task produced a significant congruency effect differences in multiple areas in bilingual brains compared to monolinguals.
Figure 7. Figure 9. Figure 8. Discussion This study has collected behavioral and neuroimaging data for stimulus—stimulus numeric Stroop task and stimulus—response Simon task conflict tasks. Behavioral results In this study, we have controlled for socioeconomic status and ethnicity. Role of the age of acquiring L2 Although it had been well-established that conflict processing is different in bilinguals and monolinguals, a question that remained unanswered is whether the age of exposure to L2 affects the cognitive impact of bilingualism in children.
Conclusion This study provides first evidence of the effect of language background on two types of conflict resolution in the brains of bilingual children. Conflict of Interest None declared. Supporting Information Additional Supporting Information may be found in the online version of this article: Figure S1.
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